To test the computer hardware, the bootstrap program runs a program called power-on self-test or POST. In this test, the Central Processing Unit (CPU) checks itself first and then checks the computer system timer. The POST checks the Random Access Memory (RAM) by writing data to each RAM chip and then reading that data. Any difference indicates a problem.
If the POST finds errors, it sends a message to the computer monitor. If the POST finds errors that cannot be displayed on the monitor, it sends errors in the form of "beeps."
The POST sends one beep and the screen begins to display OS loading messages once the bootstrap has determined that the computer has passed the POST.
is the data and power infrastructure for the entire computer.
It generally houses the CPU, the controller circuitry, the bus, RAM, expansion slots for additional boards, and ports for external devices. In addition, it contains the CMOS and other ROM BIOS and support chips providing varied functionality.
The major components on the motherboard include the chipset, CPU socket, expansion sockets, I/O support, BIOS, RAM sockets, power supply socket, CMOS chip, dipswitches and jumpers, and the memory cache.
CPU descriptions as Pentium 133, Pentium 166, or Pentium 200 are well known. These numbers are specifications that indicate the maximum (reliable) operating speed at which the CPU can execute instructions.
The CPU speed is not controlled by the microprocessor itself, but by an external clock located on the motherboard.
The speed of the processor is determined by the frequency of the clock signal. It is typically expressed in megahertz (MHz), and the higher the number, the faster the processor.
L2 (Level 2) cache resides outside the processor. In the past, L2 cache resided on the motherboard, but newer processors have a bit of L1 and L2 cache in the chip package.
The more cache memory a processor has, the quicker (and more expensive) the system will be.
A dual core processor combines two independent processors and the L1 cache from those processors onto a single processor chip. The benefit of a dual core processor is that it can execute multiple threads at the same time without hyperthreading because you essentially have two processors.
Hyperthreading technology, or HTT, allows a processor to logically act as two different processors by being able to execute simultaneous threads.
CPU Only used about 1 year. Socket Type AMD Intel Socket 8 Pentium Pro 150-200 MHz, Pentium II Overide 300-333 MHz Slot 1 Celeron, Pentium II 233-450 MHz, Pentium III 450 MHz Slot 2 Pentium II Xeon 400-450 MHz, Pentium III Xeon 500-1 GHz Slot A Athlon 500 MHz - 1 GHz Socket 370 Celeron, Pentium II 233-450 MHz, Pentium III 450 MHz - 1.13 GHz Socket A Duron 600 MHz +, Athlon 750 MHz + Socket 423 Pentium4 1.3 GHz + Socket 603 Xeon 1 GHz - 1.4 h.z
The contents of RAM are lost when the computer power is turned off.
RAM chips on the computer motherboard hold the data and programs that the microprocessor is processing.
In other words, RAM is memory that stores frequently used data for rapid retrieval by the processor.
RAM can be installed on the motherboard, either as a permanent fixture, or in the form of small chips, referred to as Single Inline Memory Modules (SIMMs – 72pins or 32bit data) or Dual Inline Memory Modules (DIMMs – 168pins or 64bit data).
Resolution – Varies based on the number of pixels. The more pixels in the screen, the better the resolution. Better resolution means a sharper image. The lowest screen resolution on modern PCs is 640 x 480 pixels, which is called Video Graphics Array (VGA). (This is the default resolution after installing a video card using Windows.)
Monitor screen sizes – Measured in inches. The most common sizes are 14", 15", 17", 19", and 21" screens, measured diagonally.
All hard disk drives share a common set of components. These components include: Disk platters, read/write heads, head actuator assembly, spindle motor, logic/circuit board, bezel/faceplate, configuration jumpers, and interface connectors.
Disk platters are the actual media on which data is stored in the hard disk drive.
Read/write heads are used to access the media. The disk platters require a read/write head for each side.