Growth in fisheries is due to the expansion of aquaculture and robust demand for seaweeds.The productivity of municipal fisheries, such as small-scale capture fisheries (less than 3 gross ton boats) has been declining however. (overfishing and poor enforcement of fishery laws).The positive performance of palay and corn is due to the use of quality seeds, increase in yield, and rehabilitation of irrigation facilities.For banana, this is due to an expansion in area, an increase in yield, and good demand in the local and export markets.
Declining productivity and competitivenessWhile productivity of the agricultural workforce has increased annually by an average of 1.66 percent from 2004 to 2010, land productivity in terms of yields of traditional crops (e.g. Rice, corn, sugarcane) has stagnated or declined.In ASEAN, rice, coconut, sugacane are ranked 4th, corn 5th, (with Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and Thailand)Price of rice is the most expensive in ASEAN.Comparative advantage not fully exploited.The country actually has a revealed comparative advantage not only in its lead exports (coconut, banana, mango, pineapple) but also in sugar, abaca, papaya, dried tropical fruit and fresh vegetable.But, despite the export potential of these commodities, especially in emerging crops, the country’s share and value of agricultural products to total exports is among the lowest as compared to other ASEAN countries.The country is also continues to be the only agricultural net-importer among comparable ASEAN members.Top 6 agricultural imports:RiceWheatSoya bean productsMilk and cream productsTobaccoUreaElusive rice sufficiency.The country’s domestic rice production has met only 84.71 % of the overall annual average rice requirements. (2004-2010)Increase in food commodities prices.Higher prices of food commodities erode purchasing power, especially among the poor and highlight the grave threats to food security due to extreme shocks affecting not only production, but also marketing systems.Stagnant poverty headcount.Despite positive growth and gains in productivity in some subsectors, there has been almost no change in the welfare of almost 6.4 million farmers, fisherfolks, and other workers dependent on the sector.
Leading RDE arm of the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB) (the leading state university of the country) are: The Agricultural Mechanization Development Program (AMDP) and The Division of Bio-Process Engineering of the College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology (CEAT) for grain post-harvest; and The Post-harvest Horticulture Training and Research Center (PHTRC) of the College of Agriculture (CA) for horticultural crop post-harvest.
Agricultural and Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA / Republic Act 8435) 1999this law allocates approx. 20% of Philippine budget to any post-harvest-related activities for 7 years up to 2006, and extended till 2015.The Department of Agriculture shall formulate the agriculture and fishery infrastructure plan and monitor its implementation.The agriculture and fishery infrastructure plan shall be consolidated based on the submissions from all the various units of the Department and its partner LGUs.
(a) Technologies which enhance the quality of mango export technologies now beingused by exporters:- Hot water treatment - controls disease that is the biggest problem of exporters;reduced incidence of disease by as much as 70%.- Modified vapor heat treatment procedure - eliminate mango pulp abnormalitydue to previous treatment procedure; consumer acceptability of Philippinemangoes in Japan restored and export increased again.- Flotation technique of maturity determinationdefects due to immaturity is avoided(immature fruits develop internal breakdownof pulp when vapor heat treated); maturitydetermined with 100% efficiency comparedto 20-50% of previous method.- Use of cartons and foams - quality ofexported fruits is maintained; lessershriveling and lesser damage hence lesserpremature ripening.(b) Technologies which reduce losses during non-refrigerated transport ofproduce from Mindanao to Manila:- Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) - reduce oxygen and/or increasecarbon dioxide to reduce biological activity; slower ripening of banana, Solopapaya, and tomato; slower deterioration of calamansi, okra, orchids,anthuriums and roses. MAP of papaya can be used to transport papaya by seafrom Mindanao to Manila prior to VHT reatment and export to Japan.Exporters of banana to the Middle East use MAP.- Ethylene adsorbent - ethylene ripens fruits. Fruits give off ethylene so ifadsorbed, ripening will slow down; a Filipino company is now using 10,000 aweek of such adsorbents. Taiwanese and Australian companies are alsointerested.- Improved non-refrigerated van design for ships transporting fruits - oneshipping line now has 300 units of a modified ventilated van for fruits.(c) Fabrication of post-harvest equipment for more efficient operations:Hot water tank - mango exporters and two cooperatives selling mango andpapaya are now using or fabricating it. Others would like to get the blueprint.Mango exporters are using their own designs.- Sizers.- Packinghouse line for round fruits.- Sorting table for baby corn.
