www.enabled.in ENABLED.IN Enable empowerment Contents Survey SITPROSOL Education Aid & Appliance SITuation PROblem SOLution Healthcare Employment Attitudes towards… Case study Report for Awareness Differently abled Social Protection (persons with disabilities) Accessibility References
Introduction India has a growing disability rights movement and one of the more progressive policy frameworks in the developing world. But, a lot more needs to be done in implementation and “getting the basics right”. Preventive health programs need to be deepened and all children screened at a young age. People with disabilities need to be better integrated into society by overcoming stigma. Most importantly, differently abled persons should themselves be made active participants in the development process. India has some 40 to 80 million differently abled persons. But low literacy, few jobs and widespread social stigma are making disabled people among the most excluded in India. With better education and more access to jobs, people with disabilities can become an integral part of society, as well as help generate higher economic growth that will benefit the country as a whole.
SITUATION DAP Profile Survey: Profile of Differently The NSS for 2002 estimates that 8.4 percent of rural households abled persons (DAP) and 6.1 percent of urban households had a member with a disability. PWD as share of... Census NSS 58th 1.8 All individuals 2.13 1.50 All urban individuals NA 6.1 All urban households NA The two major All rural individuals NA 1.85 8.4 official sources of All rural households NA All males 2.37 2.12 data on disability All females 1.87 1.67 differ, with the (Sources: Census 2001 and NSS 2002.) census estimate Non‐income indicators from UP and TN like frequency of three meals a day. around 18 The higher than average rural share in the PWD household percent higher population, with considerably higher than average poverty rates in rural than NSS areas nationally. estimates. The very high rates of widowhood for women, implying higher probabilities of being poor. Consistent findings from qualitative work (both in the UP/TN study and in other studies in India on disability) of community perceptions that households with disabled members tend to be poorer and more vulnerable.
Looking at the prevalence of specific disability types, the Household divergence between census and NSS estimates are very pronounced for locomotors and visual disabilities. Mental Visual Hearing NSS Speech Census Locomotor Multiple 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 (Source: NSS, 58 round and census, 2001.) The urban share of the general population over 20 percent higher than for the PWD household population, pointing to issues with access to One notable difference health care, the nature of work, and other factors. In terms of the relative between the poverty rates of PWD households, this is likely to have significant implications, as national estimates from 1999‐00 find rural poverty rates characteristics presented more than double those in urban areas. is the urban share of the Household characteristic General population HHs with PWD PWD and general ST 8.1% 6.9% household populations SC 20.2% 21.1%OBC 39.9% 42.0%Female headed 7.7% 7.2%Urban 26.1% 21.6%Land owned (hectares) 0.83 0.95HH head illiterate or 65.8% 66.7%primary /less education HH head with secondary 20.3% 17.2%/higher education Household size 7.23 6.05Age of HH head 45.98 years 50.04 years(Source: NSS, 58th round, )Bank staff estimates.)
Aid & Appliance The NSS indicator, which is extent of reliance on aids and appliances and other people for self‐care. Extent of disability Share of all PWD Cannot take care of self even with 13.6% aid‐appliance Can take care of self only with aid‐ 17.2% appliance Can take care of self without aid‐ 60.2% appliance Aid‐appliance not tried/available 9.0% (Source: NSS, 58th round, )Bank staff estimates.) DAP have high rates of illiteracy relative to the general population, for some disabilities close to double national averages. The key point is that the bulk of PWD are only mildly/moderat ely impaired by the NSS measure.
