Report writing a presentation for dewas and gwaliorPresentation Transcript
Report Writing : A Challenge which we have to face up to
What is a Report ?
In the practical world of business or government, a report conveys information and (sometimes) recommendations from a researcher who has investigated the Topic in detail.
A report like this will usually be requested by people who need the information for a specific purpose and their request may be written in terms of reference or the brief .
Stages of Report Production
There are four Stages of Report Writing
Stage I: Framing the Issue and Planning
Stage II :Information Gathering
Stage III : Analyzing the Information
Stage IV : Report writing
Writing a Report
It is not sensible to leave all your writing until the end .( It is wise to begin writing up some aspects of your research as you go along. Remember that you do not have to write your report in the order that it will be read. Often . it is easiest to start with the method section . Leave the introduction and the abstract to last.
Starting Writing can be a Problem.( Writers are big procrastinators. They find countless reasons not to get started .)
It has to be a conscious decision and an outcome of the disciplined mind.
Set yourself Deadline ( Try to write regularly. As with all studying, "little and often" will bring better results than doing nothing for days and then working flat out through a day and a night.)
Structuring a Report
Quite frankly, most report readers do not actually read all the report; they are too short of time. You might as well know it and accept it -- that is normal. They only read the parts that interest them. Frequently these are the summary, the conclusions and recommendations.
It is similar to reading a newspaper. You expect the news headlines to be on the front page; the sports coverage to be at the back; the TV listings on page whatever and the editorial comment in the middle. If what you want is not in its usual place then you have to hunt for it and you may get irritated. So it is with a report. There is a convention as to what goes where. Stick to the convention and please your readers. Break the convention and people may get slightly irritated – and bin your report.
So what is that convention, the standard format?
Parts of A Report
Cover Sheet This should contain some or all of the following: full title of the report; your name; the name of the unit of which the project is a part; the name of the institution; the date.
Title Page Full title of the report. Your name.
Acknowledgements A thank you to the people who helped you.
Contents or Table of Contents ( Headings and subheadings used in the report with their page numbers. Remember that each new chapter should begin on a new page.
Use a consistent system in dividing the report into parts. The simplest may be to use chapters for each major part and subdivide these into sections and subsections. 1, 2, 3, etc, can be used as the numbers for each chapter. The sections for chapter 3 (for example) would be 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, and so on. For a further subdivision of a subsection you can use 3.2.1, 3.2.2, and so on. )
Abstract or Summary or Executive Summary or Introduction This is the overview of the whole report. It should let the reader see, in advance, what is in it. This includes what you set out to do , how reviewing literature focused and narrowed your research, the relation of the methodology you chose to your aims, a summary of your findings and of your analysis of the findings .
Aims and Purpose or Aims and Objectives :Why did you do the work? What was the problem you were investigating? If you are not including a literature review, mention here the other research which is relevant to your work.
Literature Review : It helps to put your research into a background context and to explain its importance. Include only the books and articles which relate directly to your topic . Remember that you need to be analytical and critical and not just describe the works that you have read.
Methodology :In the methodology chapter you explain the methods you used for the research and why you thought they were the appropriate ones. You may, for example, be doing mostly documentary research or you may have collected you own data. You should explain the methods of data collection , materials used, subjects interviewed, or places you visited. Give a detailed account of how and when you carried out your research and explain why you used the particular methods which you did use, rather than other methods.
Results or Findings :What did you find out? Give a clear presentation of your results. Show the essential data and calculations here. You may want (In our Case it has to be) to use tables, graphs and figures.
Analysis and Discussion :Interpret your results. What do you make of them? How do they compare with those of others who have done research in this area? The accuracy of your measurements/results should be discussed and any deficiencies in the research design should be mentioned.
Conclusions : What do you conclude? You should summarize briefly the main conclusions which you discussed under "Results." Were you able to answer some or all of the questions which you raised in your aims? Do not be tempted to draw conclusions which are not backed up by your evidence . Note any deviation from expected results and any failure to achieve all that you had hoped.
