1 learn spanish e book

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1 learn spanish e book

  1. 1. Learn SpanishPublished by Discs Direct 1
  2. 2. Contents Language note 3 Alphabet 4 Pronunciation Guide 5 Stress & Accent Marks 10 Basic Phrases 11 Greetings 15 Numbers 16 Vocabulary 18 Grammar basics 33 False Friends 58 Spanish - English Dictionary 64 English - Spanish Dictionary 80 Food Glossary 96Check bookmarks on the left for more detailed contents info.Learn Spanish E-bookPublished and distributed by Discs Direct.You can print the book for academic reasons.All rights reserved. Copyright 2004 Discs Direct. 2
  3. 3. Español - Language noteSpanish is the third most popular language of the world.It belongs to the Ibero-Romance family of languages and is most closely related to Catalan,Galician and Portuguese.There are around 40 million Spanish speakers within Spain and many more in othercountries (see below).Spanish is the official language in Spain, including the Balearic and Canary Islands and theNorthern African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla. There are Spanish-speaking communitiesin the UK, France and Germany. It is one of the official languages of the European Unionand of the United Nations.Spanish uses the Latin alphabet and the acute accent on vowels to indicate stressedsyllables. Ñ and ñ are exclusive to Spanish and represent a single letter and not amodification of n. Its also the only language to use the opening question and exclamationmarks ¿ ¡Country - Number of Spanish Speakers:Mexico - 91 millionColombia - 41.9 millionArgentina - 35.6 millionSpain - 39.9 millionVenezuela - 23.3 millionUSA - 20.7 millionPeru - 20.4 millionChile - 13.6 millionEcuador - 11.8 millionDominican Republic - 8.2 million 3
  4. 4. The AlphabetThe Spanish alphabet consists of 29 letters:a, b, c, ch, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, ll, m, n, ñ, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, zBelow you can see the capital letters along with name of each letter and one word startingwith that letter.A: a azul (adj) - blueB: be bandera (nf) - flagC: ce cerdo (nm) - pig, hogCH: che chico (nm) - boyD: de dedo (nm) - fingerE: e escarabajo (nm) - beetleF: efe fruta (nf) - fruitG: ge gatito (nm) - kittenH: hache hombre (nm) - manI: i insecto (nm) - insectJ: jota joya (nf) - jewelK: ka kilómetro (nm) - kilometreL: ele lago (nm) -lakeLL: elle llover (v) rainM: eme mar (nf, nm) seaN: ene noche (nf) - nightÑ: eñe ñame (nm) - yamO: o océano (nm) - oceanP: pe papá (nm) - dadQ: cu quizá - maybeR: ere reina (nf) - queenS: ese silla (nf) - chairT: te tiburón (nm) - sharkU: u uva (nf) - grapeV: ve vaca (nf) - cowW: doble u wok (nm) - wokX: equis xilófono (nm) - xylophoneY: i griega y (conj) - andZ: zeta zorro (nm) - fox 4
  5. 5. Pronounciation Guide VowelsAll vowels in Spanish make only one sound each:a . . . sounds like . . . ah as in "father"The Spanish "a" is a short sharp sound like "hat" in EnglishExamples: pato - apio - locaeThe Spanish "e" is like the ehh in "bet" in EnglishExamples: elegir - éxito - sedi . . . sounds like . . . ee as in "bee"The Spanish "i" is like the "ee" in "seen", but a bit shorterExamples: sin - miércoles - idiotao . . sounds like . . . oh as in "go"The Spanish "o" can have two sounds. When it is at the end of a word it is like the"o" in note e.g. "pato"When it is before a consonant it is shorter, like "pot" or "cot" e.g. "boda". Thisdifference is very subtleExamples: pato - apio - locau . . . sounds like . . . oo as in "to"The Spanish "u" is like the "oo" in "food"Note: It is silent after "q" and in "gue" and "gui"The exceptions are marked with a diaeresis eg: antigüedad. The "ü" is quite rare. 5
  6. 6. Examples: luna - puro - mudoDiphtongs:ai ayThe Spanish "ai" is like the "i" in "side"Examples: aislar - paisaje - vaina - hayaauThe Spanish "au" is like the "ou" in "sound"Examples: causa - pausa - audio - audienciaei eyThe Spanish "ei" and "ey" sound like the "ay" in sayExamples: rey - peine - seiseuThe Spanish "eu" has no English equivalent and is difficult to define.It is just the sounds of "e" and "u" together. It is not very common.Examples: deuda - neutral - reumatismooi oyThe Spanish "oi" and "oy" are like the "oy" in boyExamples: soy - doy - boicot - sois - coyoteSemi-consonants:ie yThe Spanish "y" and "ie" have the "y" sound in "yes" .Note that the word "y" meaning "and" sounds like the Spanish "i"Examples: hielo - yerno - yeso - tierno - miedouThe Spanish "u + vowel" sounds like the "w" in "win"Note that when "u" is followed by a vowel it normally has the "w" soundExamples: fuente - huevo - agua - fui - fuimos - cuota 6
  7. 7. ConsonantsMost consonants are the same as in English,except: c g h j ll r rr v zbThe Spanish "b" is almost exactly the same as an English "b"(Note: Both "b" and "v" have the "b" sound in Spanish)Examples: bomba - enviar - voy - Córdobac (hard c)The Spanish "c" has the English "k" sound except when it comes before "e" and "i"Examples: academia - con - Ecuador - colac (soft c)Before "e" and "i" it has a "th" sound as in "thin"(Note: c is an "s" sound in Latin America, or a "th" sound in Spain)Examples: sociedad - recibir - recetachThe Spanish "ch" is the same as the "ch" in churchExamples: bochorno - champán - champiñón - champúdThe Spanish "d" is very similar to the English"d" when it comes at the end of a word it can have a "th" like sound eg. Madrid, verdadExamples: del - definir - ciudad - domingofThe Spanish "f" is the same as the English "f"Examples: freír - difícil - afeitar - forog (hard g)The Spanish "g" is like the English "g" unless it comes before "i" and "e".Examples: Galicia - golpe - guante - iglesiag (soft g) 7
  8. 8. The Spanish "g" is like the Spanish "j" when it comes before "i" and "e".It makes the soft "h" sound, like the "ch" in the Scottish "loch"Some other words which have this sound are: gemelo - geranio - gimnasio - gitanohThe Spanish "h" is always silentExamples: honor - Alhambra - rehacerjThe Spanish "j" is a strong guttural (throaty) sound similar to the "ch" in the Scottish "loch"Examples: jota - jabón - lenguaje - ejekThe Spanish "k" is the same as the English "k". It is very uncommon in SpanishExamples: kilo - kilovatio - kiosco - kiwilThe Spanish "l" is the same as the English "l"Examples: lobo - lámpara - ladrónllThe Spanish "ll" makes a drawn-out sound like the "y" in yesExamples: taller - valle - llamar - llover - lleno- MallorcamThe Spanish "m" is the same as the English "m"Examples: mama - tomar - malo - mixta - manonThe Spanish "n" is the same as the English "n"Examples: nadar - nadie - no - uno - nadañThe Spanish "ñ" is like the "ni" in "onion" in EnglishExamples: baño - caña - riñón - teñirp 8
  9. 9. The Spanish "p" is the same as the "p" in EnglishExamples: pato - apio - lápizqThe Spanish "q" is pronounced like the English "k" in "kick"Examples: queso - qué - querer - quince(Please note that the u after q is silent unlike in English, so qu makes a "k" sound not "kw")rThe Spanish "r" is a similar to the English "r" but it is stronger (is rolled)Examples: rabo - radio - marrrThe Spanish "rr" does not exist in English. It is a very strong "r" with a trill (its rolledemphatically).Many English speakers find this sound very difficult to pronounce.Examples: puerro - berro - carro - guerra - parra - barriosThe Spanish "s" has two sounds.It is pronounced the same as "s" sound in "sit" except when it comes before b, d, g, l, m, nExamples: saber - sobre - cosas - asuntoIt can have a "zzz" sound when it comes before b, d, g, l, m, nExamples: mismo - desde - asnotThe Spanish "t" is very similar to the "t" in English.In Spanish the tongue is placed closer to the teeth and there is less aspiration.Examples: trigo - tomar- todo - patatavmakes the "b" soundxThe Spanish "x" is similar to the English pronunciation and it has a "ks" sound.Examples: extra - sexto- exacto - éxitoz 9
  10. 10. The Spanish "z" has the "th" sound in the English thin. Examples: zona - cazar - zorro - luz Please note: Z . . . is an "Z" sound in Latin America, or a "TH" sound in Spain Stress and Accent Marks Knowing how letters are pronounced is only one aspect of learning Spanish pronunciation. Another key aspect is knowing which syllable should be stressed. Fortunately, in Spanish the rules for stress (also known as accent) are simple. In fact, there are only three basic rules that cover nearly every word:1. If a word ends in a vowel, n or s, the stress is on the next to last syllable. For example,toro, computadora, joven and zapatos all have their accent on the next-to-last syllable. Mostwords fit this category.2. Words than end in other letters have the stress on the last syllable. For example, hotel,hablar, madador and virtud all have the accent on the final syllable.3. If a word isnt pronounced according to the above two rules, an accent is placed over thevowel of the syllable that gets the stress. For example, común, lápiz, médico, inglés, andojalá all have the stress on the indicated syllable.The only exceptions to the above words are some words of foreign origin, generally wordsadopted from English, that retain their original spelling and pronunciation. Also personalnames and place names of foreign origin usually are written without accents.Note that some publications and signs do not use accent marks over capital letters, althoughit is normally best to use them when possible.Capital lettersIn Spanish, days, months, languages and nationalities do not use a capital letter. Only namesof people and places do. 10
  11. 11. Basic Phrases (Spanish – English)Hola - HiMe llamo... - My name is...Encantado, -a - Nice to meet youSí - YesNo - NoHablo un poco - I speak a littleen español - in Spanishen inglés - in EnglishAdiós - GoodbyeGracias - Thank youpor favor - pleaseel hotel - the hotel¿Tiene...? - Have you got...?una habitación - a roomdoble - doubleindividual - singleel baño - the bathroom¿Para cuántos días? - For how many days?Tengo una reserva - I have a reservation¿Su nombre? - Your name?¿Su pasaporte? - Your passport?¿Qué va a tomar? - What would you like?un bocadillo - a filled rolluna tortilla española - a Spanish omeletteunas patatas fritas - chipsde primero - as first coursede segundo - as second course 11
