Air Pollution over Navajo and Hopi Lands - Beth Holland
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Air Pollution over Navajo and Hopi Lands - Beth Holland

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    Air Pollution over Navajo and Hopi Lands - Beth Holland Air Pollution over Navajo and Hopi Lands - Beth Holland Presentation Transcript

    • Air Pollution over Navajo and Hopi LandsPresented by Elisabeth A. Holland,Senior Scientist, Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, COCo-recipient2007 Nobel Peace Prize as Lead Author of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    • NOx Emissions from Western US Power Plants
      Colstrip
      North Valmy
      Dave Johnston/
      Laramie River
      Intermountain
      Jim Bridger/
      Naughton
      Hunter /
      Huntington
      Reid Gardener
      Craig/Hayden
      Bonanza
      Mohave
      Four Corners/
      San Juan
      Navajo
      Cholla/Coronado/ Springerville
      S.-W. Kim et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2009
      SCIAMACHY, Summer 2005
    • NOx Emissions from Western US Cities
      Denver
      Boise
      Salt Lake City
      Reno
      Sacramento
      San Francisco
      Albuquerque / Santa Fe
      Fresno
      Bakersfield
      Los Angeles
      Las Vegas
      Phoenix
      El Paso
      Tucson
      S.-W. Kim et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2009
      SCIAMACHY, Summer 2005
    • What do these maps mean?
      The air downwind of the Navajo Nation power generating stations as polluted as large western cities, including Phoenix, Salt Lake, Denver and Las Vegas.
    • Health Impacts
      NO2 andhealth:
      asthma; respiratory irritation; airway inflammation; headaches; pulmonary emphysema (chronically reduced lung function); impairment of lung defenses; oedema of lungs; eye irritations; loss of appetite;corrosion of teeth, and increased emergency room visits.
      The most vulnerable groups are young children, asthmatics, as well as individuals with chronic bronchitis, emphysema or other chronic respiratory diseases.
    • Health Impacts, continued
      Ozone and  health: 
      NO2 is a catalyst for ozone formation.
      Reduction in lungfunction, asthmatriggerandincreasedrespiratorysymptomsaswell as respiratoryrelatedemergencydepartment visits,  hospital admissions,  and  premature  deaths.
    • Health Impacts, continued
      Small particlesandhealth: smallparticles, likethosegeneratedby NO2emissions,
      penetratedeeplyinto sensitive partsofthelungsandcancauseorworsenrespiratorydisease, such asemphysemaandbronchitisandcanaggravateexistingheartdisease, andobesityleadingtoincreasedhospitaladmissionsandincreaseddeath
    • Human and Natural Drivers of Climate Change
      coal
      coal
    • Many Changes Signal A Warming World
      Rising atmospheric temperature
      And……
      • Atmospheric water vapor increasing
      • Glaciers retreating
      • Arctic sea ice extent decreasing
      • Extreme temperatures increasing
      • ………….
      Rising sea level
      Reduction in NH snow cover
      IPCC WG1 (2007)
    • What’s in the pipeline and what could come
      Warming will increase if GHG increase. If GHG were kept fixed at current levels, a committed 0.6°C of further warming would be expected by 2100. More warming would accompany more emission.
      CO2 Eq
      3.4oC = 6.1oF
      850
      2.8oC = 5.0oF
      600
      1.8oC = 3.2oF
      0.6oC = 1.0oF
      400
    • What does this mean for Black Mesa?
      Warmer Temperatures
      More Intense Rainfall
      More Droughts
      More Dust storms
      More extreme weather

      And
      15.67 billion tons of coal in Black Mesa  3.5 ppm increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere,
      Increase in the carbon dioxide since the Long Walk is
      ~100 ppm