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Nuclear Power in Italy

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    Nuclear Power in Italy Nuclear Power in Italy Presentation Transcript

    • Nuclear Power in Italy
      FabrizioIaccarino
      Bethesda, 16 February 2011
    • 2
      Agenda
      Importance of nuclear power for Italy
      Italian nuclear program
      Enel/EDF agreements
      Italian industrial involvement
      The new legal framework
      5.1. Some history
      5.2. The Framework Law (Law 99/2009)
      5.3. Decree n.31/2010: licensing process
      6. Conclusion
    • 3
      Importance of nuclear power for Italy
      Italian nuclear program
      Enel/EDF agreements
      Italian industrial involvement
      The new legal framework
      5.1. Some history
      5.2. The Framework Law (Law 99/2009)
      5.3. Decree n.31/2010: licensing process
      6. Conclusion
    • 4
      Economic benefits, security of supplies, climate change
      Topics
      Nuclear benefits
      Economic benefits
      • The Italian generation mix is skewed towards most expensive source of energy, such as natural gas and oil
      Security of supplies
      • Italy relies for 78% on imports of electricity
      • 66% of imported fuels is represented by natural gas
      Fight against climate change
      • Italy could reduce CO2 emissions of about 35 million tones per year assuminga production of 100 TWh per year with NPPs instead of combined gas cycles plants
      Resurgence of Nuclear power will lead to significant socio-economics benefits for the whole Italian economic system
    • 5
      Energy production in ItalyReliance on import
      Energy production 1)and import
      [2008; TWh]
      Allocation of imported fuels [2008; %]
      350,5
      77,1
      (22%)
      National Production
      43,4
      (12%)
      Import
      78% of Energy production is covered by import
      18%
      Coal
      66%
      GAS
      Production from imported fuels
      230,0
      (66%)
      16%
      Oil/other
      Energy production depends strongly on imports – Gas has the highest share among imported fuels
      1) Net production – Consumptions (pumps included)
      Reference:Enel analysis on data provided by Terna
    • 6
      5%
      5%
      1%
      COAL *
      GAS
      75%
      OIL
      NUCLEAR
      RENEWABLE **
      14%
      Energy generation mix
      Italy vs Europe, 2009
      Generation mix in Italy is skewed towards most expensive source of energy
      16%
      13%
      28%
      46%
      35%
      23%
      52%
      3%
      6%
      13%
      1%
      18%
      28%
      11%
      23%
      25%
      24%
      18%
      17%
      Italy
      Germany
      Spain
      France
      EU27
      Italy is the only industrialized country (G8) to have banned nuclear power– about 28% of electric energy produced in Europe is from nuclear source
      * Coal, wood coal
      ** Includes hydroelectric production (and pumps) and biomas
      source: Enel analysis on data provided by Enerdata; Italian data: preliminary 2009 data by Terna; EU 27 data - year 2008
    • 7
      EU 27 average
      Taxes
      Price/tariff without taxes
      Electricity bill of neighboring European countriesIndustrial clients
      €/MWh
      20.000 -70.000 MWh/year
      500 – 2.000 MWh/year
      158
      141
      133
      115
      111
      122
      120
      100
      82
      77
      95
      74
      Prices referred to January – June 2008
      Source: Annual Report AEEG 2009
    • 8
      Importance of nuclear power renaissance for Italy
      Italian nuclear program
      Enel/EDF agreements
      Italian industrial involvement
      The new legal framework
      5.1. Some history
      5.2. The Framework Law (Law 99/2009)
      5.3. Decree n.31/2010: licensing process
      6. Conclusion
    • 9
      Italian Nuclear ProgramGovernment’s objectives
      Nuclear
      Other
      National Consumptions1) [TWh/y]
      Target for nuclear power [TWh/y; (%)]
      Power required4) [MWe]
      CAGR2): +1,6%

      400
      100
      (25%)
      300
      (75%)
      13.000 MWe
      350
      3)
      8 units by 1.600 MWe
      Covered by generation and imports with reduction of import rate for 2020 compared to 2008
      CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate – Average annual growth rate
      Situation at full speed by 2025
      Assuming a load factor approximatelyequal to 90%
    • 10
      Italian Nuclear Program: agreement with EDF for the joint development of at least 4 EPR units
      ENEL nuclear fleetNuclear assets, new projects and development opportunities
      Development of new capacity:
      • Russia:
      • Kaliningrad, 2 X 1117MWe VVER
      • Agreement with Rosatom
      • Romania: participation in the consortium led by Nuclearelectrica for the construction of Cernavoda 3&4 (Candu, 1.500 MW)
      5.5 GW of installed capacity and additional 1 GW under construction Further developments expected in Italy and other countries
    • 11
      The 1987 referendum and the italian phasing out
      Voters: 65,1% Void/blanck: 13%;
    • 12
      Consensus and nuclear culture
