Trabajo Tecnologia

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  • 1. Materials for construction
  • 2. Materials to use in construction:
    • They are those used in building houses, monuments and public works:
    • Stony materials.
    • Binders materials.
    • Concrete.
    • Ceramic materials.
    • Other materials.
  • 3. Stony Materials
    • We use two types of rocks:
    • Compact rocks: they are blocks of stone like ashlar or slabs.
    • Disaggregated rocks: They are pieces of stone of diferents sizes like clays and aggregates.
  • 4. Binders materials
    • They are materials that when mixed with water becomes pasty and to solidify acquire rigidity.
    • Lime: comes from limestone rocks and used to paint walls or bricks.
      • .
    • Gypsum: is used to cover walls and ceilings. There are three types of gypsum: black with impurities, without impurities and white plaster.
    • Cement:Its the most utilised binder materia
  • 5. Ceramic materials
      • They are pieces made of clay molded and baked in ovens.
      • The process consists of two phases:
      • Mixing and molding:
      • Continuous cooking ovens:
      • Bricks:
      • -Thin brick,Normal bricks
      • Tiles
      • Gres
      • Porcelain
  • 6. Concrete
    • It is a mixture of aggregates, water and binder.
    • There are various types of concrete:
    • Concrete mass
    • Concrete Cyclopean
    • Cellular Concrete
    • Reinforced concrete
  • 7. Other materials
    • Metals:
    • Steel
    • Aluminum
    • Copper:
    • -Wood
    • -Plastics
    • -Glass
  • 8. Buildings construction
    • The building is a long and complex process that involves several stages and the work of a group of professionals and employs a variety of materials. Phases:
    • Preparation of the land: demolition, debris, leveling (heavy machinery)
  • 9. Buildings construction
    • Foundation: placement of the elements that form the base of the building (below ground, shapes and sizes depend on the characteristics of the surrounding earth)
    • Elevation of the structure: was built pillars and plates that are to form the floors of the building (metal structures of steel girders and concrete armed)
  • 10. Buildings construction
    • Topping: placement of the deck of the building (roof tiles, slate tiles or sheets of zinc)
    • Laying pavement: the plaque of each floor of the building materials are placed as marble, stone, wood. etc.
    • Uprising of walls: the walls are built and the walls that divide the plants are closed and the building in order to isolate it from outside, and distributing the interior spaces (ordinary bricks)
  • 11. Buildings construction
    • Placement of facilities: each installation is done by a team of different professionals (water, gas, electricity ...)
    • Finishing work: the building is suitable for permanent use (different professional teams make use of what most diverse)
  • 12. Construction Machinery
    • On the construction machines used various:
    • Excavation and earthwork: bulldozers and loaders.
    • Leveling of land: bulldozers and graders.
    • Compacting the ground: rammers.
    • The materials are transported in trucks and vans.
  • 13. Construction Machinery
    • The materials are raised with cranes.
    • Basic structure:
    • Tower: steel vertical.
    • Feather: horizontal metal structure that can rotate 360 degrees.
    • Counterweight: structure attached to the pen at the opposite end that bears the burden.
    • Preparation of mortar and concrete in mixers, allowing homogenization of materials
  • 14. Examples