Acceptance that children with locomotor disabilities can always Attitudes Towards attend regular school is high ( though acceptance that they could attend a special School is even higher ). For those with vision and speech/hearing disabilities, only between a fifth and a quarter of respondents thought that they could always/almost always attend regular schools. However, for children with mental illness or retardation, there was very high agreement that they should never attend regular schools. Acceptance that children with disabilities should always attend special (top) and regular (bottom) schools, by disability type, UP and TN, 2005 Special School Non‐PWD PWD Severe PWD 96.2 Locomotor 96.7 95.3 Vision 91.1 87.2 88.3 83.4 Speech/hearing 86.5 82.5 52.9 Mental Ill 61.4 50.1 MR 60.8 51.9 54.0 For both households with Regular School Non‐PWD PWD Severe PWD and without a Locomotor 81.8 80.6 80.4 disabled member, Vision 25 25.7 27.8 around half the Speech/hearing 19.9 21.3 19.9 respondents 2 Mental ill 2 1.9 MR 1.1 1.3 1.3 believed that disability was ( Source: UP and TN survey, 2005. Bank staff estimates.) always or almost always a curse of God
Health Care Generally, the focus of PWD‐specific public interventions has been on rehabilitation. Technological support on rehabilitation is provided by the five National Institutes on disability, set up in the 1970s and 1980’s Special Total Rehabilitatio Extension Clinical Institution Educators PWD n Services Services Services Trained served National Institute of 2536 23452 11077 175893 212958 Hearing Handicapped National Institute of 31804 14445 54071 18923 119243 Mentally Handicapped National Institute of − 23487 65083 221804 310374 Orthopedically Handicapped National The age profile of Institute of 5972 325771 83463 24128 439514 Visually Handicapped disability onset Institute for varies sharply by the Physically 619 22090 47201 65652 135562 Handicapped category of National Institute of disability Rehabilitation 415 26369 1863 330437 359089 Training and Research District Rehabilitation Centre/Region al − 26614 149583 204286 380483 Rehabilitation Training Centers Total 41346 462228 412526 1041123 195722
PWD placed by employment exchanges are very low and placement rates have halved over the past decade (in thousands). Employment Special Placement Employment Registrations Placements Live Register ratio Exchanges 1.94% 1994 8.4 1.3 67.1 1.35% 1999 15.1 1.3 96.2 14.8 0.99% 2000 1 101.1 1.02% 2001 12 1.1 107.8 0.90% 2002 11.6 1 110.6 2003 10.9 1 109.9 0.91% Other Exchanges 1.17% 1994 35.3 3.2 273.2 0.81% 1999 47.6 2.9 359.7 0.60% 2000 49.9 2.3 384.1 2001 48.1 2.4 402.2 0.60% Employment rates 0.57% 2002 47.8 2.4 422.1 of PWD in India 0.71% 2003 55.2 3.9 551.8 are lower than the Employment rates of PWD and general population by gender and location, early 2000s general population for both genders and across urban and rural areas, and have fallen in the 1990s
Awareness of the Awareness of the PWD Act in the states studied remains very low, PWD Act and lower among households with PWDs than those without them. UP non‐PWD UP PWD HH TN PWD HH TN non‐PWD HH HH Aware 4.1% 7.5% 6.8% 8.9% o/w very familiar 6.3% 26.1% 7.4% 11.1% Not Aware 95.9% 92.5% 93.2% 91.1% Source: UP and TN Village Survey (2005) Governmental Structure for Policy and Implementation of Programs for Awareness of the PWD Act the Disabled in India here is a complex institutional framework for operation of the disability sector in India The Act covers only designated groups of PWD, which is by no means completely inclusive of categories of disability.
PROBLEM Education Large numbers of children with disabilities remain out of school. They are 4 to 5 times less likely to be in school than SC/ST children. If they do stay in school, they rarely progress beyond primary levels. This leads to lower employment and incomes. Almost three quarters of those with severe disabilities are Illiterate, and even for those with mild disabilities, the illiteracy rate is around. Perhaps the most obvious point is that even states with excellent outcomes on their general child population such as Kerala and TN have stubbornly high out of school rates for Only around 1% of funds under SSA( Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan) are Differently abled spent on inclusive education. And, the budget for educating children with mild to moderate disabilities in regular school settings has not increased children commensurately since the focus on inclusive education began in the 1970s.
Attitudes Negative attitudes held by the families of the disabled, and often the disabled themselves, deter disabled persons from taking an active part in the family, community or workforce. Those suffering from mental illness or mental retardation face the worst stigma and are subject to severe social exclusion. The portrayal of people with disabilities is overwhelmingly Perhaps the most interesting overarching result is that households negative, but also with disabled or severely disabled members exhibit very similar attitudes to those of households without disabled members. The small differences exhibits a strong indicate slightly less willingness of households with disabled members to gender bias in terms accept attendance of disabled children in regular schools. of the perceived capacities of disabled men and women.