      “ I am in favor of nuclear power plant ”
      2010*
      Uncertain
      61%
      Δ 2010-2009: +2%
      2009**
      quiteagree
      slightly agree
      agree
      disagree
      ** November 2009
      * May 2010
      There is a strong dissent and a limited pool of convinced. A large not fully convinced area (61%)could be switched in in favor.This is the main target of Enel’s information and communication campaign
    • 13
      Nuclear and public opinion in briefA few highlights
      • Three Italians out of four think that information on nuclear is either insufficient or inadequate
      • Public opinion underestimates the benefits that the re-launch of nuclear energy could give to the development of the Country
      • NIMBY is the real problem
      Information must be spread at national level
      but it is local consensus that is pivotal
    • 14
      “Make your
      own opinion,
      Get informed on facts”
      From risk to safety:
      To defeat collective ghosts
      Rebuild a nuclear culture and
      trust on technical competencies
      Give a new meaning to nuclear through
      captivating and clear information
      Set up a shared and diversified energy program
      Nuclear communication iter
      • An information and communication campaign is needed to rebuild nuclear culture
      • Enel is launching a comprehensive plan to reassure, make nuclear advantages clear, change perception and create consensus
    • 15
      ISTITUZIONS
      Strategic alliance to support development of energy sector by reducing imports
      and improving security of supply
      INDUSTRY
      Re-appropriation of
      know-how,
      engineering, ICT,
      safety
      ENVIRONMENTALISTS
      Renewables,
      balanced energy mix,
      CO2 reduction
      RESEARCH/SCIENTIFC
      COMMUNITY
      Recovering competences
      for the nuclear industry;
      University: Strengthen
      nuclear skills
      Enel approach: an alliance for Country’s development
      An alliance constituting a force to foster economic and industrial re-launch of the country and to reduce the impact of climate change, following recommendations made at European level.
    • 16
      Importance of nuclear power for Italy
      Italian nuclear program
      Enel/EDF agreements
      Italian industrial involvement
      The new legal framework
      5.1. Some history
      5.2. The Framework Law (Law 99/2009)
      5.3. Decree n.31/2010: licensing process
      6. Conclusion
    • 17
      France-Italy agreement on nuclear co-operationStrategic objectives
      On 24 February 2009, Prime Minister Berlusconi and President Sarkozy signed an agreement for nuclear co-operation. The agreement covers the following objectives:
      Political collaboration at European level on security of supplies, fight against climate change and at global level full engagement against nuclear proliferation
      Co-operation between Nuclear Safety Authorities to harmonize the rules and to promote a common position in Europe
      Co-operation between Italian and French energy companies
      Industrial Partnership to realize components for nuclear power plants
      Partnership in the fields of research & development
      Industrial co-operation in the field of nuclear fuel cycle
      Industrial co-operation in the field of decommissioning
      Co-operation on crime prevention, promotion of information, education and training
    • 18
      Co-operation Enel–EdFRelationship and partnership developments
      Relationship before Italian partnership
      • On 30 November 2007 Enel and EDF signed agreements on:
      • Participation of Enel in the construction’s project of one EPR unit (1600 MWe) at Flamanville where Enel holds 12,5%
      • Job training of Enel resources by EDF for engineering, construction and operation in Flamanville 3 project
      • Options for Enel to co-invest in the construction of the next 5 EPR units that EDF will develop in France
      • Optional participation of EDF in new projects developed by Enel and based on EPR technology
      Area
      Description
      Partnership’s developments
      • On 24 February 2009 Enel and EDF signed two MoU:
      • The first one provides the participation of Enel in the construction of the 2° EPR reactor in France in Penly
      • The second one provides for the joint development of the Italian nuclear program
      The partnership Enel/EdF is well-established in the field of nuclear power energy
    • 19
      • Development of 4 nuclear generating units in Italy. The objective is to bring the first unit into operation not later than 2020.  6.400 MWe
      • Identification of at least 3 sites suitable for nuclear power plan installation
      • Maximize the industrial impact in Italy
      Scope
      Technology
      • EPR technology, Flamanville 3 model, is the baseline of program
      • Enel andEDF will act as Architect-engineers (Project Engineer) for the entire project
      • There will be a multi-contract approach without general contractor
      Project management
      • Exclusive right for Enel and EDF to develop projects based on EPR technology in Italy