  12. 12. el menú - the menu¿Para beber? - And to drink?una cerveza - a beerun vino tinto - a glass of red wineun vaso de agua - a glass of waterla cuenta - the bill¿Hay... por aquí? - Is there... around here?un supermercado - a supermarketuna farmacia - a chemistsabierto - opencerrado - closed¿Tiene...? - Have you got...?¿Qué talla? - What size?grande - bigpequeño - small¿Cuánto cuesta? - How much does it cost?¿Algo más? - Anything else?Perdón - Excuse me¿Dónde está? - Where is?todo recto - straight aheadenfrente - oppositea la izquierda - on the lefta la derecha - on the rightEstá cerca - Its nearbyEstá lejos - Its far awayun billete para... - a ticket to...de ida - one wayde ida y vuelta - returnSoy principiante. - I’m a beginner.Tengo un nivel...medio/avanzado. - Im intermediate/advanced. 12
  13. 13. Common phrases (English –Spanish)Can you help me? - ¿Me puede ayudar?; ¿Me ayuda por favor?Do you speak English? - ¿Hablas inglés?Do you understand English? - ¿Entiende el inglés?Good afternoon - Buenas tardesGood-bye. - Adiós.Good evening - Buenas nochesGood morning - Buenos diasGood night - Buenas nochesHappy birthday! - Feliz cumpleaños!Happy New Year! - Feliz Año Nuevo!Hello - ¡hola!Help me please. - Ayúdeme por favor.How? - ¿Cómo?How are you? - ¿Cómo estás?How do you say...? - ¿Cómo se dice...?How much does it cost? - ¿Cuánto es?How old are you? - ¿Cuántos años tienes?I am... - Estoy...I am called...(My name is...) - Me llamo...I am from... - Soy de...I am fine. - Estoy bien.I am happy. - Estoy alegre.I am hungry. - Tengo hambre.I am lost. - Estoy perdido.I am sad. - Estoy triste.I am sick. - Estoy enfermo.I dont know. - No lo sé.I dont like it. - No me gusta.I dont speak Spanish. - No hablo español.I dont understand.No entiendo. - No comprendo.I have... - Tengo...I like it. - Me gusta.I love you. - Te amo.I need a doctor. - Necesito un médico.I would like... - Me gustaria...maybe - quizáMy name is... - Me llamo...Nice to meet you. - Encantado de conocerle. Mucho gusto.no - noplease - por favorPleased to meet you. - Encantado de conocerle.Please help me. - Ayúdeme, por favor.Please repeat that. - ¿Podria repetir, por favor?See you later. - Hasta luego.Thank you. - Gracias.what - qué 13
  14. 14. What is your name? - ¿Cómo te llamas?What time is it? - ¿Que hora es? ??when - cuándowhere - dóndewhich - cuálWhere are you from? - ¿De dónde eres?Where is the bathroom? - ¿Donde esta el baño? ??who - quién ??why - por quéyes - siYoure welcome. - De nada.Conversation practiceWhos there? - ¿Quién es?What is your name? - ¿Cómo te llamas?What is your mothers name? - ¿Cómo se llama tu madre?What is your fathers name? - ¿Cómo se llama tu padre?How do you spell your name? - ¿Cómo se escribe tu nombre?How are you? - ¿Cómo está?Where are you from? - ¿De dónde viene?Where do you live? - ¿Dónde vives?Where were you born? - ¿Dónde nació usted?How old are you? - ¿Cuántos años tienes?Do you have brothers or sisters? - ¿Tienes tú hermanos o hermanas?Do you have any pets (animals) at home? - ¿Tiene usted mascotas en casa?How many people are in your family? - ¿Cuántas personas hay en tu familia?What is your telephone number? - ¿Cuál es su número de teléfono?What time is it? - ¿Qué hora es?What day is it today? - ¿Qué día es hoy?What day was yesterday? - ¿Qué día fue ayer?What day is tomorrow? - ¿Qué día es mañana?What is the date? - ¿Cuál es la fecha de hoy? 14
  15. 15. When do you eat lunch? - ¿A qué hora comes tú el almuerzo?Whats the weather like? - ¿Qué tiempo hace?How many are there? - ¿Cuánto hay?How much is that? - ¿Cuánto cuesta eso? or ¿Cuánto es?What color is this? - ¿Qué color es?What is your favorite color? - ¿Cuál es tu color favorito?What is this? - ¿Qué es esto?Do you have any questions? - ¿Tiene algunas preguntas?Do you understand? - ¿Entiende? or ¿Comprende?Can you repeat that, please? - ¿Me lo repite, por favor?Do you speak English? - ¿Hablas inglés?Where is it? - ¿Dónde está?Where are you going? - ¿Adónde va usted?Why is that? - Y eso ¿por qué?Why not? - ¿Por qué no?Whose is that? - ¿De quién es eso?What would you like? - ¿Qué desea?Can you help me please? - ¿Puede usted ayudarme, por favor?Where is the bathroom? - ¿Dónde esta el baño?GreetingsHola - Hello, hiHola, aló, jaló, bueno, al, diga - Hello (on the telephone). - varies with location.Adiós - Goodbye (An informal alternative in some areas is chau from Italian).¿Cómo estás? ¿Cómo está? - How are you?Muy bien, gracias - Very well, thank youBuenos días - Good day, good morning (sometimes a shortened form, buen día, is used.)Buenas tardes - Good afternoon (also used in the early evening)Buenas noches - Good night (can be used as a greeting as well as a farewell). 15
  16. 16. ¿Cómo te va? ¿Cómo le va? ¿Qué tal? ¿Qué hay? - Hows it going? Whats happening?¿Qué pasa? - Whats happening?¿Qué hubo? ¿Qué onda? - How is it going? Whats happening? (common in Mexico).¿Cómo te llamas? ¿Cómo se llama usted? - Whats your name?Me llamo … - My name is ...Mucho gusto. Encantado. - Its a pleasure to meet you.Bienvenido, bienvenida, bienvenidos, bienvenidas – Welcome(Note the difference in number and gender. Bienvenido would be used with a man,bienvenida with a woman, bienvenidas with a group of all females, and bienvenidos withmales or a mixed group).NumbersThere are two kinds of numbers: cardinal and ordinal.Cardinal numbers are the numbers used for counting:0 cero1 uno/a2 dos3 tres4 cuatro5 cinco6 seis7 siete8 ocho9 nueve10 diez11 once12 doce13 trece14 catorce15 quince16 dieciséis17 diecisiete18 dieciocho19 diecinueve20 veinte21 veintiuno/a22 veintidós30 treinta31 treinta y uno/a 16
  17. 17. 40 cuarenta50 cincuenta60 sesenta70 setenta80 ochenta90 noventa100 cien(to)101 ciento uno200 doscientos/as300 trescientos/as400 cuatrocientos/as500 quinientos/as600 seiscientos/as700 setecientos/as800 ochocientos/as900 novecientos/as1.000 mil1.500 mil quinientos2.000 dos mil1.000.000 un millónUno in compound numbers loses the -o before masculine nouns, whether singular or plural:treinta y un días (thirty-one days).Dates (months and years) are cardinal numbers in Spanish, except for the first of the month:El 9 (nueve) de marzo de 1995 (mil novecientos noventa y cinco) (the ninth of October,1995); BUT Hoy es el primero de octubre (Today is October first).Note that Spanish reverses the English usage of commas and periods in numbers: 1.250kilómetros = 1,250 kilometers; 1,25 litros = 1.25 liters.Ordinal Numbersprimer(o)/a - firstsegundo/a - secondtercer(o)/a - thirdcuarto/a - fourthquinto/a - fifthsexto/a - sixthséptimo/a - seventhoctavo/a - eighthnoveno/a - ninthdécimo/a - tenth 17
  18. 18. After ten, cardinal numbers are generally used to indicate the ordinals: Alfonso Trece(Alfonso the Thirteenth); el siglo veinte (the twentieth century).Vocabulary (grouped by topics)Days of the weekSunday - domingoMonday - lunesTuesday - martesWednesday – miercolesThursday - juevesFriday - viernesSaturday - sabadoMonths of the yearJanuary - eneroFebruary – febreroMarch - marzoApril - abrilMay - mayoJune - junioJuly - julioAugust - agostoSeptember - septiembreOctober - octubreNovember - noviembreDecember - diciembreShapes - Las Formasarch - el arcoblock - el cubocircle - el círculocone - el conocrescent - crecientecube - el cubocylinder - el cilindrodiamond - romboellipse - la elipse 18
  19. 19. hemisphere - el hemisferiohexagon - el hexágonooctagon - el octágonoorb - el orbeoval - el óvalopentagon - el pentágonopolygons - polígonospyramid - la pirámide .point - el puntorectangle - el rectángulosemicircle - semicirculoshapes - las formassphere - esferaspiral - el espiralsquare - el cuadradostar - la estrellatrapezoid - trapezoidetriangle - el triángulowedge - la cuñazigzag - el zigzagAdjectivesafraid - asustadoalike - parecido/parecidaall - todoangry - enojadoasleep - dormidobeautiful - bella (female), bello (male)big - grandeblack - negroblue - azulbright - luminosobrown - marrónclean - limpioclosed - cerradocute - linda (female), lindo (male)dirty - sucioearly - tempranoempty - vacío/vacíaevery - cadafast - rápidofat - gordo/gordafrightened - asustadofull - lleno/llenagray - grisgreen - verdehappy - contenta/contentohealthy - saludablehot - calientehungry - hambrientolarge - grandelast - último/últimalate - tarde 19
  20. 20. left - izquierdaloud - fuertelittle - pequeñita/pequeñitolost - perdidoless - menosmad - enojadomany - muchos more - másnarrow - estrecho, angostoopen - abiertoorange - anaranjadooutdoors - al aire libreover - sobrepink - rosa, rosadopurple - moradoquiet - callado/calladared - rojosad - tristescared - asustado, temerososlow - lenta/lentosmall - pequeña/pequeñosick - enferma/enfermoshort - baja/bajotall - alta/altothin - delgadougly - feounhappy - infelizupside down - a revésviolet - violetawhite - blancowide - anchoyellow - amarilloyoung - jovenVerbsto be afraid - tener miedobreak - romperburn - quemarseclap - aplaudircry - llorardance - bailardraw - dibujardrink - beber, tomareat - comererase - borrarexercise - ejercicioto fish - pescarfly - volargive - darhear - oírjog - trotarjuggle - hacer juegos malabaresjump - saltar 20
  21. 21. kneel - arrodillarseknit - tejerlaugh - reírleak - tener goteraslearn - aprenderto love - amar(to send by) mail - enviar par correopaint - pintarplay - jugarpull - tirarpush - empujarrake - rastrillarread - leerreceive - recibirrun - correrscare - sustoscream - gritarsee - versew - cosersing - cantarsit - sentarsesleep - dormirsmile - la sonrisaspeak - hablarstaple - sujetar con grapastop - parartalk - hablarteach - enseñarthank - agradecer, dar las graciasthink - pensarthrow - tirar, aventar, echartickle - hacer cosquillasunderstand - comprenderwalk - caminar, andarwave - saludar a alguien con la manoweep - llorarwiggle - contonear, menear(make a) wish - pedir un deseowork - trabajarwrite - escribiryell - gritarPrepositionsabove - arriba de, sobrearound - alrededor debehind - detrás debetween - entrein - enin front of - delante deinside - dentro 21
  22. 22. on top of - encima deover - sobreunder - debajo deAnimalsalligator - el caimánanimals - los animalesant - la hormigaantelope - el antílopeantler - el astaape - el monoaquarium - el acuariobarn - el establobat - el murciélagobeak - el picobear - el osobeaver - el castorbee - la abejabeetle - el escarabajobird - el pájaroblackbird - el mirlobluebird - azulejobuffalo - el búfalobug - bichobunny - el conejitobutterfly - la mariposabull - el torocage - la jaulacamel - el camellocanary - el canariocat - el gatocaterpillar - la orugachick - el pollitochicken - el pollochimpanzee - el chimpancéchipmunk - la ardilla listadacicada - la cigarraclaw - la zarpa, la garracobweb - la telarañacocoon - el capullocoral - coralinocow - la vacacoyote - el coyotecrab - el cangrejocrane - la grullacrocodile - el cocodrilocrow - el cuervodeer - el venadodinosaur - el dinosauriodog - el perro 22
