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Renewable Energy and Storage Systems

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Overcoming Intermittency in Renewable Energy through Storage Systems - Irene Fastelli ENEL Ingegneria & Innovazione …

Overcoming Intermittency in Renewable Energy through Storage Systems - Irene Fastelli ENEL Ingegneria & Innovazione

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  • 1. Overcoming Intermittency in Renewable Energy through Storage Systems
    Irene Fastelli
    ENEL Ingegneria & Innovazione
  • 2. Agenda
    • Enel Group
    • 3. Renewable into the grid
    • 4. Approaches to compensation
    • 5. Scenario
    • 6. EnelGroup on-going programs and next activities
  • Enel, an international GroupA global dimension
    Americas
    Europe
    RUSSIA
    • 49.5% of RusEnergoSbyt
    • 7. 40% of SeverEnergia gas reserves (total 700 bcm)
    • 8. 55.8% of OGK-5 (installed capacity 8.183 MW)
    SLOVAKIA
    • 66% of Slovenské Elektrárne: installed capacity 5.705 MW of nuclear, thermal and hydro capacity
    FRANCE
    • 12.5% EPR project,
    • 9. Wind capacity 12 MW
    NORTHAMERICA
    • Enel’s Installed capacity 749 MW
    ROMANIA
    • 51% Banat & Dobrogea and Enel Energie
    • 10. 64.6% Electrica Muntenia Sud
    • 11. 2.6mn customers
    SPAIN AND PORTUGAL
    • 92% of Endesa (22,123 MW, 12.6mn customers)
    • 12. Total net production of 31.4 TWh
    • 13. 50% of EUFER: 399 MW2
    BULGARIA
    • 73% Maritza
    • 14. Capacity 602 MW
    LATINAMERICA
    • Enel’s capacity 667 MW, Endesa’s capacity 15.284 MW
    • 15. Endesa’s customers 12,4 mn
    GREECE
    • Renewables 112 MW
    MOROCCO
    • Endesa’s installed capacity 123 MW
    ITALY
    • Enel’s capacity 40.323 MW ow Enel’s Green Power 2.547 MW.
    • 16. Total Net Production: 96,3 TWh.
    • 17. Enel’s customers 33.1 mln
    94,3 GW of installed capacity61 million customers 83,300 employees
    2008 pro-forma data with Endesa, OGK-5 and Electrica Muntenia Sud consolidated respectively at 100%. Data net of assets to be disposed to Acciona
    Value corresponding to 50% of Eufer’s total capacity
  • 18. Iberia and Latin America
    North America
    Italy and Europe(2)
    Enel Green Power
    Operating 788 MW
    Production 2.4 TWh
    In execution 0.3 GW
    Pipeline 8.3 GW
    Operating 2,076 MW
    Production 6.4 TWh
    In execution 0.5 GW(1)
    Pipeline 15.6 GW
    Operating 2,897 MW
    Production 12.0 TWh
    In execution 0.4 GW
    Pipeline 5.8 GW
    Operating 5,761 MW
    Production 20.9 TWh
    In execution 1.2 GW(1)
    Pipeline 29.9 GW
    Global leader in a growing industry
    EGP global footprint – H1 2010
    EGP presence
    Unrivalled footprint in 16 countries across all main renewable technologies
    Source: Company information.
    Note: Presentation includes consolidated financial and operating data unless otherwise stated. Capacity as of 30 June 2010 - Production end 2009 PF - Pipeline and in execution data as of 30 June 2010.
    (1) Includes ENEOP (Portugal), 137 MW in execution. Equity consolidated as of 30 June 2010; full consolidation is expected in 2013.
    (2) Ongoing disposal process of Bulgarian assets, which are included in the figures.
  • 19. Renewable into the grid
  • 20. Wind and Solar PV fluctuations
    Implications for compensation
    Fluctuation pattern
    Compensation
    Day-night fluctuations
    (PV only)
    • Recurringpatternswithspecificregionalvariations
    • 21. Balanceresidualloadwithflexible generation
    Cyclical, predictable
    Seasonal fluctuations
    (climate)
    Medium term fluctuations
    • Improvementsthroughbetterforecasting are possible
    • 22. Needtobalancefluctuatingrenewabletoensure the security of the overallenergysupply
    Erratic, unpredictable
    Short term fluctuations
  • 23. Needs for compensating capacity
    *Courtesy of IHS Emerging Energy Research
    7
  • 24. Approaches to compensation
  • 25. Integration of intermittent renewables
    Approaches to compensations
    • Interregional compensation (grid extension)
    • 26. Conventional backup capacity
    • 27. Demand side management
    • 28. Large scale electricity storage
    Each has its strength and limitations!
  • 29. Approaches to compensation
    Limitations
    Grid extension
    • It cannot mitigate all types of fluctuations (e.g. day-night fluctuations)
    • 30. Political barriers to implementation (public resistance, permitting process)
    • 31. Energy losses in transmission
    Backup power
    • Increasing dependence on fossil fuel
    • 32. Uncertainty regarding fuel prices
    • 33. Risk of low utilization
    • 34. Requirement of decentralized unit where small scale wind and PV are present
    Demand side management
    • Most loads can be deferred for a short period of time
    • 35. Requires behavioral adaptations by customers and adequate pricing flexibility to actually drive changes
    • 36. The potential demand reduction is a small percent of peak load
  • Approaches to compensation
    Electricity Storage – a key enabler
    Pros
    Cons
    • Cost-effectiveness is the key weakness of storage technologies
    • 37. Technologically it is still relatively immature for large applications other than hydroelectric storage
    • 38. Self-sufficient solution
    • 39. Not affected by increases in renewable penetration
    • 40. Possibility of having decentralized units
    Most promising technologies for large-scale application
  • 41. Technologies for large scale applications
    Pumped hydro
    Pumped hydro will continue to be the leading storage technology in terms of installed capacity
    • Profentechnology
    • 42. High efficiency
    • 43. Relatively low specific storage capacity
    • 44. Mainlimitation: New siteshardlypossibletodevelop
    More than 5,2 GWhinstalledcapacity in Italy
  • 45. Technologies for large scale applications