      • Faculty for Enel to develop projects with different partners and technologies in Italy
      Exclusive right
      Topics
      Description
      Enel – EdF agreement for ItalyDescription
      Realization of at least 4 nuclear generating units on 3 sites Maximization of industrial impact in Italy
    • 20
      Sviluppo Nucleare Italia
      Joint Venture on equalbasis (50/50)
      Sviluppo Nucleare Italia S.r.l. (SNI)
      was established on July31st 2009
      • To perform site screening
      • To provide feasibility studies for each site
      • To constitute the Joint SubCo(s)
      • To manage the licensing processes
      Strategic objectives of SNI
      Activities
      • To provide the Board of Parent Companies with a detailed feasibility study for the Final Investment Decision
      Scope of work
    • 21
      The Italian Nuclear ProgramTiming
      • Site selection process should end up in April 2011
      • Final investment decision should be taken by mid 2013, after the assignment of the Construction and Operating License (Autorizzazione Unica)
      • Qualification activities for engineering, supplies and erection already started, in the next year first Requests for Offer will be issued, in three years first contracts with suppliers will be signed
      • 60 years of commercial operation
      Timing
      The objective is to have the first new NPP in operation by 2020
    • 22
      Importance of nuclear power for Italy
      Italian nuclear program
      Enel/EDF agreements
      Italian industrial involvement
      The new legal framework
      5.1. Some history
      5.2. The Framework Law (Law 99/2009)
      5.3. Decree n.31/2010: licensing process
      6. Conclusion
    • 23
      The Italian Nuclear Program Enel/EDFCosts associated
      Comments
      Details for unit’s costs [Mln EUR]
      4.000
       4.500
      16.000
       18.000
      • The construction of a EPR unit requires an investment included between 4 and 4,5 Bln EUR according to site’s characteristics
      • The entire Enel/EdF‘s program will require an overall investment included between 16 and 18 Bln EUR
      • The EPR units are projected to operate for 60 years
      4.000
       4.500
      4.000
       4.500
      4.000
       4.500
      This infrastructural program represents one of the largest investment ever made in Italy
    • 24
      The realization of an EPR plantCosts’ composition for merchant categories [%]
      The mechanics supplies represent the largest cost– almost 30% – out of the entire cost for the construction of an EPR unit
      Data related to supply include the related engineering and quality control
      Source: Enel
    • 25
      Italian industry at Flamanville 3Regional details
      45 supplying firms involved
      • 45 supplying firms already involved into the Flamanville 3 project (EPR technology – Enel’s participates for the 12,5% of the project)
      • Supplying firms especially involved: those which produce nuclear forgings, mechanic equipments and bulk materials
      • In most of the cases those supplying firms are sub-supplying firms of enterprises already working with EDF (es. Areva – nuclear island, Alstom – TG turbine generator)
      • Moreover, almost 20 Italian enterprises are already involved in building-up the EPR nuclear plant in Olkiluoto, Finland
      • Friuli Venezia Giulia 4 supplying firms
      • Piemonte 2 supplying firms
      • Veneto
      5 supplying firms
      • Emilia Romagna
      4 supplying firms
      • Lombardia
      26 supplying firms
      • Umbria
      1 supplying firm
      • Liguria
      1 supplying firm
      The EPR projects ongoing in Finland and France have already seen the participation of Italian enterprises
    • 26
      The Italian Nuclear ProgramInvolvement of Italian industry
      Supply Chain meetings
      Market Survey
      Qualification
      • In October 2009 a joint technical group Enel – Confindustria (Italian Industry Organization) has been started up
      • Supply Chain meeting with 400 Italian companies has been held in January 2010, other are planned
      • Other meetings with territorial industry organizations are under way
      • In January 2010 a market survey activity started
      • Information about more than 380 Italian companies has been collected through a RFI1) website
      • More than 120 meetings with Italian companies and visits to their facilities has been programmed
      • Qualification of suppliers has been started before the end of the year, well in advance with respect to the beginning of procurement
      • Qualification will highlight gaps and recovery actions
      Enel has involved Italian industry till the very early stage of the program, in order to allow to close the gap created in 20 years of substantial absence from nuclear supplies
      1) Request for Information
    • 27
      The construction of a EPR plantResources required – Construction and Operation
      Comments
      Phase
      Construction of units – building phase
      • At the peak level, the realization of an EPR unit requires almost 2.500 persons per day for the realization of the civil works, for assembling activities, etc.