  23. 23. doghouse - perreradolphin - el delfíndonkey - el burrodove - la palomadragon - el dragóndragonfly - la libéluladuck - el patoduckling - el patitoeagle - el águilaearthworm - lombriz de tierraeel - la anguilaegg - el huevoelephant - el elefanteelk - alcefarm - la granja/la fincafeather - la plumafin - la aletafish - el pez, el pescadofish bowl - la pecerato fish - pescarfishing rod - caña de pescarflamingo - el flamencofly - la moscafox - el zorrofrog - la ranagazelle - la gacelagiraffe - la jirafagoat - la cabragoose - el gansogorilla - el gorilagrasshopper - el saltamonteshamster - la marmota, la rata del trigohedgehog - el erizohen - la gallinahippopotamus - el hipopótamohive - la colmenahog - el cerdohoneycomb - el panal de mielhorn - el cuernohornet - avispónhorse - el caballohorseshoe - la herradurahummingbird - el colibríhyena - la hienahoof - el cascoinsect - el insectojaguar - el jaguarjay - el arrendajojellyfish - la medusakangaroo - el cangurokitten - el gatitokoala - el koalaladybug - la mariquitalamb - el corderolion - el leónlizard - la lagartija 23
  24. 24. llama - la llamalobster - la langostamacaw - el guacamayomammal - el mamíferomammoth - el mamutmarsupial - el marsupialmermaid - la sirenamonkey - el monomonster - el monstruomoose - el alcemosquito - el mosquito, el zancudomoth - la polilla/la mariposa nocturnamouse el ratónmuskrat el ratón almizcleromutt - el bobonandu - ñandúnest - el nidonet - la rednewt - el tritónoctopus - el pulpoorangutan - el orangutánostrich - el avestruzotter - la nutriaowl - el búho, la lechuzaparrot - el loro, el papagayopeacock - el pavo realpenguin - el pingüinopet - el animal domésticopig - el cerdopigeon la paloma/pichónpupa - la crisálidapuppy - el cachorroquail - la codornizquetzal - el quetzalrabbit - el conejoraccoon - el mapacherat - la ratareindeer - el renorhinoceros - el rinoceronteroach - la cucaracharoadrunner - el correcaminorobin - el petirrojorooster - el galloscorpion - el alacránsea gull - la gaviotaseahorse - caballito de marseal - la focashark - el tiburónsheep - la oveja, carneroshell - conchashrimp - el camaronskeleton - el esqueletoskull - el cráneosnail - el caracolsnake - la culebra/la serpientespider - la araña 24
  25. 25. squid - el calamarsponge - la esponjasquirrel - la ardillastable - el establostingray - rayaswan - el cisnetadpole - el renacuajotail - la colatern - golondrinatiger - el tigretoad - el sapotoucan - el toucantrunk - la trompaturtle - la tortugaunicorn - el unicorniovulture - el buitrewalrus - el walruswasp - la avispaweasel - comadrejaweb - telaraña, tela de arañawhale - la ballenawolf - el lobowoodpecker - el pájaro carpinteroworm - el gusanoyak - yaczebra - la cebrazoo - el parque zoológicozoologist - zoólogoFamily - Familiafather - papámother - mamáfather - el padremother - la madrefathers or parents - los padresson - hijodaughter - hijasons, sons and daughters, or children - los hijosbrother - hermanosister - hermanabrothers, or brothers and sisters - los hermanosgodfather - padrinogodmother - madrinahusband - esposowife - esposa 25
  26. 26. RelationshipsEstoy enamorado/estoy enamorada - I am in loveTengo novio - I have a boyfriend, sweetheartTengo novia - I have a girlfriend, sweetheartTe mando una carta - I send a card to youLe mando una carta - I send a card to her/himQuerido Juan - Dear JohnQuerida María - Dear Mary¿Por qué no me escribes? - Why dont you write to me?Te echo de menos - I miss you¿Me echas de menos? - Do you miss me?¿Estás enfadada? - Are you angry?Te quiero. Te amo - I love you¿Me quieres? ¿Me amas? - Do you love me?Estoy celoso - I am jealousTe adoro apasionadamente - I adore you passionatelyTe quiero con toda mi alma - I love you with all my soul¡Quiéreme o me muero! - Love me or I shall die!Eres mi héroe/heroína - You are my hero/heroineCon cariño - With affectionCariñosamente - AffectionatelyCon amor - With loveBesos - KissesAbrazos - HugsPersonalityambitious - ambiciosoannoying - pesadoargumentative, quarrelsome - discutidorbad-tempered - malhumoradobig-headed - creído, engreídobitchy - de mala leche, venenoso;brave - valientecantankerous - cascarrabiascarefree - despreocupadocareless - descuidado, poco cuidadosocautious - prudente, cauteloso, cauto;charming - encantadorcheerful - alegre, jovial;conceited, full of oneself - presumidoconservative - conservadorconventional - convencionalcowardly - cobardecrazy, nuts - loco, chiflado 26
  27. 27. cruel - crueldull, boring - soso, aburridoflirtatious - coquetafriendly - amigable, simpático, agradablegenerous - generosohard-working - trabajadorhonest - honestokind - amablelaid-back - tranquilo, relajadolazy - perezoso, vagoloyal - fielmean - tacañomodest - modestomoody - de humor cambiantenaive - ingenuo, inocentónnaughty - (children) malo, travieso (niños)narrow-minded - de mentalidad cerrada, intoleranteopen-minded - de actitud abierta, sin prejuiciospious - piadosopolite - cortés, educadoproud - orgullosoreliable - fiable, confiable: es una persona en la que se puede confiarself-confident: to be self-confident seguro de sí mismo: tener confianza en sí mismoselfish - egoístasensible - sensato, prudente;sensitive - sensibleshy, introverted - tímido, vergonzoso - introvertidostrict - estricto, severo, rigurosostubborn - terco, testarudo, tozudosympathetic (understanding) - comprensivotalkative - conversador, habladortrustworthy - digno de confianzatwo-faced, false - falsoweird - raro, extrañoColoursamarillo - yellowanaranjado - orangeazul - blueblanco - whitedorado - goldengris - graymarrón - brown 27
  28. 28. negro - blackpúrpura - purplerojo - redrosado - pinkverde - greenbeige, beis - beigecereza - cherry-coloredchocolate - chocolate-coloredesmerelda - emeraldgrana - dark redhumo - smokylila - lilacmalva - mauvemostaza - mustard-colorednaranja - orangeoro - goldpaja - straw-coloredrosa - pinkturquesa - turquoisevioleta – violetWhat color is it? - ¿Que color es este?What is your favorite colour? - ¿Cuál es tu color favorito?Note that the form changes depending on the number and gender of whats being described:Tengo un coche amarillo. (I have one yellow car.) Tiene dos coches amarillos. (He has twoyellow cars.) Tienes una flor amarilla. (You have a yellow flower.) Tenemos diez floresamarillas. (We have ten yellow flowers.)Body partsarm - el brazo 28
  29. 29. back - la espaldabackbone - la columna vertebralbrain - el cerebro, el sesobreast, chest - el pechobuttocks - las nalgascalf - la pantorrillaear - el oído, la orejaelbow - el codoeye - el ojofinger - el dedofoot - el piehair - el pelohand - la manohead - la cabezaheart - el corazónhip - la caderaintestine - el intestino knee - la rodillaleg - la piernaliver - el hígadomouth - la bocamuscle - el músculoneck - el cuellonose - la narizpenis - el peneshoulder - el hombroskin - la pielstomach (abdomen) - el vientrestomach (internal organ) - el estómagothigh - el muslothroat - la garganta 29
  30. 30. toe - el dedotongue - la lenguatooth - el diente, la muelavagina - la vaginaPhysical appearanceHe has blue eyes = tiene los ojos azulesHe is bald = Es calvoface - la cara/el rostrofacial features - rasgosshe has a thin face - tiene la/una cara delgadaan oval face - una cara ovaladaround face - una cara redondaclean-shaven - bien afeitadobloated face - una cara hinchada/abotagada/abotargadacherubic face - una cara angelicalchubby face - una cara regordetechubby-cheeked - mofletudochubby/podgy face - una cara rechoncha, regordete, gordinflonahe had a weather-beaten face - tenía un rostro curtidoface lift - un lifting, un estiramiento facialshe has freckles - tiene pecas, es pecosaspots/pimples - granosblackheads - espinillasmoles - lunareswarts - verrugaswrinkles - arugasrosy cheeks - mejillas sonrosadasacne - acnebirthmark - un antojo/una mancha de nacimientodouble chin - una papadahollow cheeks - las mejillas hundidasdimple - un hoyuelosmooth-cheeked/smooth-faced - lampiñodeadpan face - una cara de póquer/de palodoleful face - una cara compungidasad face - una cara tristeserious face - una cara seriasmiling face - una cara sonrientehappy face - una cara alegresmooth-cheeked/smooth-faced - lampiñogo red in the face (with anger/heat) - ponerse colorado/rojogo red/to blush (with embarassment) - sonrojarse/ruborizarsehe looks worried parece preocupadofrightened asustadosurprised sorprendidosmile una sonrisasmirk una sonrisitafrown el ceño fruncidonose = la nariz 30
  31. 31. bulbous nose - una nariz protuberantehooked nose - una nariz aguileñabig nose - una nariz grandeturned-up/snub nose - una nariz respingonaa pointed nose - una nariz puntiagudaa flat nose/a pug nose - una nariz chataa lopsided nose - una nariz ladeada/torcidaa hooter/conk (fam) - una napiaflare your nostrils/to snort - resoplar/bufarWeatherWhen talking about the weather in Spanish use "hace" and "hay"instead of English "to be"It is sunny - Hace solIt is hot - Hace calorIt is very windy - Hace / Hay mucho vientoTalking about weatherwhat’s the weather like? - "¿qué tiempo hace?" or "¿cómo está el tiempo?"tomorrow will be dry - mañana hará tiempo secothere’s been a change in the weather - ha cambiado el tiempolet’s hope the weather holds out - esperemos que no nos falle el tiempothe weather spoiled our plans - el tiempo nos estropeó los planesit looks like its going to rain - parece que va a lloverthe bad weather is still with us - seguimos con mal tiempothe garden could do with a bit of rain - al jardín le vendría bien que lloviera un pocoyou get better weather on the south coast - en la costa sur hace mejor tiempo;weather permitting - si hace buen tiempowe’re hoping for good weather while we’re on holiday - esperamos tener buen tiempodurante las vacacionesI don’t like the look of the weather - no me gusta cómo se está poniendo el tiempobreeze - una brisaclap of thunder, a thunderclap - un truenoclear sky/day - un cielo/día despejadoclear up - despejarclimate - el climacloud - una nubecloudburst - un chaparróncloudburst - un chaparrón, un aguacerocold front - un frente fríodamp - húmedo 31