(d) Developed the post-harvest handling systems for 'Solo' papaya fruits fromBalingasag, Misamis Oriental to be shipped to Manila for VHT treatment priorto export to Japan:- Harvesting index- Fungicide treatment- Hot water treatment- CuringModified atmosphere packaging and ethylene adsorbent(e) Developed and improved village level technologies:- Optimized use of calburo, kakawati leaves, passion fruit, Saba banana andsquash peel for ripening.- Non-refrigerated storage methods usingevaporative cooling - the evaporation ofwater near the produce makes theenvironment cool and moist; a companyused it for temporary storage of about20,000 ears of sweet corn with good results.A Filipino consultant transferred thetechnology to Gambia with even greatersuccess than in the Philippines.(f) Technologies to promote cut-flower trade:- Establishment of refrigerated storage conditions for local varieties- Adapted dry pack storage technique (storage without the use of water) forroses, mums and glades.- Developed a cut flower preservative- Developed appropriate pulsing treatments - pre-storage addition of sugar foradded storage life - absorbed sugar can be used by cut flowers for respiration;a grower raising gladiolus in 1000 square meters can earn PhP 10,000 (US$182) more by sugar pulsing.
Biomass-fed Furnace/Heater SystemThe technology considerably reduces the cost of drying, makingmechanical dryer owners/operators and farmers mutuallybenefitted. It is also designed to conform to local environmentallaws, hence, environment-friendly.In-store DryerIn-store dryer is a component of a two-stage dryingsystem which acts as a second stage dryer after the grainhas been pre-dried to a flash dryer or any similar pre-dryer.Corn PickerCorn picker reduces manual labor, allows timelyoperations and improves corn quality at a reasonablecost.Corn ShellerCorn sheller cut down substantial losses incurred in manual andother corn shelling methods. These ensure less grain breakage andkernel fissures as well as prevent possible mycotoxin contaminationthrough better shelling and minimized mechanical injury.
Charcoal-Fired Cabinet Oven The Charcoal-fired cabinet oven is an easy tooperate technology used for cashew roasting.Evaporative CoolerVegetables can now be preserved for three to four days using evaporative coolers. The technology is a viable alternative to mechanical refrigeration for fruits and vegetables. This low-cost cooler that requires low operating cost can be benefit the vegetable retailers and traders especially those in the wet market level.Flat Bed DryerThe flatbed dryer is a mechanical dryer which has a very simpledesign and operational features. The biomass fed furnace providesthe heat for drying.Grain Moisture MeterWith the development of grain moisture meter, the farmers can nowdetermine the moisture content of palay and corn constantly. It givesspeedy, accurate and reliable moisture readings anytime.
Mango Cabinet DryerPHilMech developed a cabinet type dryer which isoperated using either rice hull or kerosene as heatsource for drying mango slices. This technology consistsof insulated chambers where desired temperature isachieved in the cabinet.Manual Coffee DepulperThe PHilMech manual coffee pulper is a portable and low-costtechnology which significantly help the farmers reduces breakage ofcoffee cherries during the depulping process and attain high qualitycoffee products.Mobile Flash DryerMobile flash dryer prevents grain deterioration throughimmediate drying of paddy after threshing. It effectivelyreduces paddy moisture up to 18% MC allowing at leastthree weeks of grain storage without spoilage.
Pneumatic Corn PlanterPlanter minimizes the drudgery of farm labor and improvesproduction efficiencies. It plants uniformly at a desired seeddepth, hill and row spacing. The fertilizer rate and depth couldalso be set to suit the soil requirement. Thus, more uniform plantpopulation, better crop growth rate and improve yield could beeasily achieved.Whole Cashew Kernel ShellerThe Whole Cashew Kernel Sheller is designed to split the shellwithout injuring the nut. It uses a specialized blade that fits theirregular shape of the cashew nut shell.Boom SprayerThe boom sprayer is used for pre-emergence herbicideapplication immediately after machine planting.
BagsakanCenters / Trading Centers- DA shall encourage the LGUs to turn over management and supervision of public markets and abattoirs to market vendors’ cooperatives and for that purpose, the appropriation for post-harvest facilities shall include the support for market vendors’ cooperatives. Farm-to-Market RoadsDefined under the AFMA refers to roads linking the agriculture and fisheries production sites, coastal landing points and post-harvest facilities to the market and arterial roads and highways.DPWH and DA coordinate in the implementation of the FMR projectsDPWH provided budgetDA identified location/
Bagsakan Center in Anda, WesternVisayasFish port in General Santos CityAlliance Tuna International, Incorporated, one of the Philippines’ largest canned tuna exporters which is located in General Santos City is set to open a new processing plant in its BarangayTambler HQ costing around P60million!