      Operation and units’ maintenance
      • The plant’s operation requires until 300 persons highly specialized
      • In addition, those persons have to be integrated by the human resources, belonging to external enterprises, who have to carry out the extraordinary maintenance
      The carrying out of a EPR unit requires until 2.500 persons perday to which has to be added the human resources necessary for the extraordinary maintenance
      Source: Enel
    • 28
      The Italian Nuclear ProgramHow Enel is structuring to cope with the program
      Nuclear skilled resources[n.]
      Actions
      • Strong increase of skilled personnel dedicated to the Nuclear Program
      • Participation in Flamanville3 and Mochovce3&4 projects as training experiences (60 resources in France and 400 involvedin Slovakia)
      • Technical training program dedicated to operations and engineering profiles
      • Reinforcement of the network with “nuclear” universities: masters and scholarships
      Beginning of the program
      Today
      Early works at site
      Start of operations
    • 29
      Importance of nuclear power renaissance for Italy
      Italian Nuclear Program
      Enel/EDF agreements
      Italian industrial involvement
      The new legal framework
      5.1. Some history
      5.2. The Framework Law (Law 99/2009)
      5.3. Decree n.31/2010: licensing process
      6. Conclusion
    • 30
      The legislative frameworkSome history…
      1987
      Post Chernobyl:
      Public referendum banned Nuclear Energy
      2008
      Back to nuclear:
      Nuclear new build as one of the priority targets of the energy strategy (Law Decree 112/2008)
      2009
      Law No. 99/2009:
      New Italian nuclear legal framework
    • 31
      Importance of nuclear power renaissance for Italy
      Italian Nuclear Program
      Enel/EDF agreements
      Italian industrial involvement
      The new legal framework
      5.1. Some history
      5.2. The Framework Law (Law 99/2009)
      5.3. Decree n.31/2010: licensing process
      6. Conclusion
    • 32
      The Framework Law: Law n. 99/2009
      • Article 25: empowers the Government to issue implementing Decree on, inter alia:
      • Siting
      • Licensing process
      • Compensation measures
      • Article 26 : provides forCIPE resolutions regarding
      • Type of power plant technologies
      • Criteria and measures for the creation of consortia
      • Article 29: establishes a new regulatory body, the Nuclear Safety Agency.
    • 33
      Importance of nuclear power renaissance for Italy
      Italian Nuclear Program
      Enel/EDF agreements
      Italian industrial involvement
      The new legal framework
      5.1. Some history
      5.2. The Framework Law (Law 99/2009)
      5.3. Decree n. 31/2010: licensing process
      6. Conclusion
    • 34
      Decree n. 31/2010
      The implementing Decree entered into force on March 23 2010 and foresees rules for siting and licensing of new NPPs.
      Main contents
      • Nuclear energy strategy
      • Licensing procedures for siting of NPPs, nuclear fuel fabrication plants, spent fuel and radioactive waste storages, final disposal for radioactive waste
      • Compensation measures
      • Decommissioning fund
      • Information campaign
    • 35
      Decree n. 31/2010: a five step process.