  32. 32. degree - gradodepression - una depresión atmosférica, una borrascadew - el rocío , el serenodownpour - un chaparrón, un turbióndrizzle / to drizzle (nm) - llovizna / lloviznarflash of lightning - un relámpagoflashes of lightning - un relampagueoflood - una inundaciónflood (v) - inundarfog -la nieblaforce nine gale - vientos de fuerza nueveforked lightning - una culebrinafrost - escarchafrost (v) - helarfrosty night - una noche de heladagale - un viento fuerte, una vendavalgale-force winds - los vientos de tormentagust of wind - una rachahail (v) - granizarhailstones - los granizos, las piedras de granizohailstorm - una granizadahaziness - la nebulosidad, lo neblinosohe was struck by lightning - le cayó un rayoheat wave - una ola de calorhot - cálidohumid - húmedohumidity - la humedadhurricane - un huracáninstability/changeability - inestabilidadit’s cloudy - hace nubes or está nubladoit’s drizzling - está lloviznandoit’s foggy - hay nieblait’s frosty - está heladoit’s hot - hace calorit’s misty - hay neblinait’s muggy / clammy / close - está abochornadoit’s raining - está lloviendoit’s sleeting - cae aguanieveit’s snowing - está nevadoit’s sunny - hace solit’s windy - hace viento, está ventosoIts chilly today - hace fresquito hoylight covering of snow - una fina capa de nievelow/high-pressure - de bajas/altas presionesmist - la neblinarain (v) - lloverrain -la lluviascattered showers - chubascos aisladossea breeze - una brisa marinasea mist - la brumashower - un chaparrón, un chubascosleet - aguanieve f.sleet showers - chubascos de aguanievesnow - la nievesnow (v) - nevarsnowball - una bola de nieve 32
  33. 33. storm - una tormenta, un temporalstormy day - un día tormentosostreak of lightning - un rayosun - el solsunny day - un día soleadosunny spell - un clarosunstroke - insolacióntemperature - la temperaturathaw - un deshielothaw (v) - deshelarthunder - los truenosthundercloud - un nubarrónto become muggy - abochornarseto rain cats and dogs - llover a cántarosto ride out the storm - capear el temporalturbulence - la turbulenciaunsettled weather - un tiempo revueltoweather - el tiempoweather forecast - la previsión del tiempo para mañanaweather vane - una veletawind - el vientoGrammarRegular VerbsIn spanish there are three different kinds of regular verbs, these can be characterized by theending of the infinitive.-ar -er -irAn infinative is represented in the english language by the word to: to be, to have, to learn, tospeak, and to buy. These are all infinitive forms of english verbs. The following table lists theconjugation for these Regular Verbs, with examples for each. llamar comer abriryo llamo como abrotu llamas comes abresel/ella llama come abrenosotros llamamos comemos abrimosvosotros llamáis coméis abrísellos/ellas llaman comen abrenIrregular VerbsPresent Tense ir hacer estaryo voy hago estoytu vas haces estás 33
  34. 34. el / ella va hace estánosotros vamos hacemos estamosvosotros vais hacéis estáisellos / ellas van hacen estánNote: For more info about verbs look under: TensesArticlesThe definite article (artículo definido) agrees in gender and number with the noun it modifiesand has four forms:Masculine el (singular) los (plural)Feminine la (singular) las (plural)Examples: el río (the river); los refrescos (the refreshments); la guitarra (the guitar); las faltas(the mistakes).Definite articles are often used in Spanish where English would omit them, for example:1) with abstract nouns: El amor es una fuerza irresistible (Love is an irresistible force)2) with nouns used in a general sense: Prefiero los caballos (I prefer horses)3) with parts of the body and articles of clothing: Tengo el brazo roto (I have a broken arm)4) with titles, except in direct address: El señor García está aquí (Mr. Garcia is here) butBuenos días, señor García (Hello, Mr. Garcia)Neuter article (artículo neutro) lo can be used before an adjective (or a past participle usedadjectivally) to make it function as a noun: lo humano (that which is human); lo dicho (thatwhich has been said).Note: Do not confuse the neuter article lo with the masculine singular direct object pronounlo: Lo vi en la calle (I saw it in the street).The indefinite article (artículo indefinido): un for the masculine singular and una for thefeminine singular. It agrees with the noun it modifies: un médico bueno (a good doctor); unalengua bella (a beautiful language). The plural forms unos and unas mean some or a few:Tengo unos libros buenos (I have some good books); Dénos unas naranjas, por favor (Giveus some oranges, please).Note:For feminine nouns beginning with a stressed a sound use the masculine definite articlein the singular e.g.: El alma es un fin, no un medio (The soul is an end, not a means); butLas almas quieren hacerse inmortales (Souls long to become immortal).GenderThe nouns in Spanish can have either of 2 genders (género): masculine (masculino) orfeminine (femenino).The gender of many nouns can be determined by their meaning or their ending. The gender 34
  35. 35. of other nouns must be learned individually. The best way to memorize the gender of wordsis to memorize the article when learning a new word.la chica (the girl) feminineel hombre (the man) masculineIn general masculine nouns end in -o and feminine nouns end in -a; but watch out forexceptions:el día (the day), la mano (the hand), and masculine nouns ending in -ma (of Greekderivation): el idioma (the language); el poema (the poem); el clima (the climate).El policía mató a tiros al ladrón (The policeman gunned down the thief); La actriz se veíapobre y sin amigos (The actress found herself poor and friendless).Nouns ending in -ista are masculine, unless referring to a woman: un comunista (acommunist); un pianista ( pianist).Nouns ending in -ad, -ud, -ión are feminine: la ciudad (the city); la juventud (youth); ladirección (the address).In Spanish, nouns, pronouns, adjectives and articles are gender-related.Ella compró una casa bonita (She bought a pretty house).Plural nouns of mixed gender take the masculine: Los niños están enfermos (The childrenare ill).Knowing the gender of every noun is important not only for the noun itself, but for thespelling and pronunciation of the words it influences in a sentence: adjectives, articles,participles, and pronouns. They agree in the gender and in the number with the noun.PluralsThe plural of nouns and adjectives is regularly formed by adding -s to words ending in avowel and -es to words ending in a consonant: Tiene los ojos negros (He has dark eyes);Prefiero las canciones de cuna (I prefer lullabies).Words ending with z change to c in the plural: Encienda la luz (Turn on the light); Desdeaquí podemos ver las luces de la ciudad (From here we can see the lights of the city).ContractionsThere are only two contractions (contracciones) in Spanish: al and del.Al = a (to, for, at by) + el (masculine article) 35
  36. 36. Vamos al mercado (Lets go to the store); Al entrar en la clase, la profesora comenzó ahablar (Upon entering the classroom, the professor began to speak).Del = de (of, from, with) + el (masculine article): ¿Qué piensas del nuevo profesor? (Whatdo you think of the new teacher?).Note: The preposition a and de does not contract with the personal pronoun él: Se lo doy aél (I give it to him).AdjectivesAn adjective (adjetivo) agrees in gender and number with the noun it describes.Like nouns, adjectives generally end in -o for the masculine (plural -os) and -a for thefeminine (plural -as): un libro bueno (a good book); muchos estudiantes (many students);una costumbre francesa (a French custom); otras habitaciones (other rooms).Some adjectives whose masculine singular ends in a consonant form the feminine by adding-a: un muchacho francés (a French boy); una muchacha francesa (a French girl); un baileencantador (a charming dance); una canción encantadora (a charming song).Other adjectives ending in a consonant have the same form for both masculine and feminine:un hombre joven (a young man), una mujer joven (a young woman); unos bailes populares(some popular dances), unas canciones populares (some popular songs).In Spanish adjectives are used usually after the nouns t(unlike English): un día lluvioso (arainy day).When used before the noun, such adjectives change meaning, acquiring a less literal sense:Hay que dar limosna a un hombre pobre (One must give alms to a poor man); but El pobrehombre está con un pie en la fosa (The poor guy has one foot in the grave).Adjectives precede the nouns they modify whenever they:1) express an essential or characteristic quality: la dulce miel (the sweet honey;las verdes hojas (the green leaves);2) point out, limit or quantify: este hombre (this man); su marido (her husband);menos caliente (less hot); dos lecciones (two lessons).Adjectives can be used as nouns, in which case they take a definite article: Losricos también tienen sus problemas (Rich people have their problems, too). Adjectives areoccasionally used adverbially: Vive feliz en la ciudad (He lives happily in the city).AdverbsMany adverbs (adverbios) are formed from adjectives, by adding the suffix -mente to thefeminine singular form: Ella es muy rica (She is very rich); Está ricamente vestida (She isrichly dressed).In a series of adverbs, only the last one takes the -mente suffix, while the other adverbs 36
  37. 37. have the form of feminine adjectives: Escribe clara, rápida y correctamente (She writesclearly, quickly and correctly).ComparisonThe comparative (comparativo) of an adjective or adverb is formed by preceding it withmás (more) or menos (less): Esta lección es más fácil (This lesson is easier); Lo puedohacer más fácilmente (I can do it more easily).The superlative (superlativo) of an adjective is formed by adding the definite article tothe comparative form: Esta lección es la más fácil (This lesson is the easiest one).The superlative of an adverb is expressed by adding the neuter article lo to the comparativeform: lo más fácilmente (the most easily).The superlative of a noun is expressed by mejor (best) and peor (worst) preceded by theappropriate definite article: la mejor respuesta (the best answer).The absolute sperlative (superlativo absoluto) of an adjective indicates a high degree ofsome quality, rather than a comparison.It is formed by adding the suffix -ísimo/a to the adjective or adverb: Es una mujer riquísima(She is an extremely wealthy woman); Esta riquísimamente vestida (She is very richlydressed).Ser and EstarSer and estar both mean to be. Ser is used to express what something is, while estarexpresses where or how it is: Nosotros éramos buenos amigos (We were good friends);Miguel está en la oficina (Michael is in the office); Pablo está enfermo (Paul is sick).Estar is also used with the present participle to form the progressive tenses, present andpast. Examples: Juan está estudiando (John is studying); Ellos estaban bailando el tango(They were dancing the Tango).Tú and UstedTú (the plural vosotros/as is used exclusively in Spain) is the second person pronoun(English "you"). It is used for the familiar form of address when speaking to family members,close friends, children and pet animals: ¿Te sientes bien? (Do you feel okay?).The polite form of the second person pronoun is usted (plural ustedes for both masculineand feminine). It derives from the phrase Vuestra Merced (Your Grace), and is thereforeabbreviated either Vd. or Ud. (plural Vds. or Uds.). Although it indicates the second personmode of address, usted is conjugated with third person verb forms (English "he/she/it"). This 37
