The Navajo Generating Station: Opportunity for Transition Rob Smith, Sierra Club Roger Clark, Grand Canyon Trust SRP stake...
 
Navajo Generating Station August 2010
 
“ It’s the pollution and what the impacts are going to be from the pollution to all the people that live there. ”  Elouise...
<ul><li>1955 Air Pollution Control Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>research on air pollution sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1963...
SCR is the new NOx standard Blue = installed  Red = planned   Purple = recommended   Green = ?? Source: Sierra Club  2/2011
Cost of Pollution Controls for Navajo Generating Station Using Salt River Project high estimate for SCR  (compared to Nati...
Water BuRec share of NGS 24.3% BuRec share of SRP est. TAC ($/yr.) $23,036,000 CAP M&I and Indian water contracts (af/yr.)...
2006-2011   =  +43% 2006-2016   =  +72%
A drier  West Source:  University of Arizona Palmer Drought Severity Index
“ … the EPA reported that the build-up of carbon dioxide in the  atmosphere would cause a warming of  the earth in the 199...
<ul><li>BART at NGS  </li></ul><ul><li>Install within 3 years: </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Catalytic Reduction </li></ul><...
<ul><li>NGS uncertainties </li></ul><ul><li>LADWP plans to divest 21.2% share of NGS by 2014 </li></ul><ul><li>Renew 40-ye...
<ul><li>Coal supply uncertainties </li></ul><ul><li>Kayenta mine lease expiration in 2026 </li></ul><ul><li>New EIS requir...
<ul><li>U.S. Department of Interior Leadership Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to begin planning the orderly transiti...
<ul><li>Critical DOI choices: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Reduce DOI ’s 24.3% share of NGS air pollution to meet BART </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Suggestions for DOI transition plan: </li></ul><ul><li>Redesign existing generation and transmission facilities fo...
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Grand Canyon Trust - Opportunity for Transition

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  • The Navajo Generating Station has been noticed for years because of where it is and how it pollutes the air. Some just notice the steam plume, though.
  • It ’s not just steam. Even with existing partial controls, Navajo Generating Station is a major polluter. The soot and NOx drift throughout the Four Corners region. And if you can see, it’s bad to breathe, too.
  • The Navajo power plant pollutes the air over several parks and wilderness areas which are supposed to have clean air by law. A deciview is enough change in visibility to be noticed by the human eye, about a 10% difference. Modern pollution controls can noticeably improve air quality throughout the Southwest.
  • Elouise Brown and daughter Victoria Alba protesting proposed Desert Rock coal plant near Burnham, NM. Pollution hurts people.
  • Reducing air pollution and restoring clean air has been a national goal for generations, and cleaning up the air around the Grand Canyon has been a major focus of more recent haze reduction.
  • SCR controls are the modern standard for cleaning up NOx pollution across the country, including in the Southwest. Even SRP is installing it on their Coronado plant.
  • The costs of even the most expensive pollution controls using SRP ’s figures is minimal when spread over 20 years and the customer base.
  • The cost of even the most expensive pollution controls using SRP ’s cost estimates won’t be noticeable in urban water bills, even if the cities and federal government take on the entire increase.
  • CAP water costs are already scheduled to increase much more than the cost of NGS controls would add.
  • The Colorado River Basin and the Four Corners region is predicted to get hotter and drier than elsewhere. This means less water as well as higher temperatures. Hotter and drier is predicted for the Southwest, especially in the Colorado Rockies, the source of most of the Colorado River we rely upon.
  • Burning coal and heating the atmosphere has been officially linked since Ronald Regan was President
  • Here ’s what we believe the Clean Air Act requires for full compliance at the Navajo Generating Station to clean up air pollution to modern standards. It’s not just NOx.
  • There are a host of other uncertainties about the future of the Navajo Generating Station
  • There are also many uncertainties about the future coal supply for the Navajo Generating Station
  • Because of the unique federal ownership and trust responsibilities at NGS, the feds should lead the way on a comprehensive solution
  • The Interior Department, as the largest single owner of NGS, should commit to transitioning this plant from coal to clean energy
  • In addition to NGS there are other related ways in which DOI can transition from coal to clean energy while meeting its other obligations
  • Before he died Stewart Udall saw the need to move beyond our understandings of the past to create a sustainable future.
  • Grand Canyon Trust - Opportunity for Transition