Hermetic StorageIt is an alternative storage technique which can be used by farmers cooperative, small-scaletraders or millers and institutional users to store their produce safely, especially during peakseasons. With these storage facilities, the end-users can sell at a profitable price.Cold Chain SystemThe cold chain system refers to the uninterrupted refrigerated handling operation of high- value crops from the farm to the market. It is the process of keeping the appropriate temperature of perishable crops at every chain to preserve its quality and prolong its shelf life.BenefitsThe cold chain system reduces postharvest losses and extends the freshness and quality of high value crops. It helps farmers meet the demand of the market for a year-round supply of fresh quality fruits and vegetables.
These trading posts aim to increase the income of farmers by lessening the influence of middlemen, who have been able to dictate the prices of agricultural products, he said.A barangaybagsakancenter is a village-based food depot and distribution system offering affordable, safe, and quality food products like meat, poultry, fish, vegetable, and fruits.The government provides such facilities as plastic crates, weighing scales, and chest freezer, but the proponent has to provide the structure and lot for the bagsakancenter.Philippine Nautical HighwaysRoll-on roll off ferries- Help shorten the transit time of perishable crops from southern to northern part of the country and vice versa.
Farmers, due to inadequacy of capital cannot afford to buy appropriate post-harvest machineries
Technical inefficiencies leading to post-harvest losses.This arise from the usual problems associated with lack of farm to market roads, packinghouse and cold storage facilities, appropriate containers, packaging materials and container vans.The inability of producers to sort their commodities according to size and quality leads to multiple handling and consequently, greater loss.This can be attributed to the absence of workable standards.Insufficient post-harvest training and extension activities on other crops.Agricultural extension services have traditionally focused their efforts on traditional crops such as rice and corn.Little attention was given to other agricultural commodities such as high value crops, livestock and fisheries.Weak information system.The problem of untimely delivery of information (i.e. Technology, prices, etc.) to the stakeholders of the post-harvest industry has heavily constrained the development of the post-production system.Information on improved technologies and prices are not usually accessible to small farmers and farmers’ organizations.This results to their inability to engage in profitable production programming and equitable postproduction system.Failure of majority of farmer’s cooperatives.Since the success of the post-harvest development programs depend on the availability of qualified farmers cooperatives-recipients.Post-harvest facilities must be distributed to successful cooperatives through out the country.
Agricultural lands in the Philippines are predominantly small and non-contiguous. Farmers’ produce are usually collected and combined by traders who in turn transport and sell the commodity to the wholesale and retail market.
Extension ServiceDevolution of agricultural support services and extension, beset by lack of LGUs absorptive capacities, has resulted in weak extension services. The decentralization of the agricultural extension service was pursued on the premise that the contraints to production and service req’ts of farmers and fisherfolks would be best addressed through an LGU-led, NG-supported agriculture service system.The devolution has been beleaguered with poor absorptive capacities of the LGUs to take the task of extension service provision.Many LGUs has taken agriculture of less priority (social infrastructure first)Funding allocation has been minimal.Rationalization PlanEfficient and effective institutions and bureaucracy are essential to creating an enabling environment that encourages private, LGU and foreign investments in the economy.However, the country’s agricultural bureaucracy is beset with problems related to overcentralization, fragmentation of agencies, weak coordination, overlapping of functions, politicization and corruption, making it ineffective in spurring growth and development for the sector.SAFDZThe identification of SAFDZs as provided under AFMA has not been fully implemented. Programs in the sector should also focus on areas of high agriculture potential to avoid spreading investments too thinly resulting in small impact in the rural areas.The SAFDZs will also facilitate prioritization of investment programming in the sector. The identification of these areas should be initiated by LGUs, with technical support from DA and DENR to ensure that priorities are consistent with local development thrusts and strategies, as well as aligned with the national policies.