  38. 38. lends a respectful sense of distance to the conversation: ¿Sigue Ud. estudiando el español?(Do you continue studying Spanish?).PrepositionsPrepositions (preposiciones) are the connecting words that show the relationships betweenwords in the sentence. Nouns, pronouns, noun phrases, gerunds or noun clauses can be thecomplement of the prepositions:Simple prepositions in Spanish include the following:a to, atcon withcontra againstde of, fromdesde from, sincedurante duringen in, onentre betweenhacia towardhasta untilpara for, in order topor for, bysin withoutsobre overtras afterVamos a Madrid. We are going to Madrid.Viene con su hermano. - Shes coming with her brother.Quiero gasolina sin plomo. - I want unleaded gasoline.ConjunctionsConjunctions (conjunciones) join words, phrases and clauses together.The most commonly used conjunction in Spanish is y (and). con su espada y con su pluma (with his sword and his pen)Other commonly used conjunctions:o orni norpero but 38
  39. 39. InterjectionsAn interjection (interjección) is a word or expression. Interjections are rarely used in formal orbusiness writing. In print interjection is usually followed by exclamation mark or a coma:Note that in Spanish each interjection uses ¡ in front and ! at the end of the word:¡ay! -oh!, ouch! ¡por Dios! -for goodness sakes!SentencesA sentence consists of the subject (the topic of the sentence) and the predicate (what is saidabout the subject).Yo compro suéteres en el Rastro.(I buy sweaters in the Rastro.)Yo (I) is the subject of the sentence and compro suéteres (buy sweaters) is the predicate.The most common forms of subject are nouns and pronouns Noun phrase and noun clausemay be the subject of a sentence:Los niños en la escuela reciclan las latas. (noun phrase)(The children in the school recycle the cans.)Los toros de Pamplona y los muchachos de Pamplona corren rapidamente. (noun clauses)(The bulls of Pamplone and the boys of Pamplona run fast.)The most common form of predicate is one consisting of the verb of action and direct orindirect object:La niña ve el elefante.(The girl sees the elephant.)Elefante is a direct object of the present tense verb ve.Possessive AdjectivesThe possessive adjectives (adjetivos posesivos) are: 39
  40. 40. mi or mío/a - mytu or tuyo/a - yoursu or suyo/a -his, her, itsnuestro/a - ourvuestro/a - yoursu or suyo/a - theirPossessive adjectives have a short form when they precede the noun and a longer formwhen they follow it: mis amigos (my friends); una amiga mía (a female friend of mine).All these forms add -s to form the plural. They agree in gender and number with the noun:mis libros (my books); nuestras cosas (our things).Note: When referring to clothing, parts of the body, and so on, a definite article is regularlyused instead of a possessive adjective: Tiene algo en la mano (He has something in hishand); Póngase Ud. los zapatos (Put on your shoes).The possessive pronouns (pronombres posesivos) are formed by adding the appropriatedefinite article to the long form of the possessive adjective:el mío, la mía, los míos, las mías (mine)el tuyo, la tuya, los tuyos, las tuyas (yours)el suyo, la suya, los suyos, las suyas (his, hers its)el nuestro, la nuestra, etc. (ours)el vuestro, la vuestra, etc. (yours)el suyo, la suya, etc. (theirs)Possessive pronouns, like possessive adjectives, agree with the thing possessed rather thanwith the possessor: tus cartas y las mías (your letters and mine); su casa y la nuestra (theirhouse and ours).Demonstrative AdjectivesThe DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES (adjetivos demostrativos) are:Masculine Feminine Masculine FeminineSingular Singular Plural Pluraleste esta estos estas (this)ese esa esos esas (that)aquel aquella aquellos aquellas (that)Demonstrative adjectives agree in gender and number with the noun they modify: estos libros(these books); esa bicicleta (that bicycle); aquellos edificios (those buildings).Este refers to something near the speaker; ese refers to something at a distance from the 40
  41. 41. speaker but in the vicinity of the person spoken to; aquel refers to something at a distancefrom both the speaker and the listener.The demonstrative pronouns (pronombres demostrativos) are formed by adding a writtenaccent to the demonstrative adjectives. They agree in gender and number with the nounsthe represent: No prefiero esta mesa; quiero aquélla (I dont like this table; I want that oneover there).The neuter demonstrative pronouns esto, eso and aquello do not have written accents sincethere are no neuter demonstrative adjectives with which they might be confused. Theyalways refer to a general idea, a situation, or an indefinite thing, and never have a specificnoun antecedent: ¿Qué es esto? (Whats this?); La casa es muy pequeña, y él no quiereeso (The house is very little, and he doesnt want that).PronounsThe personal pronouns (pronombres personales) have different forms depending on whetherthey are the subject (sujeto), direct object (objeto directo) or indirect object (objeto indirecto).SUBJECT:First person:Yo - Inosotros/as - weSecond person (familiar)tú - youvosotros/as – you (plural)Second person (polite)usted - youUdstedes – you (plural)Third Personél - he, itellos - theyella -sheellas – theyNote: Subject pronouns (with the exception of Ud.) are regularly omitted, since they can bededuced from the conjugated verb forms: Traigo los refrescos (Im bringing the soft drinks);Tienes razón (Youre right). When the subject pronouns are used, it is in order to emphasizeor clarify: Yo quiero hacer eso (I want to do that myself); Ella cantaba mientras él tocaba laguitarra (She sang while he played the guitar). 41
  42. 42. DIRECT OBJECT:First person:me (me) nos (us)Second person (familiar)te (you) os (you)Second person (polite)le, la (you) los, las (you)Third Personlo (him, it) los (them)la (her, it) las (them)Note: in parts of Spain, le is often used instead of lo for the direct object pronoun meaninghim.INDIRECT OBJECT:First person:me (me) nos (us)Second person (familiar)te (you) os (you)Second person (polite)le (you) les (you)Third Personle (him, her, it) les (them)Object pronouns (direct and indirect) usually precede the verb, but can be attached toinfinitives and present participles, and must be attached to affirmative commands: Lo escriboen español (Im writing it in Spanish); Quiero escribirlo en español or Lo quiero escribir enespañol (I want to write it in Spanish); Estoy escribiéndolo en español or Lo estoyescribiendo en español (Im writing it in Spanish); Escríbalo Ud. en inglés (Write it inEnglish). When a verb has two object pronouns, the indirect object is given first. The indirectobject pronouns le and les change (for reasons of euphony) to se before lo, la, los and las: 42
  43. 43. Deseo dárselo a ellos (I want to give it to them); Se lo quiero enviar a ella (I want to send itto her).Reflexive Pronouns and VerbsThe reflexive pronouns (pronombres reflexivos) are:First person:me (myself) nos (ourselves)Second person (familiar)te (yourself) os (yourselves)Second person (polite)se (yourself) se (yourselves)Third Personse (him, her, itself) se (themselves)Reflexive pronouns are always used with reflexive verbs (verbs expressing an action whosesubject is also its object, i.e. where the doer acts upon himself). Sometimes the literalmeaning of the reflexive pronouns (myself, etc.) can be translated into English, but usuallythey cannot be translated in isolation from the verb: Me lavo (I wash myself); Me acuestomuy tarde (I go to bed very late); Me quejo del trabajo (I complain about the work); Meacuerdo de eso (I remember that); Ya me voy (Im going away now).Reflexive pronouns normally precede the conjugated verb, but are attached to the infinitive,the present participle, and affirmative commands: Quiero lavarme (I want to wash up); Estoylavándome (I am washing myself); Lávense Uds. (Wash yourselves).The reflexive pronouns can also be used in a reciprocal sense, meaning each other: Nosamamos (we love each other); Se escriben todos los días (They write each other every day).Prepositional PronounsThe prepositional pronouns are:First person:mí (me) nosotros/as (us) 43
  44. 44. Second person (familiar)tí (you) vosotros/as (you)Second person (polite)Ud. (you) Uds.(you)Third Personél (him, it) ellos (them)Reflexivesí (him/her/it/yourself, themselves/yourselves)NeuterelloPrepositional pronouns are the object of the preposition that they follow: Es demasiado difícilpara mí (Its too difficult for me); No podemos hacerlo sin ella (We cant do it without her).The neuter pronoun ello is used instead of lo after a preposition, when reference is beingmade to a general idea that has already been expressed: Tendrás buen éxito; no hayninguna duda de ello (Youll be successful; theres no doubt about it).The prepositional pronouns mí, tí and sí combine with the preposition con (with) to becomeconmigo, contigo and consigo: ¿Quieres ir conmigo? (Do you want to come with me?); Lotrae consigo (Hes bringing it with him).Relative PronounsRelative pronouns (pronombres relativos) introduce a subordinate clause and replacesomething mentioned earlier in the sentence. They can function as either subject or objectpronouns without any change in form.The most common relative pronoun is que: El hombre que está hablando es un amigo mío (The man who is talking is a friend of mine); La lección que estudias es muy fácil (Thelesson that youre studying is quite simple).After a preposition, que is used as the relative pronoun for things, quien or quienes forpersons: La habitación en que vivo es muy cómoda (The room in which I live is very cosy);La mujer de quien hablabas es extranjera (The woman about whom you were speaking is aforeigner).The compound relative pronouns el/la que (plural los/las que) or el/la cual (pl. los/las cuales) 44