      Nuclear Energy Strategy
      DRIVERS:
      • TRANSPARENCY
      • PUBLIC PARTICIPATION
      • ACHIEVMENT OF PUBLIC CONSENSUS
      • STRONG ROLE OF THE NUCLEAR SAFETY AGENCY
      Technical & environmental criteria for siting
      SEA on Nuclear Strategy and criteria
      Site certification on operators proposal
      Construction & Operation License
    • 36
      Licensing process: preliminary steps
      The Government will issue a decree with specific requirements for nuclear operators.
      In general operators should be:
      • equipped with all necessary technical and professional capabilities in the safety field;
      • able to ensure human and financial resources
      Operators that meet all requirements shall submit its nuclear program to the Government and NPPs requirements to the NSA to draft preliminary safety report.
    • 37
      1° step: Government nuclear program
      Government Nuclear Strategy is a programmatic policy document which will address strategic goals in the nuclear field.
      Priority will be given to nuclear safety and protection from ionizing radiation.
      Subject to SEA and to a wide public consultation.
    • 38
      2° step: Criteria definition
      Draft criteria for site selection are proposed by NSA. It takes under consideration the following aspects:
      • population and socio-economic factors;
      • hydrology and water resources;
      • meteorological factors;
      • biodiversity;
      • geophysics and geology;
      • natural beauty;
      • architectural and historical merit;
      • accessibility;
      • seismic and tectonic characteristics;
      • distance from inhabited areas and from transport infrastructure.
      Subject to public consultation and to SEA
    • 39
      3° step: SEA on Nuclear Strategy and criteria
      Definition of parameters for technical - environmental criteria for sites localization
      Government Nuclear Program
      SEA and public consultation
      Review of Nuclear Programme and criteria on the basis of SEA results
      Approval of the Nuclear Programme and criteria by the Council of Ministers and publication on the OJ
    • 40
      The Agency runs technical preliminary assessment and issues certification for each of the proposed site
      The operator submits to the Government and the NSA the request for site certification.
      AGENCY’S ASSESSMENT
      OPERATOR’S REQUEST
      4° step: Site certification
      Following technical assessment NSA transmits certification of site to the Government in order to gain approval by the interested Region
    • 41
      4° step: Site certification & Regional agreement
      MSE submits each of the certified sites to the agreement of interested Region
      POSITIVE OUTCOME
      NEGATIVE OUTCOME
      Institution of Inter-institutional Unified Committee
      If no agreement, adoption of the Presidential Decree
      MSE transmits the list of the agreed sites to the Unified Conference.
    • 42
      POSITIVE OUTCOME
      NEGATIVE OUTCOME
      4° step: Site certification & Unified Conference Agreement
      MSE transmits the list of certified sites with the approval of the Region to the Unified Conference Committee
      Deliberation of the Council of Ministers
      MSE, MATTM e MIT issue the decree approving the list of certified sites
      Regional Environmental Energy Plan reviewed by the Region on which the nuclear site is located.
    • 43
      5° step: Construction and Operation License & EIA
      Operator submits the application for construction and operation license
      NSA:
      • runs the technical preliminary assessment taking into account outcomes of EIA & IEA procedures
      • issues a binding opinion
      Lack of agreement with local authority
      POSITIVE OUTCOME
      Adoption of the relevant decree by the Prime Minister
      MSE, together with MATTM and MIT, releases the license by decree and publishes it on the OJ
    • 44
      Operator’s liability
      Licensee is responsible for:
      • plant’s safety
      • plant’s workers training, with regard to the prevention of risks related to construction and operating activities
      • compliance with the Agency’s prescriptions
      • implementation of appropriate information to the population involved
      • assessment, monitoring and improvement of plant’s safety
      Decree provides for administrative and criminal sanctions in case the
      licensee fails to comply with the provisions of the decree.