Rice being more focused on.While public investment for the rice sector has been substantial in the past years, amounting to almost 60 % of the 2009 AFMA fund (22.56 billion), the allocations for high value and export commodities such as fruit trees, vegetables, tree crops, and fisheries have been inadequate.Limit on fertilizers? Public goods are important because their benefits are shared by the community; they yield high social returns on investment and have long-term impacts, and they are not readily provided by the private sector but important to society as a whole.On the other hand, other interventions such as subsidies on fertilizer have benefits limited to target groups, have short-term impacts, costly to government, and do competes with the private sector.Rice PolicyVested with the function of stabilizing the supply and prices of rice, the country’s staple, the NFA’s operations aim to raise farmgate prices to secure farmers’ profit and at the same time, maintain retail prices at an affordable level for consumers. Gov’t intervention on both sides of the market has led to huge public losses, increased the volatility of domestic prices, reduced the welfare of both consumers and producers, and discouraged the private sector from investing in distribution and storage facilities.The NFA support price has on average led to an increase in consumer prices in ten regions of the country and contributed little to price stabilization.It is also worth noting that among NFA rice consumers, only 46.6 % are considered poor. In addition, among all poor households who are supposed to benefit from NFA rice, only 24 percent have been able to access them.
The identification of SAFDZa as provided under AFMA has not been fully implemented. Programs in the sector should also focus on areas of high agriculture potential to avoid spreading investments too thinly resulting in small impact in the rural areas.The SAFDZs will also facilitate prioritization of investment programming in the sector. The identification of these areas should be initiated by LGUs, with technical support from DA and DENR to ensure that priorities are consistent with local development thrusts and strategies, as well as aligned with the national policies.
All people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.Diversify production.Facilitate and promote diversification of production and livelihood options.Update SAFDZs as bases for identifying investment areas.InfrastructureEstablish climate resilient agriculture infrastructure through enhanced technical design of irrigation and drainage systems and facilities, FMRs, post harvest facilities, trading posts, among others.Increase effectiveness and efficiency of the rural infrastructure system, including agricultural logistics and various facilities (FMR), postharvest and information systems, and identify priority FMR projects that strategically link production and consumption areas.Participation of private sector in construction of infrastrucre. Market and regulatory competence.Provide effective market assistance, marketing support and information systems, product development, market intelligence, and encourage participation in product promotion activities in both domestic and international markets.Provide trade facilitation, including provision of trade and fiscal incentives to encourage participation and investments from the private sector.(entails reforms in the policies in trade and market access to trade and technical assistance to SMEs and cooperatives)Strengthen Research, Development and Extension.Update databases and information systems for the formulation of a reliable and responsive National RD&E agenda; Increase investments in integrated RD&E programs that promote productivity enhancement, develop environment-friendly and efficient technologies throughout the value chain, in partnership with selected higher education institutions, LGUs, private and business sector; Harmonize all agricultural and fisheries mechanization programs and projects of all concerned national government agencies, LGUs, and higher education institutions Rationalize and strengthen the extension system to improve complementation of national, local and private sector entities along the value chain in the provision of extension services; Encourage the participation of farmers, fisherfolk and their organizations in research and promotion activities; Food SecurityFocus on long-term productivity-enhancing measures for agriculture and fisheries such as irrigation, R&D and extension services instead of short-term interventions (i.e., direct input subsidies); Engage proactively with LGUs and the private sector to provide strategic agricultural infrastructure and servicesTransform the NFA into an agency focused on addressing extreme shocks to food supply and prices, while maintaining a predictable regulatory environment for rice trade
Increase investments and employment across an efficient value chain. Create job opportunitiesBy expanding existing markets, aggressively exploring new markets and promoting private investments on agroindustries, agriservices (i.e., custom-hiring), agroforestry and fisheries, in both PPP and private sector-led modesLocalize agricultural promotion and development Regional strategies must take precedence in championing local commodities and promoting sector competitivenessTransform agrarian reform beneficiaries (ARBs) into viable entrepreneurs.It is important to strengthen ARBs’ capacities for agricultural production and transform them into entrepreneurs capable of improving the productivity of the awarded lands, adding substantial value to their produce, engaging in off-farm endeavors, and improving their access to the markets:
Sector Resilience to Climate Change Risks Increased The resiliency of the country’s agriculture sector is threatened by climate change and extreme weather events. Damage to rural infrastructure and losses to crops, livestock and fishing grounds, water allocation and the competing priorities in the use of water supply are a few emerging problems that should be dealt expedientlyReduce climate change-related risks and the vulnerability of natural ecosystems and biodiversity through ecosystem-based management approaches, conservation efforts, and sustainable environment and natural resources-based economic endeavors such as agri-ecotourism. Adopt Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) and Sustainable Land Management (SLM) Technologies in the development of water, land, and related resources Promote environment-friendly and sustainable production systems that use the farming systems approach, employ good agriculture/aquaculture practices, and promote organic agriculture, as embodied in RA10068 or the Organic Agriculture Act of 2010 Improve the climate change resilience of fisheries through the restoration of fishing grounds, stocks and habitats and through investment in sustainable and climate change-responsive fishing technologies and products Strengthen sustainable, multisectoral and community-based resource management mechanisms Increase the resilience of agriculture communitiesThrough the development of climate change-sensitive technologies, establishment of climate-resilient agricultural infrastructure and climate-responsive food production systems, and provision of support services to the most vulnerable communities. Strengthen R&D for the improvement of crop, livestock and fishery varieties to temperature increase, drought-tolerant, resistant to stresses such as water logging and pests)Promote viable and competitive crop, livestock and fishery varieties that can tolerate climate variability; Establish climate-resilient agriculture infrastructure through enhanced technical design of irrigation facilities, FMR, PHF, etc. that take climate risks and extreme climate events into account Strengthen agricultural extension and support services to raise farmers’ knowledge and capacity to adopt climate-sensitive farming and fishing technologies. Introduce innovative risk-transfer mechanisms such as weather-based/ index insurance systems.
Policy Environment and Governance Enhanced Reaffirm the mechanisms and objectives of the National Convergence Initiative (NCI). The NCI is a multisectoral and integrated planning approach adopted by the DA, DAR, and the DENR towards more efficient use of resources. three rural development agencies undertake joint planning, programming and budgeting as well as monitoring and evaluation Rationalizing land use policies and strengthen the system of land property rights; Adopt Managing for Development Results (MfDR) as a common approach among rural development agencies. MfDR is a management strategy that focuses on development performance and sustainable improvements in outcomes, providing both framework and practical tools for strategic planning, risk management, progress monitoring, and outcome evaluation (OECD Policy Brief, March 2009). Implement budgetary reforms. - The current budget system for the sector is commodity- and production-oriented and is not geared to promoting competitiveness. - Funding for key functional areas under the AFMA, such as market and information services, regulatory functions, research, etc., is currently allocated to commodity programs, which are centrally managed 119 Competitive and Sustainable Agriculture and Fisheries Sector and lack the ability to prioritize strategically across the entire sector. Pursue PPP especially for infrastructure and value chain development. The private sector will be tapped to participate in government’s efforts in delivering immediately the needed infrastructure and services in the agricultural and fisheries sectors.Infrastructurefood supply chain and postharvest services (i.e., bulk handling facilities, food/grains terminals and processing, storage, handling and port/transport facilities) production centers for various farm inputs fish farming infrastructure and market and trading centers. Review critical legislation (i.e., AFMA, Fisheries Code) and policy issuances (i.e., sugar trade). A review of laws and policies shall be a continuing activity to ensure the responsiveness of such issuances to current developments in the sector. - to take into account the latest global trends and market forces, and to ensure supply adequacy supply, price stability, and affordability.
Pursue the Passage of a National Land Use LawFurther, it is envisioned that the policy shall serve as guide to the optimum allocation of land among competing uses within the framework of sustainable development. It shall also provide a mechanism for resolving land use policy conflicts taking into consideration the principles of social equity and economic efficiency. Institute Reforms in the NFA It restructures the agency by separating its regulatory and proprietary functions. The NFA shall grant import permits for rice to all applicants as a ministerial function, subject to the payment of applicable taxes, duties, and service fees. The NFA shall grant import permits for rice to all applicants as a ministerial function, subject to the payment of applicable taxes, duties, and service fees. Rationalize DA, DAR and DENR The agriculture bureaucracy should be rationalized through the efficient and effective convergence and complementation of the agriculture, agrarian reform and natural resources (AARNR) service agencies and related offices by taking measures to sort out institutional overlaps. The convergence effort will operationalize sustainable development by integrating the social, economic, and environmental aspects of rural development.
Work for a Food Safety and Food Labelling Law Consumers’ right to information should also be protected through proper labelling of raw materials and ingredients of processed food products, including those sourced from genetically-modified organisms.