  45. 45. are used interchangeably after prepositions of more than one syllable, or to avoid confusionand ambiguity: Estos son mis libros, entre los que hay un diccionario de bolsillo (These aremy books, among which there is a pocket dictionary); Ayer fuí al cine con la madre de Juan,la cual es francesa (Yesterday I went to the cinema with Johns mother, who is French).The neuter forms lo que and lo cual are used when the antecedent is a general idea:Siempre dice lo que piensa (He always says what he thinks); Me habló de sus problemas, locual no me gustó (He spoke to me about his troubles, which didnt please me).The relative pronoun cuyo/a (plural cuyos/as) usually functions as an adjective meaningwhose or of which. It can refer to both persons and things, and always agrees in gender andnumber with the thing possessed rather than with the possessor: ¿Te acuerdas de la niñacuyos padres la abandonaron? (Do you remember the little girl whose parents abandonedher?).QuestionsInterrogatives (interrogativos) ask a question, and are distinguished by their written accents.The most common interrogatives are:¿Quién? (Who?) ¿Cuántos? (How many?)¿Qué? (What) ¿Dónde? (Where?)¿Cuál? (Which?) ¿Por qué? (Why?)¿Cómo? (How?) ¿Para qué? (Why?)¿Cuánto?(How much?) ¿Cuándo? (When?)Qué asks for a definition or description (what?), while cuál (plural cuáles) asks for a choice ordistinction (which?): ¿Qué es el alma? (What is the soul?); ¿Cuáles son tus libros favoritos?(Which are your favorite books?). Used in that way, qué and cuál are interrogative pronouns.When an interrogative adjective is required, qué is used for both senses (what? and which?):¿Qué días vas al hipódromo? (Which days do you go to the racetrack?).Note: Interrogatives are also used in indirect questions, where a question is referred towithout being directly asked: No sé quién es (I dont know who she is). The direct questionwas ¿Quién es esa mujer? (Who is that woman?).ExclamationsExclamatory words (exclamaciones) also have written accents. The most common one is¡Qué...! used in front of an adjective, adverb or noun: ¡Qué casa! (What a house!); ¡Quédelicioso! (How delicious!); ¡Qué fácilmente lo haces tú! (How easily you do it!). In literary 45
  46. 46. usage, ¡Cuán...! may replace ¡Qué...!: ¡Cuán fácilmente lo haces tú!When an adjective follows a noun in this construction, it is preceded by más (most) or tan(so): ¡Qué casa más bonita! (What a pretty house!); ¡Qué niños tan alegres! (What happychildren!).NegationThe most common negatives (negativos) are:no (no, not) nunca (never)nada (nothing) jamás (never)nadie (nobody) tampoco (neither)ninguno/a (not any) ni...ni (neither...nor)A verb is negated by placing no in front of it: No sé (I dont know). When there is an objectpronoun in front of the verb, no is placed before the object pronoun: No lo veo (I dont see it).Double negatives are standard in Spanish: No veo a nadie en la calle (I dont see anybody inthe street); No tengo ni papel ni pluma (I dont have either paper or pen). Negatives arealso used in comparisons: Ella escribe mejor que nadie (She writes better than anybody);Ahora lo necesito más que nunca (Now I need it more than ever).Personal AWhen the direct object of a verb is a person or a domestic animal, it is preceded by thepersonal a (la preposición personal a) which has no English equivalent: Veo a mi amigo (Isee my friend); Hay que buscar al perro (We must look for the dog); No invito a nadie (Imnot inviting anyone).The personal a is not used, however, with the verb tener: Tengo un amigo (I have a friend).Verb Conjugations: TensesSpanish verbs belong to one of three conjugations (conjugaciones) which can bedistinguished by the endings of the infinitive forms.First Conjugation -ar: hablar (to talk)Second Conjugation -er: comer (to eat)Third Conjugation -ir: vivir (to live) 46
  47. 47. The form of a verb depends on:1) its conjugation group2) its tense (time reference) and mood (intent)3) the person and number of its subjectSpanish has four simple tenses (tiempos simples):1. Present - presente:hablo (I talk)2. Future - futuro:hablarás (you will talk)3. Imperfect - pretérito imperfecto:hablaba (she used to talk)4. Preterite - pretérito indefinido:hablaron (they talked)There are also four compound tenses (tiempos compuestos):1. Present perfect - préterito perfecto:hemos comido (we have eaten)2. Future perfect - futuro perfecto:habréis comido (you all will have eaten)3. Plusperfect or past perfect - pretérito pluscuamperfecto:habían comido (they had eaten)4.Preterite perfect or past anterior - pretérito anterior:hube comido (I had eaten)There are four moods (modos) in Spanish:1. Indicative - indicativo:To express a fact: 47
  48. 48. Está en el banco (Its in the bank)2. Subjanctive - subjuntivo:To express a wish, an emotional attitude, or a doubt:Quiero que Ud. venga (I want you to come)Siento que no venga Ud. (Im sorry youre not coming)Dudo que venga Ud. (I doubt that youll come)3. Conditional - potencial or condicional:expressing the idea of would:Juan no lo haría así (John wouldnt do it that way)4. Imperative - imperativo:expressing a direct command:Venga Ud. (Come!)Verb Conjugations: Person and NumberA finite verb agrees in person (persona) and number (número) with its subject (the doer of theaction), even when the subject is understood without being expressed by a noun or pronoun.There are two numbers:1. Singular:(Yo) veo a Juan (I see John)(Tú) debes hacerlo (You must do it)Ud. tiene razón (Youre right)(Ella) quiere a su gato (She loves her cat)2. Plural :(Nosotros) vemos el cielo (We see the sky)(Vosotros) debéis trabajar (You all should work)¿Tienen Uds. dinero? (Do you all have money?)(Ellos) quieren comer (They want to eat)There are three persons: First person is the speaker, second person is the one spoken to,and third person is the one spoken about.1. First person(Yo) soy maestro (Im a teacher)(Nosotros) somos alumnos (We are pupils) 48
  49. 49. 2. Second person(Tú) eres guapo (You are good-looking) - singular(Vosotros) sois feos (You all are ugly) - pluralUd. es muy amable (You are very kind) – singular, polite formUds. son muy amables (You all are very kind) – plural, polite formNOTE: The usted/ustedes (polite you) form of address is second person but uses thirdperson verb forms, which lends an air of respectful distance on the part of the speaker.3. Third person(Ella) es trabajadora (She is hard-working)(Ellos) son perezosos (They are lazy)Present TenseThe present tense (presente) of regular verbs is formed by removing the infinitive ending (-ar, -er or -ir) and adding personal endings to the verb stem. There is a different set ofpersonal endings for each of the three conjugations:First conjugation (habl-ar)habl-o (I talk) habl-amos (we talk)habl-as (you talk) habl-áis (you talk)habl-a (she talks) habl-an (they talk)Second conjugation (com-er)com-o (I eat) com-emos (we eat)com-es (you eat) com-éis (you all eat)com-e (she eats) com-en (they eat)Third conjugation (viv-ir)viv-o (I live) viv-imos (we live)viv-es (you live) viv-ís (you live)viv-e (she lives) viv-en (they live) 49
  50. 50. The present tense is commonly used in conversation to refer to actions which will take placein the immediate future: Vengo más tarde (Ill come later). It is sometimes used in literatureto replace the preterite, lending a sense of immediacy to historical narrative: Cortés admira labondad y liberalidad del gran Montezuma (Cortez admired the goodness and generosity ofthe great Montezuma). This is called the vivid present.Future TenseThe future tense (futuro) of regular verbs is formed by adding personal endings to theinfinitive. The endings are the same for all three conjugations.hablar-é (I will talk) comeré, viviré, etc.hablar-ás(you will talk)hablar-á (she will talkhablar-emos (we will talk)hablar-éis (you all will talk)hablar-án (they will talk)In addition to expressing future time, the future tense can express uncertainty or probability inthe present: Serán las cinco (It must be about five oclock).Imperfect TenseThe imperfect tense (pretérito imperfecto) of regular verbs is formed by removing the infinitiveending (-AR, -ER or -IR) and adding personal endings to the verb stem. There is one set ofendings for the first (-AR) conjugation and a second set of endings shared by the second (-ER) and third (-IR) conjugations.FIRST CONJUGATION (habl-ar)habl-aba (I was talking) habl-ábamos (we were talking)habl-abas (you were talking) habl-abais (you all were talking)habl-aba (she was talking) habl-aban (they were talking)SECOND CONJUGATION (com-er)com-ía (I was eating) com-íamos (we were eating)com-ías (you were eating) com-íais (you all were eating)com-ía (she was eating) com-ían (they were eating)THIRD CONJUGATION (viv-ir)viv-ía (I used to live) viv-íamos (we used to live)viv-ías (you used to live) viv-íais (you all used to live)viv-ía (she used to live) viv-ían (they used to live)The imperfect tense is used to describe a situation in the past, or an action which wasongoing or repeated: Eran las once (it was eleven oclock); Queríamos comer bien (Wewanted to eat well); Todos los días llegá bamos tarde (We used to arrive late every day). 50
  51. 51. Preterite TenseThe Preterite tense (pretérito indefinido) of regular verbs is formed by removing the infinitiveending (-AR, -ER or -IR) and adding personal endings to the verb stem. As with theimperfect tense, there is one set of endings for the first (-AR) conjugation and a second set ofendings shared by the second (-ER) and third (-IR) conjugations.FIRST CONJUGATION (habl-ar)habl-é (I talked) habl-amos (we talked)habl-aste (you talked) habl-asteis (you all talked)habl-ó (she talked) habl-aron (they talked)SECOND CONJUGATION (com-er)com-í (I ate) com-imos (we ate)com-iste (you ate) com-isteis (you all ate)com-ió (she ate) com-ieron (they ate)THIRD CONJUGATION (viv-ir)viv-í (I lived) viv-imos (we lived)viv-iste (you lived) viv-isteis (you all lived)viv-ió (she lived) viv-ieron (they lived)The preterite tense narrates an action with a definite beginnning or ending in the past:Comenzó a llover (It began to rain); Juan cenó conmigo ayer (John ate supper with meyesterday).The preterite is also used to indicate an event which took place while another action (in theimperfect tense) was ongoing: Dormía cuando llegué (He was sleeping when I arrived).Perfect TensesThe COMPOUND TENSES (tiempos compuestos) are formed with the AUXILIARY VERB (verbo auxiliar) haber and the PAST PARTICIPLE (participio pasivo) of the main verb. Thepast participle in compound tenses is invariable in form.The PRESENT PERFECT (pretérito perfecto) uses the present tense of the auxiliary verbhaber:he comido (I have eaten)has comido (you have eaten)ha comido (she has eaten)hemos comido (we have eaten)habéis comido (you all have eaten)han comido (they have eaten)The FUTURE PERFECT (futuro perfecto) uses the future tense of the auxiliary verb haber:habré comido (I will have eaten )habrás comido (you will have eaten)habrá comido (she will have eaten) 51