A large number of disabilities in India are preventable, including Health Care those arising from medical issues during birth, maternal conditions, malnutrition, as well as accidents and injuries. However, the health sector is yet to react more proactively to disability, especially in the rural areas. Locomotor disability is the There is stark regional disparity. In general, states that lag in category which health services also lag in caring for the disabled. Those disabled from birth, women, and ST/SC/OBC are less likely to seek health care. Despite is undergoing years of public intervention, only a few disabled people have access to aids and appliances. the most rapid change in causal profile.
Employment Even though many disabled adults are capable of productive work, disabled adults have far lower employment rates than the general population. In fact, employment of people with disability actually fell from 43% in 1991 to 38% in 2002, despite the countrys economic growth. In the public sector, despite a 3% reservation since 2003, only 10% of posts have been identified as “suitable”. The quota policy is also covers just three types of disability – locomotor, hearing and visual. The gap in employment rates between PWD and the general population is more pronounced for those with the lowest levels of education in both The situation is far worse in the private sector. The sector has few incentives for hiring disabled people. In the late 1990s, employment of periods. people with disability among large private firms was only 0.3% of their workforce. Among multinational companies, this was a mere 0.05%. Financial assistance too has hardly reached those in need. The National Handicapped Finance and Development Corporation disbursed assistance to less than 20,000 disabled persons between 1997 and 2002.
Though centrally sponsored anti‐poverty programmes have Social Protection reservations for people with disabilities, the numbers who have benefited are well below the minimum laid down. The new National Rural Employment Guarantee Act has dropped reservations for the disabled entirely, though some states (e.g. AP) are making efforts to include disabled people. Few people with disabilities are aware of such programs and many states lack focus on social protection for PWD. Only formal sector workers are covered by the mandated Despite having one of the most progressive policy frameworks disability for persons with disabilities, India falls short in implementation. The Persons With Disabilities Act of 1995 is the cornerstone of India’s policy insurance framework, but its enforcement faces many challenges. schemes, although some voluntary ii
Accessibility Physical accessibility in buildings, transportation and the like, as well as access to services is key for persons with disability. Guidelines already exist for buildings that are friendly for both the disabled and the elderly. But these guidelines need to be adopted into building bye‐laws to make them legally binding. Indian Government Sites Not Yet Fully Disabled‐ friendly – Now Many of the rights provided for people with disabilities in India can not be realized without ensuring that the services to which they are entitled who will take are accessible, and that barriers to access in their broader environment are reduced. Accessibility for people with disabilities can mean many things, this Up? ranging from physical access to services and the built environment, to access to appropriate services such as adapted curriculum and rehabilitation services, to access to civil and political participation, including voting and the justice system.
SOLUTION Education There is a need for a more accurate data collection. Harmonizing definitions of disability in government surveys and the census would be a good beginning. 1. Improving identification of children with disabilities and promoting access to schools 2. Improving the quality of education services 3. Strengthening education institutions Enhanced Quality Learning Parents Capacity building for associations are developed Ministries of Education to and strengthened parents allow the sustainable Basic training of associations and children mobilize to challenge public improved management of the education system by the opinion on children with ministries themselves, thus educational disabilities. facilitating long term Parents and improved access and quality administrators children are empowered to in education sector, ensuring advocate to policy makers, that mainstream schooling is would also be teachers, and the pubic for accessible to children with the rights of children with disabilities. disabilities. necessary in order to ensure that teachers Universal primary education, including children with disabilities are encouraged to use their disability‐ specific skills. Our website have the information on special education providing special schools and National Institute which will help the differently abled persons life progress in right path and achieve their ambition.
Attitudes Much of the literature on disability in India has pointed to the importance of the concept of karma in attitudes to disability, with disability perceived either as punishment for misdeeds in the past lives of the PWD, or the wrongdoings of their parents. Showcasing success stories of people with disabilities can challenge these deep rooted negative perceptions. 1. Changing attitudes to disability is likely to area where it is particularly important for governments to work with people with disabilities, NGO/DPOs, 2. A second important step where media, persons with disabilities, social activists, and NGOs are likely to have comparative advantage is putting the experience and success stories of persons with disabilities into the public arena. Listen to the person with the 3. Changing societal attitudes to people with disabilities, even disability. Do not among people with disabilities themselves at times, presents many challenges. However, a basic starting point is facts make assumptions about what the person can or cannot do. We exhibit the successful personalities who overcome the obstacles has their testimony in the form of videos and audios which will motivate the other differently abled persons immensely.