POST HARVEST MARKETDEVELOPMENTBy: Ariane Joy CoronelPA 504
PHILIPPINE CONTEXT Among the priority development areas of the Philippine government are the following: Tourism BPO Mining AGRI-BUSINESS Logistics Ship-building Housing Electronics Infrastructure
AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIESSECTOR The agriculture and fisheries sector provides food and vital raw materials for the rest of the economy. As the sector grows and modernizes, it releases surplus labour to the industry and services sectors. The sector’s development is therefore vital in achieving inclusive growth and poverty reduction.
LET US ASSESS THE PERFORMANCE OF THISSECTOR:Contribution to output and employment: Top contributors (as of 2009): Region 4A (12.1%) Region 3 (11%) Region 6 (10%) Region 10 (8.2 %) Region 12 (8%)
LET US ASSESS THE PERFORMANCE OF THISSECTOR:Contributionof subsectors to economic growth: Fishery (1.21 %) Palay (0.40 %) Corn (0.31 %) Banana (0.22 %) Poultry (0.22 %)
AGRICULTURE AND FISHERY (WITH FORESTRY) PERFORMANCE ANDCONTRIBUTION TO ECONOMY: 2004-2010
CONTRIBUTION OF SUB-SECTORS IN AGRICULTURE ANDFISHERY GROWTH: 2004-2010
LET US ASSESS THE PERFORMANCE OF THISSECTOR:Contribution to global trade: Between 2004 and 2010, agriculture and fisheries export rose from US$ 2.5 billion to US$ 4.1 billion Top exports in terms of value: Coconut oil Fresh banana Tuna Pineapple Tobacco Seaweeds
VALUE OF PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS ANDIMPORTS: 2004 AND 2010 (IN MILLION $US)
THE INCREASE IN CONTRADICTIONS – THEUNREALIZED FULL POTENTIAL OF THE SECTOR Declining productivity and competitiveness. Comparative advantage not fully exploited. Elusive rice sufficiency. Increase in food commodities prices. Stagnant poverty headcount.
SUPPORT TO POST-HARVEST INDUSTRY Different government and non-government institutions, state colleges and universities and big corporations undertake research and development activities on post- harvest handling. The major research, development and extension arm of the government is the Bureau of Post-Harvest Research and Extension (Department of Agriculture).
POST HARVEST MARKET DEVELOPMENT Generate, extend and commercialize appropriate and problem-oriented postproduction technologies and practices to reduce losses, improve food and feed quality and maximize the benefits to various stakeholders
POST HARVEST MARKET DEVELOPMENT Makes sure that farming and fishing communities become globally competitive characterized by dynamic and responsive postharvest technologies
POST HARVEST MARKET DEVELOPMENT The goal is to empower farmers and fisher folks by preserving and adding value to their produce through dynamic orchestration, research, technol ogy promotion and policy advocacy.
Agricultural and Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA / Republic Act 8435) 1999 This law allocates approx. 20% of Philippine budget to any post- harvest-related activities for 7 years up to 2015. Is to be the blue print on how priority post-harvest facilities, farm- to-market roads, and other related infrastructure will be identified by DA-line agencies and partner LGUs.
POST HARVEST FACILITIES Under AFMA, post-harvest facilities include, but not limited to threshers, moisture meters, dryers, weighing scales, milling equipment, fish ports, fish landing, ice plants and cold storage facilities, processing plants, warehouses, buying stations, market infrastructure and transportation facilities.
POST HARVEST MARKET DEVELOPMENT Properpost-harvest handling and technologies would: reduce losses and improve the quality of produce help the people establish their own farm- level secondary handling and value- added processing businesses provide more job opportunities empower and improve the lives of farmers.
SOME POST-HARVEST TECHNOLOGIES IN THEPHILIPPINESGrain (Rice and Corn) DryingMachinery Rice Milling Machinery
SOME POST-HARVEST TECHNOLOGIES IN THEPHILIPPINES High Value Crops (Fruits and Vegetables) Technologies which enhance the quality of mango export technologies now being used by exporters Technologies which reduce losses during non-refrigerated transport of produce Fabrication of post-harvest equipment for more efficient operations
SOME POST-HARVEST TECHNOLOGIES IN THEPHILIPPINESHigh Value Crops (Fruits and Vegetables) Developed the post-harvest handling systems for fruits Developed and improved village level technologies Technologies to promote cut-flower trade
SOME POST-HARVEST INFRASTRUCTURE FORMARKET SUPPORT IN THE PHILIPPINESBagsakan Centers / Trading CentersFish Ports, SeaportsStorage FacilitiesProcessing PlantsWarehousesFarm-To-Market Roads
III. CHALLENGES TO POST HARVEST MARKET DEVELOPMENT
The Scenario: What Happens In the Field Wide economic gap between farmers and businessmen Major recipients of modern post-harvest technologies are usually traders and processors. Low adoption of improved post-harvest facilities The absence of strong linkage between producers and the market limits the benefits that can be derived from them.