Recommendations: Make your recommendations, if required . Positive or negative suggestions for either action or further research.
Appendix : You may not need an appendix, or you may need several. If you have used questionnaires, it is usual to include a blank copy in the appendix. You could include data or calculations, not used in the body, that are necessary, or useful, to get the full benefit from your report. There may be maps, drawings, photographs or plans that you want to include. If you have used special equipment, you may want to include information about it.
The plural of an appendix is two or more appendices or appendixes . If an appendix or appendices are needed, design them thoughtfully in a way that your readers will find convenient to use.
Bibliography : List all the sources to which you refer in the body of the report. You may also list all the relevant sources you consulted even if you did not quote them.
Some more Advice on Literature Review…
All investigations require evidence of Reading and therefore a literature review should demonstrate that you have read and analyzed literature relevant to your topic.
A review should include only relevant items. The review should provide the reader with a picture of the state of knowledge in the subject.
A Literature Review should be proportional to the size of the Project.
Write notes as you go along. Record suitable notes on everything that you read, note methods of investigation. Make sure that you keep a full reference, complete with page numbers.
You will have to find your own balance between taking notes that are too long and detailed and ones too brief to be of any use.
You will do mainly basic reading while you are trying to decide on your topic. Then do a more thorough job of reading later on, when you are more sure of what you are doing
Advice on Literature Search
Literature searches are made to build up your own list of relevant books, articles, web pages and other sources that you will use. You are not dependent on your Faculty Guides to tell you which books and articles you should read. You can find books and articles for yourself and construct your own booklists if you know how. You Could use several methods:
Work with what you already have ( You will have an idea about what you are researching, you may have a title, and you may have some reading, and possibly some guidance from Your Faculty Guide . Look at this carefully. It is your starting point. Reading you have been given is especially important and will help you focus your search. The idea you have and any title will provide you with key words to direct your searching.
Learn to use your Library fully
Library computer catalogues usually allow you to look up books by author or title. The catalogues may also allow you to scroll through the list of books under one subject. This has the advantage over scanning the shelves that it includes books that or not on the shelves. Catalogues also lets you search for every book that has a certain word in its title
Look for relevant bibliographies other people have made
Search Relevant Journals ( Journal articles are very useful for bringing you up to date with recent ideas on a subject. You should find out what journals your library stocks, what journals you can read over the internet, and what journals cover your area.)
Make Computer based Searches
Look at directories of Publications in particular fields ( Web based directories are a very rich source of information about literature. )
Possible Assessment Criteria: What the marker may be looking for
Here are some points which Faculty Guides or External Examiner would look for in a Research Report:
Correct report format with appropriate headings. (Material allocated correctly to the headings.)
Your approach to your research (Your ability to define clearly the problem to be tackled, or the purpose of the work. A clear statement of the focus/area/topic/problem/hypothesis)
Review of the relevant literature, relating it to the research you have undertaken. (A good relation of theory and literature to the actual research being undertaken, including justification of research topic/settings) /Programme. )
Your ability to interpret work by others, to make personal observations, or to analyze data, and draw conclusions.
The thoroughness with which you have tackled the work in relation to the time available. The logical planning of the work.
The accuracy with which information has been recorded and the clarity with which it is presented.
Choice of appropriate research methods, setting/s and Programme, and a clear description of these.
Appropriate and sufficient collection of data. A clear presentation of data.
Ability to select relevant material and to reject the irrelevant, and to present a clear and concise report.
Thoroughness of critical analysis and evaluation of the research, with clear and detailed reference to data and to literature, appropriate theories and explanations. Some appraisal of the validity and value of the research.
Sensitivity to problems and processes of research undertaken, e.g. ethics, communication, negotiation, collaboration, dissemination.
Substantial conclusion, raising key issues and points, with suggestions for future research/practice as appropriate.
Full and accurate references, bibliography and appendices as appropriate.