    • 45
      Socio-economics benefits
      CONSTRUCTION PHASE

      X
      3.000 €/MW (*)
      5 M€ / year
      1630 MW
      (EPR electric power)
      (*) increased by 20 % for nominal power exceeding 1600 MW
      OPERATION PHASE

      5 M€ / year
      X
      0,40 €/MWh
      12.800.000 MWh
      (EPR annual production)
      300 M€
      X
      =
      60 years EPR life
      Local taxes (TBD) 10 M€ / year
    • 46
      10 %
      55 %
      +
      local taxes
      35 %
      5 M€
      Up to 10 M€
      Socio-economics benefitsRepartition
      CONSTRUCTION PHASE BENEFITS (M€ / year) and TERRITORIAL REPARTITION
      40 %
      60 %
      OPERATION PHASE BENEFITS
      Benefits to be distributed through electrical bill discount to:
      • Municipality hosting the plant
      • Municipalities within 20 km
      • District
      (percentages to be defined by Ministry)
      5 M€
      ~10 M€
    • 47
      Waste management and decommissioning
      Sogin is the company responsible for:
      • decommissioning of NPPs at the end of their life- cycle and for the safe storage of waste and spent fuel;
      • construction and operation of the national repository and the technology park.
      The licensing procedure for siting, construction and operation of the national waste repository is similar to the one established for new nuclear power plants.
    • 48
      Decommissioning fund(1/3)
      Decommissioning fund is established as an external fund, owned by a public body (CCSE), and it is fed byUnique Authorization holder’sannual contribution for each operating year of the facility.
      The amount of the contribution is determined by the Independent Authority for Energy and Gas (AEEG), following a proposal by Sogin and the Nuclear Safety Agency’s advice (NSA).
      The relevant amount is updated every year according to indexes fixed by AEEG and subject to new evaluation every five years.
    • 49
      Decommissioning fund(2/3)
      If, at the end of the plant life-cycle, decommissioning fund is not adequate, operator has to integrate it.
      Decommissioning of the facilities is carried out by Sogin that, at the end of the plant’s life-cycle:
      • is in charge of the safety management of the plant
      • proceeds with the evaluation of costs for decommissioning activities following a cross examination with the operator and if necessary requiring an adequacy opinion to a qualified third party.
    • 50
      Decommissioning fund(3/3)
      The CCSE (a public entity in charge of financial activities related to the energy sector) manages the decommissioning fund and may carry out profitable investments provided that risk exposure is not above the government bonds.
      Distribution of the relevant amounts is made by CCSE on the basis of AEEG guidelines and according to the working progress previous control and validation of projects.
      Decommissioning fund covers the following activities:
      • Costs for decommissioning of nuclear power plants
      • Conditioning
      • Transport and disposal of radioactive waste
    • 51
      Opportunities for public and institutional involvement
      • Environmental - technical criteria: comments and suggestions by Region, local authorities, and stakeholders.
      • Strategic Environmental Assessment: comments and suggestions plus initiatives to enable a public involvement into the process
      • Site Certification: agreement between Region and Unified Conference
      • Environmental Impact Assessment: Involvement of interested administrations
      • License: Services Conference with the Agency, Ministries, Regions, involved local authorities, and all others involved subjects and administrations
    • 52
      Information campaign & trasparency
      More transparency and information measures are provided in the Decree:
      • National information campaign on energy production from nuclear sources;
      • Transparency Committee in every region where there is a certified site suitable for NPP.
    • 53
      Importance of nuclear power renaissance for Italy
      Italian Nuclear Program
      Enel/EDF agreements
      Italian industrial involvement
      The new legal framework
      5.1. Some history
      5.2. The Framework Law (Law 99/2009)
      5.3. Decree n.31/2010: licensing process
      6. Conclusion
    • 54
      Conclusion
      The return of nuclear power in Italy is crucial for country’s development because:
      • Italy has to fill the gap of competitiveness with other European Countries, becoming more energy-independent
      • It is thechance for the Italian industry to return to the “nuclear” quality level and to contribute to boost the national economy
      • Nuclear represents an essential option for Italy to cope with the environmental targets for the reduction of CO2 emissions
      To reach this target, essential conditions are:
      • Rebuild nuclear culture
      • Build consensus and public acceptance
      • Have all the key players playing their role in a timely and effective manner (Nuclear Safety Agency, waste & management public company, operators, Government)