  52. 52. habremos comido (we will have eaten)habréis comido (you all will have eaten)habrán comido (they will have eaten)The PLUPERFECT or PAST PERFECT (pretérito pluscuamperfecto) uses the imperfecttense of haber:había comido (I had eaten)habías comido (you had eaten)había comido (she had eaten)habíamos comido (we had eaten)habíais comido (you all had eaten)habían comido (they had eaten)The PRETERITE PERFECT or PAST ANTERIOR (pretérito anterior) uses the preterite tenseof haber:hube comido (I had eaten)hubiste comido (you had eaten)hubo comido (she had eaten)hubimos comido (we had eaten)hubisteis comido (you all had eaten)hubieron comido (they had eaten)NOTE: This is strictly a literary tense; in conversation, the preterite or pluperfect is used. Thepreterite perfect is only found after conjunctions of time, such as cuando (when), despuésque (after), apenas (scarcely) or luego que (as soon as): Después que hube comido, salí(After I had eaten, I went out).The PERFECT INFINITIVE (infinitivo compuesto) is composed of the infinitive of haber andthe past participle of the verb: haber comido (to have eaten).The PERFECT PARTICIPLE (gerundio compuesto) is composed of the present participle ofhaber and the past participle of the verb: habiendo comido (having eaten).Conditional MoodThe CONDITIONAL MOOD (modo potencial) expresses the idea of would (contingentpossibility): Lo haría hoy, pero no tendré tiempo (I would do it today, but I wont have time);Lo habría hecho ayer, pero no tenía tiempo (I would have done it yesterday, but I didnt havetime); Elena dijo que vendría (Elena said that she would come).It can also be used to express wonderment or doubt in the past, just as the future tense canbe used in the present: ¿Qué hora sería cuando desayuné ayer? (I wonder what time was itwhen I ate breakfast yesterday?).The conditional is formed (like the future) by adding a single set of personal endings to theinfinitives of all three conjugations. (The endings are identical to those of the imperfect tenseof second and third conjugation verbs; the only difference is that those are added to the stem,rather than to the entire infinitive form.) 52
  53. 53. hablar-ía (I would talk) comería, viviría, etc.hablar-ías (you would talk)hablar-ía (she would talk)hablar-íamos (we would talk)hablar-íais (you all would talk)hablar-ían (they would talk)The CONDITIONAL PERFECT (potencial perfecto) is a compound tense using theconditional of the auxiliary verb haber and the past participle of the main verb:habría comido (I would have eaten)habrías comido (you would have eaten)habría comido (she would have eaten)habríamos comido (we would have eaten)habríais comido (you would have eaten)habrían comido (they would have eaten)NOTE: The conditional is often treated as though it were a tense rather than a mood; strictlyspeaking, however, the conditional is a mood which has two tenses: a simple tense usedwhen referring to present possibilities, and a compound tense used when referring topossibilities in the past.Subjunctive MoodThe SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD (modo subjuntivo) is used in independent clauses introduced byque (that) when the main clause expresses a wish, a strong emotional attitude, or anuncertainty: Te ruego que escribas en español (I beg you to write in Spanish); Teníanmiedo de que ella no volviera (They were afraid that she might not come back); Dudo quesea la verdad (I doubt that its the truth).The subjunctive is also used for FORMAL COMMANDS, for the negative (only) ofINFORMAL COMMANDS, for HORTATORY COMMANDS (English Lets...!) and afterIMPERSONAL EXPRESSIONS like es necesario (it is necessary): Tenga Ud. (Here, havethis); No hables (Dont talk!); Comamos (Lets eat); Es una lástima que no quiera venir (Itsa pity that he doesnt want to come).The PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE is regularly formed by adding one set of personal endings tothe stem of -AR verbs and a second set of endings to verbs of the -ER and -IR conjugations:FIRST CONJUGATION (habl-ar) PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVEhabl-e (I talk) habl-emos (we talk)habl-es (you talk) habl-éis (you talk)habl-e (she talks) habl-en (they talk)SECOND CONJUGATION (com-er) PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVEcom-a (I eat) com-amos (we eat)com-as (you eat) com-áis (you eat)com-a (she eat) com-an (they eat)THIRD CONJUGATION (viv-ir) PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVEviv-a (I live) viv-amos (we live)viv-as (you live) viv-áis (you live)viv-a (she lives) viv-an (they live)The IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE is formed by adding a set of endings terminating in either - 53
  54. 54. RA or -SE (with no difference in usage or meaning) to the verb stem, with one set of endingsfor first conjugation (-AR) verbs and another set of endings for second (-ER) and third (-IR)conjugation verbs: Esperaba que él llegara/llegase tarde (I was expecting him to arrive late).FIRST CONJUGATION (habl-ar) IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVEhabl-ara OR habl-ase (I talked)habl-aras OR habl-ases (you talked)habl-ara OR habl-ase (she talked)habl-áramos OR habl-ásemos (we talked)habl-arais OR habl-aseis (you all talked)habl-aranOR habl-asen (they talked)SECOND CONJUGATION (com-er) IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVEcom-iera OR com-iese (I ate)com-ieras OR com-ieses (you ate)com-iera OR com-iese (she ate)com-iéramos OR com-iésemos (we ate)com-ierais OR com-ieseis (you all ate)com-ieran OR com-iesen (they ate)THIRD CONJUGATION (viv-ir) IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVEviv-iera OR viv-iese (I lived)viv-ieras OR viv-ieses (you lived)viv-iera OR viv-iese (she lived)viv-iéramos OR viviésemos (we lived)viv-ierais OR viv-ieseis (you all lived)viv-ieran OR viv-iesen (they lived)The PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE is a compound tense formed by the present subjunctive ofhaber and the past participle of the main verb.haya comido (I have eaten)hayas comido (you have eaten)haya comido (she has eaten)hayamos comido (we have eaten)hayáis comido (you all have eaten)hayan comido (they have eaten)The PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE is a compound tense formed by the imperfectsubjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb.hubiera/hubiese comido (I had eaten)hubieras/hubieses comido (you had eaten)hubiera/hubiese comido (she had have eaten)hubiéramos/hubiésemos comido (we had eaten)hubierais/hubieseis comido (you had eaten)hubieran/hubiesen comido (they had eaten)Commands 54
  55. 55. Familiar COMMANDS (mandatos), when positive, are expressed by means of the imperativemood. The second person singular (tú) forms are identical to the third person singular of thepresent tense: El niño duerme (The child is sleeping); ¡Duerme tú! (Go to sleep!). Thesecond person plural (vosotros) forms are based on the infinitive, with a -d substituted for thefinal -r: ¡Dormid vosotros! (Go to sleep, all of you!).NEGATIVE familiar commands, both singular and plural, are expressed by the presentsubjunctive: ¡No duermas tú! (Dont go to sleep!).The present subjunctive is used for FORMAL COMMANDS, both positive and negative:Duerma Ud. (Please go to sleep). It is also used for indirect commands (introduced by theconjunction que): Está cansado; que se acueste (Hes tired; let him go to bed).For impersonal commands given in a general sense (directions on a bottle or an examinationpaper, for instance) the impersonal pronoun se is attached to the subjunctive: Agítese antesde usar (Shake before using); Escríbase en español (Write in Spanish). Hortatory commandscan be expressed either with the subjunctive or with the phrase vamos a and an infinitive:Durmamos (Lets go to sleep); Vamos a dormir (Lets go to sleep).Object pronouns are attached to affirmative commands, but they precede negative andindirect commands: Tráigamelo Ud. (Bring it to me); No me lo traiga Ud. (Dont bring it tome); Que lo traiga Juan (Let John bring it).Passive and Impersonal ConstructionsIn the PASSIVE VOICE (voz pasiva), the subject is acted upon by an outside agent. Whenthe agent is specified, the passive voice is expressed by:SUBJECT + ser + past participle + por + AGENTfor example: Esta carta fue escrita por un amigo mío (This letter was written by a friend ofmine).Since the past participle acts as an adjective, it agrees in gender and number with thesubject. If the passive subject is a thing and the agent is not mentioned, then a PASSIVEREFLEXIVE (pasiva reflexiva) construction is used, with the reflexive pronoun se preceding the verb andthe passive subject following it: Aquí se venden cigarrillos (Cigarettes are sold here).Se is also used to form IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCTIONS, with se used as an indefinitesubject pronoun similar to the English one or the impersonal you and they. This constructionis often difficult-- if not impossible-- to distinguish from the passive reflexive (textbooks differin their classification of common phrases like Se habla español (Spanish is spoken / Onespeaks Spanish). There are two main criteria to be met: the verb must be in the singular,since se is singular when used as a subject pronoun, and se should be easily translated asone or you: ¿Cómo se va al teatro? (How does one get to the theater?); ¿Cómo se dice esoen español? (How do you say that in Spanish?).Participles and Progressive Tenses 55
