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Problem Based LearningMAED 5040 Erica L. Nelson<br />
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What is Problem Based Learning?<br />Savery (2006) defines problem based learning as:<br />- “learner-centered approach that empowers learners to conduct research, integrate theory and practice, and apply knowledge and skills to develop a viable solution to a defined problem (12).” <br />- Instead of focusing on the answer (like traditional math classes), PBL focuses on the problem (Cerezo, 2004)<br />- Social, hands-on, team focused learning<br />- Requires students to be self-motivated<br />- Units are centered around conceptual questions that do not work out perfectly (Savery 2006).<br />
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Where did PBL Originate?<br />Hiebert et al (1996)<br />As early as the 30s and 40s, there was an idea that mathematics should be relevant and based on real-life problems.<br />Dewey’s idea that solving problems using basic, ordinary methods, called “experimental practice of knowing” and “reflective inquiry” fit right in with our PBL’s of today.<br />Savery (2006)<br />The idea of PBL was brought to light by those in the health sciences some 30 years ago using patient diagnosis as the foundation for PBL.<br />
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So I know what it is…what do I do with it?<br />Interactive Mathematics Program (IMP) <br />MINDSET Project<br />Heibert et al (2006)<br />Create or Find Problemsthat:<br />- require more than one mathematical idea<br />- may review mathematical ideas<br />- build on mathematical ideas<br />- require new mathematical ideas<br />Be Flexible!<br />
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What is the BIG Question?<br /><ul><li>Engaging to students (they must buy-in!)
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Cognitively demanding (Stein et al. 1996)</li></li></ul><li>Teacher’s Role in PBL<br /><ul><li>Create classroom environment that is safe
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Discusses student’s hypothesis and ideas without persuading students toward a “right” answer.
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Be flexible</li></li></ul><li>Student’s Role in PBL<br /><ul><li>Learn from others (Heibert et al., 1996)
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Model everyday situations (Seltzer et al., 1996)
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Develop a deeper understanding and ownership (Seltzer et al., 1996)
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“..make reasoned conjectures about a problem-solving task, justify their thinking, and listen to and consider other students’ ideas (Erikson 1999)”</li></li></ul><li>There Has to be Some Problems with PBL!<br /><ul><li>Time! (Henningsen & Stein 1997)
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Too much time on one problem will result in students not moving at a swift pace or becoming complacent, relying on others to bail them out
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Too little time spent on a problem will result in frustration, in students not being able to understand key mathematical ideas
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Teachers, in the beginning, must put in a great deal of time to revamp their curriculum to include student-centered, structured, multi-topic problems that challenge students without defeating them.</li></li></ul><li>Is it Effective? Yes!<br /><ul><li>At-risk middle school girls showed an increase in self-confidence, grades, motivation, self-regulated learning, and disposition (Cerezo, 2004)
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A problem-centered approach where discourse is key is not only feasable in public education but backs up the claim that students who are taught using this approach score better on tasks (Cobb et al., 1991)
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Students have more positive opinions about mathematics and were able “to achieve more in test and applied situations” (Boaler 1998)</li></li></ul><li>References<br />Alper, L., Fendel, D., Fraser, S., & Resek, D. (1996).Problem-Based <br /> Mathematics – Not Just for the College Bound. Educational <br /> Leadership, 5(1), 18-21.<br />Boaler, J. (1998). Open and closed mathematics: Student experiences…Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 29(1), 41.<br />Cerezo, N. (2004). Problem-based learning in the middle school: A research case study of the perceptions of at-risk females. Research in Middle Level Education Online, 27(1), 20-42.<br />Cobb, P., Wood, T., Yackel, E., Nicholls, J., Wheatley, G., Trigatti, B., et al. (1991) Assessment of a problem-centered second-grade mathematics project. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 22(1), 3-29.<br />Erikson, D.K. (1996) A problem-based approach to mathematics <br /> instruction. Mathematics Teacher, 92(6), 516-521.<br />Fennema, E., Carpernter, T.P., Franke, M.L., Levi, L., Jacobs, V.R., & <br />Empson, S.B. (1996). A longitudinal study of learning to use children’s thinking in mathematics instruction. Journal for Research in Mathematics <br /> Education, 27(4), 403-434<br />
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References continued<br />Henningsen, M. & Stein, M.K. (1997). Mathematical tasks and student cognition: Classroom-based. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 28(5), 524-549.<br />Hiebert, J., Carpenter, T.P., Fennema, E., Fuson, K., Human, P., Murray, H., et al. (1996). Problem solving as a basis for reform in curriculum and instruction: The case of mathematics. Educational Researcher, 25(4), 12-21.<br />Savery, J.R. (2006). Overview of problem-based learning: Definitions and Distinctions. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 1(1), 9-20.<br />Seltzer, S., Hilbert, S., Maceli, J., Robinson, E., Schwartz, D. (1996). An Active Approach to Calculus. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 68. 83-90.<br />Stein, M.K., Grover, B.W., & Henningsen, M. (1996). Building student capacity for mathematical thinking and reasoning: An analysis of mathematical tasks used in reform classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 33(2), 455-488<br />Stepien, W., & Gallagher, S. (1993). Problem-Based Learning: As Authentic <br /> as It Gets. Educational Leaderhip, 4(1), 25-28.<br />.<br />
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