The Scenario: What Happens In the Field Technical inefficiencies leading to post- harvest losses. Insufficient post-harvest training and extension activities on other crops. Weak information system. Failure of majority of farmers’ cooperatives.
The Scenario: What Happens In the FieldSmall land holding of farmers, the small farm lot and the limited volume of harvest make ownership of agricultural machinery or crop processing facilities among small farmers difficulty.
Government and its Policies: To Blame? Weak agricultural extension service. Delay in the implementation of rationalization plans. Incomplete implementation of the Strategic Agriculture and Fishery Development Zones (SAFDZs) and preparation of Integrated Development Plans (IDPs).
Government and its Policies: To Blame? Limited investments on commodities with comparative advantage. Limited investments on public goods. For instance, R&D (public good) spending is currently at about 0.10 percent of overall agriculture spending. Contradictory policies. For instance, Rice Policy.
IV. PROPOSED STRATEGIES TOADDRESS ISSUES IN POST HARVEST DEVELOPMENT
The government identified 3 major goals for the development of the agriculture and fisheries sector (PEDP 2011-2016) Improved Food Security and Increased Rural Incomes Increased Sector Resilience to Climate Change Risks Enhanced Policy Environment and Governance
GOAL 1: FOOD SECURITY IMPROVED ANDINCOMES INCREASED Raise productivity and incomes of agriculture and fishery-based households and enterprises. Diversify production. Complete the delineation of municipal waters for better fishery resource management. Improve rural infrastructure and facilities. Develop markets and sharpen regulatory competence. Strengthen Research, Development and Extension (RD&E). Secure food availability and affordability.
GOAL 1: FOOD SECURITY IMPROVED ANDINCOMES INCREASED Increaseinvestments and employment across an efficient value chain. Create job opportunities. Localize agricultural promotion and development. Transformagrarian reform beneficiaries (ARBs) into viable entrepreneurs. Scale-up microenterprises into formal and viable SMEs through
GOAL 2. SECTOR RESILIENCE TO CLIMATECHANGE RISKS INCREASED Reduce climate change-related risks and the vulnerability of natural ecosystems and biodiversity. Increase the resilience of agriculture communities. Strengthen the agriculture and fisheries insurance system as an important risk sharing mechanism.
GOAL 3. POLICY ENVIRONMENT ANDGOVERNANCE ENHANCED Reaffirm the mechanisms and objectives of the National Convergence Initiative (NCI) Adopt Managing for Development Results (MfDR) as a common approach among rural development agencies. Implement budgetary reforms. Pursue PPP especially for infrastructure and value chain development. Review critical legislation (i.e., AFMA, Fisheries Code) and policy issuances (i.e., sugar trade).
LEGISLATIVE MEASURES Pursue the Passage of a National Land Use Law This is especially important in anticipation of the end of the agrarian reform program and the subsequent opening of the land market. Institute Reforms in the NFA The NFA Reorganization Act will further rationalize grains- sector trading. Rationalize DA, DAR and DENR The agriculture bureaucracy should be rationalized through the efficient and effective convergence and complementation of different agencies in concerned with agriculture.
LEGISLATIVE MEASURES Work for a Food Safety and Food Labelling Law This measure puts in place: A coordinated food safety and certification system, A clearly define the functions and mandates of the agencies concerned, A system for public laboratories to ensure the credibility of test results Participation of food supply industries in the global food trade, among others.
REFERENCES: Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016, (2011). “Chapter 4 – Competitive and Sustainable Agriculture and Fisheries Sector”. National Economic and Development Authority, Ortigas Center, Pasig City. Tanchuling, Hazel. Rice Self-Sufficiency Bulletin, (Jan-June 2011). “From Ginintuang Masaganang Ani (GMA) Program to Agrikulturang Pnoy: An Initial Analasis. Rice Watch and Action Network (R1), Quezon City. Philmech: Transforming the Future of Agriculture, http://www.philmech.gov.ph