  56. 56. The PRESENT PARTICIPLE (gerundio) is formed by adding the suffix -ando to the stem offirst conjugation (-AR) verbs and -iendo to the stem of second (-ER) and third (-IR)conjugation verbs (or -yendo if the stem ends in a vowel).habl-ar (to talk) hablando (talking)com-er (to eat) comiendo (eating)viv-ir (to live) viviendo (living) le-er (to read) leyendo (reading)The present participle is used with the verb estar to form the PROGRESSIVE TENSES (tiempos progresivos), which express an ongoing action: Estoy estudiando español (I amstudying Spanish); Estabas leyendo el periódico (You were reading the newspaper). Thesame construction is used with seguir and continuar: Sigue llorando (She keeps on crying);Continuan estudiando (They continue studying). The present participle is also used with theverb ir to express an action which is gradual or incremental: Va mejorando (It is gettingbetter).NOTE: The progressive construction is never used for estar, venir and ir.The PAST PARTICIPLE (participio pasivo) is formed by adding the suffix -ado to the stem of -AR verbs, -ido to the stem of -ER and -IR verbs (or -ído if the stem ends in a vowel).cerr-ar (to close) cerrado (closed)perd-er (to lose) perdido (lost)recib-ir (to receive) recibido (received)ca-er (to fall) caído (fallen)When used with the auxiliary verb haber to form compound tenses, the past participle has aninvariable ending: Hemos cerrado la tienda (We have closed the store); Habrá perdido lasllaves (He will have lost the keys); Habías recibido una carta (You had received a letter);Entraron después de que hubo caído (They entered after she had fallen down).When used adjectivally, however, past participles agree in gender and number with thenouns they modify: La tienda está cerrada (The store is closed); Las llaves están perdidas(The keys are lost).InfinitivesThe INFINITIVE (infinitivo) is a verb form that is not limited by person or number; to be is anEnglish infinitive. Spanish/English dictionaries always identify a verb by its infinitive.A COMPLEMENTARY INFINITIVE completes the meaning of a preceding conjugated verb:No puedo hablar de eso (I cant talk about that); Quiero comer en un restaurante (I want toeat in a restaurant); Ella piensa vivir con ellos (She intends to live with them).After a preposition, the infinitive form of a verb must always be used: Prefiero leer antes dedormir (I prefer to read before going to sleep).A common temporal expression consists of the contraction al (literally, "at the", but translate 56
  57. 57. "upon") together with an infinitive: Al despertar, me di cuenta de lo que había hecho (Uponawakening, I realized what I had done).Infinitives can be used as VERBAL NOUNS (nombres verbales). When used that way, theyare considered to be masculine singular, and may be preceded by the definite article el: Elescribir bien es un arte (Writing well is an art); Trabajar es lo que importa (Working is whatmatters).NOTE: Confusion arises for English-speaking students from the fact that verbal nouns inEnglish have the same form as present participles. In the sentence "Singing is fun", forexample, the word "singing" is a verbal noun; but it is a present participle in the sentence "Iam singing" (present progressive tense). In Spanish, the first example would use an infinitive(El cantar es agradable), while the second one would use a present participle (Estoycantando).This confusion is compounded by the fact that English verbal nouns are called gerunds andSpanish present participles are called gerundios. It is advisable, perhaps, to avoid using theterms gerund and gerundio altogether; verbal noun and present participle are unmistakable intheir meaning.Stem-Changing VerbsMany verbs in Spanish change the spelling of their stems in certain conjugated forms. Theseverbs can be divided into three major groups:GROUP 1Verbs in -AR or -ER that change the stem vowel from E to IE or from O to UE in the indicativeand subjunctive moods of the present tense, except in the plurals of the first and secondpersons ("we" and "you all").Pensar (to think)INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVEpienso piense (I think)piensas pienses (you think)piensa piense (she thinks)pensamos pensemos (we think)pensáis penséis (you all think)piensan piensen (they think)Volver (to return)INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVEvuelvo vuelva (I return)vuelves vuelvas (you return)vuelve vuelva (she returns)volvemosvolvamos (we return)volvéis volváis (you all return)vuelven vuelvan (they return)GROUP 2Verbs in -IR with the same changes as above, and an additional change of E to I or O to U in 57
  58. 58. the third person of the preterite tense, in the first and second person plural forms of thepresent subjunctive, and in the entire imperfect subjunctive conjugation as well as thepresent participle.Sentir, (to feel)Present Indicative: siento, sientes, siente, sentimos, sentís, sientenPreterite: sentí, sentiste, sintió, sentimos, sentisteis, sintieronPresent Subjunctive: sienta, sientas, sienta, sintamos, sintáis, sientanImperfect Subjunctive: sintiera, sintieras, sintiera, sintiéramos, sintierais, sintieranPresent Participle: sintiendoDormir, (to sleep)Present Indicative duermo, duermes, duerme, dormimos, dormís, duermenPreterite: dormí, dormiste, durmió, dormimos, dormisteis, durmieronPresent Subjunctive: duerma, duermas, duerma durmamos, durmáis, duermanImperfect Subjunctive: durmiera, durmieras, durmiera, durmiéramosdurmierais, durmieranPresent Participle: durmiendoGROUP 3Verbs in -IR which only change E to I.Pedir (to request)Present Indicative: pido, pides, pide, pedimos, pedís, pidenPreterite: pedí, pediste, pidió, pedimos, pedisteis, pidieronPresent Subjunctive: pida, pidas, pida, pidamos, pidáis, pidanImperfect Subjunctive: pidiera, pidieras, pidiera, pidiéramos, pidierais, pidieranPresent Participle: pidiendoFuture tense Ir AThe future tense can be expressed by using the construction ir a followed by an infinitive.This construction can also be used with reference to the past, by conjugating ir in theimperfect tense: Voy a cantar (I am going to sing); Iban a bailar (They were about to dance).False friendsBecause some of the words are almost identical in the two languages, it’s easy toconfuse their meanings. It is one of the pitfalls for people learning Spanish.Absoluto & Absolute(ly)Absoluto - absolute, utter, complete. When preceded by en, it means not at all, byno means, no way.Absolute- absoluto. Absolutely - absolutamente, completamente, totalmente. 58
  59. 59. Actual & ActualActual - current or present: El presidente actual vive en Madrid - The currentpresident lives in Madrid. Actualmente - currently, at present, now.Actual - verdadero or efectivo. Actually - realmente, en realidad, en efecto.Aplicar & ApplyAplicar - to apply something, like a theory, paint, or sanctions.Apply - aplicar apply for a job - solicitar or presentar; to apply oneself to - dirigirse auno; to apply in the sense of be applicable - ser aplicable or interesar.Asistir & AssistAsistir - to attend.Assist - ayudar.Atender & AttendAtender - to attend in Latin America, in Spain - to pay attention to, to heed, care for.Attend - asistir.Billón & BillionBillón - a trillion in US, billion in UK.Billion (amer) - mil millones. (Brit) billón.Bizarro & BizarreBizarro - valient, gallant, brave; generous.Bizarre - extraño or raroBlanco & BlankBlanco – white, blank: una página blanca - a blank sheet of paper.Blank (adj) en blanco, liso, sin adorno.Campo & CampCampo means country(side), field, or farm.Camp refers to un campamento.Carpeta & CarpetCarpeta - folder, file, portfolio, briefcase, or table cloth.Carpet - una alfombra, una moqueta.Complexión & ComplexionComplexión - constitution, make-up, temperament, physical build.Complexion - la tez, el cutiz, la piel.Compromiso & CompromiseCompromiso - obligation, commitment, promise, or agreement.Compromise (n) - una transacción, una avenencia, unas concesiones recíprocas, eltérmino medio, la solución intermedia; (v) - comprometer or transigir. 59
  60. 60. Constipación & ConstipationConstipación, constipado - a cold or catarrh.Constipation - el estreñimiento.Contestar & ContestContestar means to answer or reply.Contest as a verb means impugnar, atacar, disputar, or contender.Corresponder & CorrespondCorresponder -to correspond, tally, fit in, match, or belong.Correspond (by mail) - escribirse, estar en correspondencia con.Chocar & ChokeChocar - shock or startle, clink (glasses), shake (hands).Choke - sofocarse or atragantarse.Decepción/Decepcionar & Deception/DeceiveDecepción - disappointment. Decepcionar - to disappoint.Deception - un engaño, un fraude. To deceive - engañar, defraudar.Delito & DelightDelito - a crime, offence, misdeed.Delight - el placer, el deleite, el encanto, la delicia. To delight - encantar, deleitar.Desgracia & DisgraceDesgracia - misfortune, mishap, accident, setback, bad luck.Disgrace - la deshonra, ignominia.Despertar & DesperateDespertar – to wake upDesperate - desesperado.Destituido & DestituteDestituido - devoid of or lacking.Destitute - indigente, desamparado, necesitado, en la miseria.Disco & DiscoDisco - disco, disk, discus, traffic-light, or (audio) record.Disco - disco, discoteca, or sala de baile.Disgusto & DisgustDisgusto - annoyance, displeasure, grief, trouble.Disgust - repugnancia , aversión.Educado & Educated 60
  61. 61. Educado - well-mannered, polite, cultivated, from the verb educar - to raise, bringup, rear.Educated form of the verb to educate: formar or instruir.Embarazada & EmbarrassedEmbarazada (adj) – pregnant, noun: una embarazada = a pregnant woman, anexpectant mother.Embarrassed - avergonzado, molesto, or incómodo.Emocionante & EmotionalEmocionante - exciting, thrilling, moving.Emotional - afectivo, emocional, emotivo, sentimental.Éxito & ExitÉxito - success: a gran éxito - very successful.Exit - una salida.Fábrica & FabricFábrica - factory, plant, or mill.Fabric - el tejido or la tela.Fútbol & FootballFútbol - soccer (in American English).Football - le fútbol americano.Fútil & FutileFútil - trivial, whileFutile - inútil, vano, or infructuoso.Insulto & InsultInsulto (Mexico) - indigestion or a stomachache.Insult - insulto.Introducir & IntroduceIntroducir - introduce a topic.Introduce (a person) - presentarLargo & LargeLargo - long, generous, or abundant.Large - grande or importante.Librería & LibraryLibrería - bookstore.Library - una biblioteca.Minorista & Minority 61

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