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ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt
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ZendCon 2010 Technical Debt

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  • 1. Elizabeth Naramore ZendCon November 2, 2010 Technical Debt 1
  • 2. Technical Debt: What is it? 2
  • 3. Technical Debt: Why should we care? 3
  • 4. "Shipping first time code is like going into debt. A little debt speeds development so long as it is paid back promptly with a rewrite... The danger occurs when the debt is not repaid. Every minute spent on non-quite- right code counts as interest on that debt. --Ward Cunningham, 1992 4
  • 5. "I think that there were plenty of cases where people would rush software out the door and learn things but never put that learning back into the program, and that by analogy, was borrowing money thinking that you never had to pay it back.... eventually all your income goes to interest and your purchasing power goes to zero." 5
  • 6. Code or practices that will hinder your progress in the future. What is technical debt? 6
  • 7. Too much technical debt can cripple your team or organization. Why should we care? 7
  • 8. lack of documentation untested code suppressed errors unshared knowledge between teams or people confusing code, inconsistencies, "workarounds" local changes you've not committed You have technical debt if you have: 8
  • 9. code that doesn't follow coding standards non-existent or improperly used version control unstable deployment process duplicate code blocks individual code ownership 3rd party software that needs updated or patched Or, if you have: 9
  • 10. Guess what? 10
  • 11. We all have it. 11
  • 12. Don't panic. 12
  • 13. Some technical debt is ok. 13
  • 14. It lets you hit a deadline It lets you test an experimental feature The code is rarely touched You are coding based on reasonable expectations It allows you to extend startup money Your code is at the end of the life-cycle It might make sense if: 14
  • 15. This is also known as prudent technical debt. 15
  • 16. So when is technical debt not ok? 16
  • 17. So when is technical debt not ok? All the other times. 17
  • 18. This is also known as reckless technical debt. 18
  • 19. Sometimes we know we are taking shortcuts, but we do it anyway. 19
  • 20. This is also known as deliberate technical debt. 20
  • 21. Sometimes we don't know any better, or the debt is not our fault. 21
  • 22. inexperienced team members changing project requirements post-release retrospectives security patches or updates from 3rd parties This debt could come from: 22
  • 23. This is also known as inadvertent technical debt. 23
  • 24. 4 ways to classify technical debt: Prudent vs. Reckless Deliberate vs. Inadvertent 24
  • 25. Martin Fowler's Quadrant 25
  • 26. Martin Fowler's Quadrant 26
  • 27. By minimizing deliberate debt, you make it easier to handle inadvertent debt. 27
  • 28. So now that we know what it is, what do we do with it? 28
  • 29. We tackle our debt with D.E.B.T. (see what I did there?) 29
  • 30. Discover Estimate Break Down Task & Track 30
  • 31. Where is our technical debt? Ask the developers on your team Use the checklist mentioned earlier Use software like PHPUnderControl or Sonar Discover 31
  • 32. The Sonar Formula Debt(in man days)= cost_to_fix_duplications + cost_to_fix_violations + cost_to_comment_public_API + cost_to_fix_uncovered_complexity + cost_to_bring_complexity_below_threshold + cost_to_cut_cycles_at_package_level Estimate 32
  • 33. The Sonar Formula Estimate 33
  • 34. But how much is it costing us? The Simple-ish Formula Amount of the “loan” = cost to fix “Interest Rate” = Adverse impact on development Estimate 34
  • 35. Quantifying is hard. OK to use other techniques. Estimate 35
  • 36. Use estimation technique that works for you Get input and buy-in from the team Estimate 36
  • 37. What do we do with it? Every task breaks down into 2 categories: 1. Debts where we continue paying interest 2. Debts where we pay the principal Break Down 37
  • 38. How can we make it visible? Add it to bug tracker, task board, etc. Task and Track 38
  • 39. Focus on higher interest rate items first OR Focus on small ticket items first. Paying it Off 39
  • 40. Dedicate time for technical debt reduction. ● Use time right after a release ● Tech debt iteration ● Time each day for tech debt ● Refactor as you go ● Use off-season time Paying it Off 40
  • 41. Keep track of your progress. Paying it Off 41
  • 42. ● Break past habits ● Group consensus & commitment ● Teach your “children” well ● Never file for bankruptcy ● Live within your means ● Anticipate your needs Preventing Technical Debt 42
  • 43. CHANGE MANAGEMENT A Few Words About 43
  • 44. Change Management 44
  • 45. 1. Direct the Rider Change Management 45
  • 46. 2. Motivate the Elephant Change Management 46
  • 47. 3. Shape the Path Change Management 47
  • 48. PHP UnderControl: http://phpundercontrol.org Sonar: http://www.sonarsource.com/ (plus tech debt plugin) Make sure to see: 48
  • 49. Want to contact me? http://naramore.net/blog @ElizabethN elizabeth@naramore.net Freenode IRC: ElizabethN THANKS! Image used with permission from Martin Fowler 49

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