    Compressed Air (CAES)
    Huntdorf, Germany, 290 MW
    Diabatic CAES
    • Wide output powercontrolrange
    • 46. Relatively low investmentcosts
    • 47. Low cycleefficiencyof up to 0,55
    • 48. Mainlimitation: storagesites
    McIntosh, Alabama, 110 MW
    2 CAES Projects, 450MW, in Stimulus Package
    Advanced CAES plants are expected to be significantly more efficient.
    Enel is carrying on engineering research to validate economic and technical viability of different solutions
  • 49. Scenario
  • 50. Smart energy management
    How to get there?
    Identify flexibility needs
    Identify best storage technologies and competing alternatives
    Analyse the trade off between storage and its competing options
    Allow for markets and legislation to foster the environmentally best option
    Analyse, suggest and implement the storage and generation mix best suited for a low carbon energy system
  • 51. Generation portfolios with and without storage
    Storage can increase the share ofbase-loadpower generation
    Withoutstorage: 25 GW baseload
    Withstorage: 30 GW baseload
    *Source: BCG “Revisiting energy storage”
    Load profile based on average data for January and June 2009 in Germany.
  • 52. Storage services
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    • Emission benefits
    • 53. Load management
    • 54. Integration of large scale renewables
    • 55. Ancillary services
    • 56. Transmission& Distribution services
    • 57. Energy management
    • 58. Reserve/regulating power
    • 59. Market regulations regarding ancillary services
    • 60. Strategic planning
    • 61. Large scale introduction of renewables
    • 62. Emission benefits
    • 63. Customer site applications
    • 64. Load management & response
    Storage can provide several functionalities:
    Different applications are best served by different technologies
  • 65. Enel Group on-going programs and next activities
  • 66. ENEL approach to tackle over the topic
    Value chain
    Shortlist of “opportunities” for storage systems
    Modeling, technical feasibility
    Economic, environmental, organizational aspects
    Experimental validation
  • 20
    ENEL projects
  • 81. ENEL Storage Test Facility - Livorno
    Objective
    • Characterize promising lab-scale storage technologies
    • 82. Identify the key aspects for large scale implementation of storage technologies and their actual suitability to the different requirements for Enel applications
    • 83. Define storage systems optimal management strategies to ensure renewable production programmability
    • 84. Develop guidelines and best practices for the selection, installation and use of ESS for ENEL applications
    • 85. Assess and model the influence of operating conditions on system performances
  • ENEL Storage Test Facility
    Test rig
    Electronic system able to reproduce typical renewable generation and load profiles
    Performance monitoring and recording
    • Reproduction of wind and solar generation up to 50kW
    • 86. Reproduction of DSO requests up to 50 kW
    • 87. Capability to operate and characterize several systems at the same time
    • 88. Response time ~ 1 sec
    • 89. PLC management & PC control
    • 90. Automatic execution of more than 400 steps
    • 91. Measurement of AC /DC data
    • 92. Acquisition of data communicated by storage systems
  • ENEL Storage Test Facility
    First technologies characterized
    Key performance factors investigated
    • Response and inversion time
    • 93. Time at rated power
    • 94. Round trip efficiency
    • 95. Real vs nominal capacity
    • 96. Performances decay
    Operating KPIs
    VanadiumRedox Flow battery
    10kW 100kWh
    Economic KPIs
    ZEBRA battery
    20kW 20kWh
    Li-ionbattery
    15kW 15kWh
  • 97. Enel Storage TestFacility
    2011 Installations
    Next steps
    • Conduct engineering research to validate economic and technical viability of applications
    • 98. Continue monitoring technological developments: performance improvements, other technologies, cost reduction
    • 99. Refine benefit calculations with results of ongoing experimental characterization
    • 100. Update strategic planning figures with new information
    20 kW PV plant
    Micro-windgenerators
    100 kWh H2
    storage on
    metal hydride
    EV quickchargepoint (<20mins) CHAdeMOcompliant
    Optimize the integration of distributed energy resources (stochastic renewable generation, EV and storage) connected to the distribution network.
  • 101. “STORE” – Demonstration Project
    Managing generation on island systems
    Demonstration of different storage technologies capabilities to solve problems of grid congestion and to damp fluctuations in the Canary Islands.
    NaS Technology – 1MW, 6MWh
    • Installation in Gran Canaria to replace diesel peak generation, voltage support, load leveling, etc.
    ZnBr Technology- 500kW, 2.8MWh
    • Mobile installation in La Gomera to replace peak generation
    UC Technology – 4MW, 5-6sec
    • Integration in diesel power station in La Palma (fast event response)
  • Hydro-wind power facility
    El Hierro Project – Endesapartecipation
    Wind power: 20 MW
    Hydro generation: 13 MW
    Pumping :16 MW
    Grid stability is guaranteed by the continuous operation of the hydraulic group
  • 102. 27
    Key open questions
    The main issues regarding new storage systems (batteries, compressed air, etc.) are:
    • Assessing availability and quality of flexibility resources
    • 103. Minimizing the cost of procuring flexibility
    • 104. Testing / demonstrating the operational viability of storage in our grid
    • 105. Developing optimal control devices and strategies
    • 106. Refining benefit /cost valuations with new information
    • 107. Addressing potential regulatory issues in this space
  • Thank you for your attention!
    28