It is clear that much remains to be done to improve the response Health Care of health systems to disability, both in terms of prevention and in terms of access to treatment and rehabilitation services. 1. Improving identification and certification of disability 2. Minimizing the incidence and severity of disability 3. Improving quality of care for disabled people 4. Addressing current and future provision and information gaps. It is also clear that prevention of disability is also dependent on policies and actions outside the health system. Prevention of deformities will be presented with 100% proven methods as the needy people benefited from our magazines and book for their better life and held their head high in this competitive society
Employment It is clear from the review of active labor policies in the public sector and private interventions that there are no magic solutions to the poor employment outcomes of PWD. Improving employment outcomes for people with disabilities starts with the education system and community attitudes. Several recommendations emerge from the analysis 1. Improving public sector employment practices 2. Improving quality of private sector initiatives, and strengthening public‐private partnerships 3. Increasing outreach to marginalized groups and regions Improving Public interventions have achieved minimal coverage over a sustained employment period, with no signs of significant improvement. There are relative out‐ outcomes for performers by state under different programs, but even those achieve low outcomes in absolute terms. people with NGO programs face inherent challenges of scale and often need disabilities starts stronger linkage to the labor market to improve impact. with the education system and community attitudes. Jobs will be identified through survey and the polls conducted for the persons to aware of the current situation as it intends them to prepare well and Accessibility for people to get the suitable job.
Policies and programs should help improve awareness and targeting Social Protection of safety net benefits to the poor and develop innovative approaches to extend coverage of disability insurance . 1. Improving the safety net 2. Expanding disability insurance It would also seem sensible to consider a base level of funding from the central government on disability social pensions. Our conscious to provide the government act and policies towards the differently abled persons will be presented through the social networking in the sense of community forums to create a huge awareness.
Accessibility Accessibility for people with disabilities has been increasingly stressed in regional and international initiatives. 1. Buildings, roads, transportation and other indoor and outdoor facilities, including schools, housing, medical facilities and workplaces 2. Information, communications and other services, including electronic services and emergency services. 3. To develop, promulgate and monitor the implementation of minimum standards and guidelines for accessibility of facilities open or provided to the public 4. To ensure that private entities that offer facilities and services which are open or provided to the public take into account all aspects of accessibility for persons with disabilities States and/or municipal 5. To provide training for stakeholders on accessibility issues facing authorities which have yet to persons with disabilities amend their building bye‐ 6. To provide in buildings and other facilities open to the public laws to comply with the signage in Braille and in easy to read and understand forms 1998 guidelines should be 7. To provide forms of live assistance and intermediaries, including encouraged to do so in the guides, readers and professional sign 8. To promote other appropriate forms of assistance and support to nearest future. These should persons with disabilities to ensure their access to information; allow for clear sanctions in 9. To promote access for persons with disabilities to new information case of failure to comply and communications technologies and systems, including the with accessibility standards, Internet and administrative clarity on 10. To promote the design, development, production and distribution official accountability in of accessible information and communications technologies and cases of failure to comply. systems at an early stage, so that these technologies and systems become accessible at minimum cost. Accessibility for the differently abled persons will be concentrated and set the guidelines which have to be executed properly for their day to day life. Furthermore we implement the better web accessibility for the on‐line presence by following W3C guidelines.
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References: World Bank Disability section http://www.worldbank.org/disability International Classification of Functioning: Disability and Health http://www3.who.int/icf/icftemplate.cfm Asian and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons 1993–2003 http://www.unescap.org/decade/publications/z15009gl/z1500901.htm Disabled People International (DPI) and DPOs directory http://v1.dpi.org/lang‐en/locations/national More Details: Enabled Service: http://enabled.in/ http://delicious.com/enabledservice/ http://delicious.com/ksathasivam/ http://www.worldbank.org.in/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/INDIAEXTN/0,,contentMDK:21557057~menuPK:295589~pagePK:2865066~piPK:2865079~theSitePK:295584,00.html http://punarbhava.in/ http://un‐gaid.ning.com/profiles/blogs/empowerment‐of‐persons‐with
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