    1. 2. The Navajo Generating Station: Opportunity for Transition Rob Smith, Sierra Club Roger Clark, Grand Canyon Trust SRP stakeholder meeting Page, AZ February 4, 2011
    2. 4. Navajo Generating Station August 2010
    3. 6. “ It’s the pollution and what the impacts are going to be from the pollution to all the people that live there. ” Elouise Brown, Dooda Desert Rock Photo: New York Times
    4. 7. <ul><li>1955 Air Pollution Control Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>research on air pollution sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1963 Clean Air Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>national program on air pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1967 Air Quality Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>control of interstate pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1970 Clean Air Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>health standards, control of auto and industry pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1977 Clean Air Act amendments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prevent and remedy regional haze with Best Available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrofit Technology (BART) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1990 Clean Air Act amendments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>control acid rain and toxics, protect ozone layer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2007 Supreme Court (Massachusetts v. EPA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO2 is air pollutant </li></ul></ul>A national commitment to clean air
    5. 8. SCR is the new NOx standard Blue = installed Red = planned Purple = recommended Green = ?? Source: Sierra Club 2/2011
    6. 9. Cost of Pollution Controls for Navajo Generating Station Using Salt River Project high estimate for SCR (compared to National Park Service) Power SRP est. Total Annual Cost w/SCR/LNB/SOFA @ 20 years $94.8 MM ($38.5 MM – NPS) SRP share of Navajo plant 21.7% SRP share of TAC $20,571,600 SRP retail sales FY 2009 MWh 26,747,000 SRP pollution control cost/MWh $0.77 Divide by 1000 for kWh $0.00077 Average monthly SRP residential use (kWh) 1208 Monthly increase in SRP power rates/resident $0.93 ($0.38/NPS) Calculation: Sierra Club
    7. 10. Water BuRec share of NGS 24.3% BuRec share of SRP est. TAC ($/yr.) $23,036,000 CAP M&I and Indian water contracts (af/yr.) 1,288,402 Cost of NGS controls/af for M&I and Indian water $17.88/af ($7.15/NPS) CAP M&I and Federal subcontract rate 2010 $118.00/af Water rate with NGS controls $135.88/af Amount of increase for CAP water 15% (6%/NPS) CAP component of Phoenix water 43% Rate of increase to Phoenix water rates (.43 x .15) 6.5% Amount increase/af for Phoenix water user $7.67 Average Phoenix water use (4-people, 135 gal/cap) 197,100 gallons = .6 af Average Phoenix household annual water cost increase $4.60 Monthly water increase/average Phoenix household $0.38 ($0.16/NPS) Calculation: Sierra Club Cost of Pollution Controls for Navajo Generating Station Using Salt River Project high estimate for SCR (compared to National Park Service)
    8. 11. 2006-2011 = +43% 2006-2016 = +72%
    9. 12. A drier West Source: University of Arizona Palmer Drought Severity Index
    10. 13. “ … the EPA reported that the build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere would cause a warming of the earth in the 1990 ’ s. “ The burning of fossil fuels such as petroleum products and coal is the main cause of the build-up. ” The World Book Year Book - 1984
    11. 14. <ul><li>BART at NGS </li></ul><ul><li>Install within 3 years: </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Catalytic Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Baghouses </li></ul><ul><li>Improved pollution controls for sulfur and ammonia </li></ul>
    12. 15. <ul><li>NGS uncertainties </li></ul><ul><li>LADWP plans to divest 21.2% share of NGS by 2014 </li></ul><ul><li>Renew 40-year water contract for 34,100 af of Arizona ’s </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Basin water by 2013 (Navajo and Hopi may have claims </li></ul><ul><li>on Arizona ’s 50,000 af of Upper Basin Water) </li></ul><ul><li>Renewal of site leases with Navajo Nation for power plant, waste </li></ul><ul><li>disposal, railroad, transmission lines, etc by 2019 </li></ul><ul><li>Pending standards for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>toxics (incl. mercury, a neurotoxin) -- NGS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>emits more than 300 lbs/year of mercury </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO2 (a planetary threat). NGS releases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>nearly 20 million tons/year, about 1/4 th of AZ ’s GHG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ozone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coal combustion waste </li></ul></ul>
    13. 16. <ul><li>Coal supply uncertainties </li></ul><ul><li>Kayenta mine lease expiration in 2026 </li></ul><ul><li>New EIS required for Kayenta mine </li></ul><ul><li>Relocation of people, new environmental and cultural clearances </li></ul><ul><li>may be needed for continued mining after 2030 </li></ul><ul><li>Renegotiation of coal and water agreements with Navajo and Hopi </li></ul><ul><li>governments </li></ul><ul><li>Community concerns with: </li></ul><ul><li>--Wastewater discharges from mines and ponds </li></ul><ul><li>--Dewatering Moenkopi Wash </li></ul><ul><li>--Groundwater depletion and contamination </li></ul><ul><li>--Livestock deaths and human illness </li></ul>
    14. 17. <ul><li>U.S. Department of Interior Leadership Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to begin planning the orderly transition to cleaner energy </li></ul><ul><li>alternatives that will: </li></ul><ul><li>improve the health and well-being of people and ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>reduce air pollution that impairs visibility at Grand Canyon </li></ul><ul><li>increase opportunities for community economic growth, diversification, </li></ul><ul><li>and sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>ensure Hopi and Navajo communities access to clean water, restored </li></ul><ul><li>aquifers and springs, and other human rights </li></ul><ul><li>provide affordable water delivery through the Central Arizona Project </li></ul><ul><li>for agricultural, municipal, industrial, and tribal interests </li></ul><ul><li>fulfill the federal government ’s trust responsibilities to Navajo </li></ul><ul><li>and Hopi people </li></ul>
    15. 18. <ul><li>Critical DOI choices: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Reduce DOI ’s 24.3% share of NGS air pollution to meet BART </li></ul><ul><li>within 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>2) DOI commits to “ eliminating coal use ” and “ implementing on-site </li></ul><ul><li>renewable energy projects ” at the NGS site by 2020 in </li></ul><ul><li>compliance with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of the Interior strategic plan to reduce its greenhouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gas emissions by 20% by 2020 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://fedcenter.gov/_kd/Items/actions.cfm?action=Show&item_id =16146 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>& destination=ShowItem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential Executive Order 13514 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ceq/initiatives/sustainability </li></ul></ul>
    16. 19. <ul><li>Suggestions for DOI transition plan: </li></ul><ul><li>Redesign existing generation and transmission facilities for renewable </li></ul><ul><li>energy projects (incl. converting Black Mesa strip mined areas to solar </li></ul><ul><li>generation, locating solar and wind projects near transmission lines </li></ul><ul><li>across tribal land, using the CAP canal ROW for solar projects) </li></ul><ul><li>Create opportunities for Hopi and Navajo ownership of renewable </li></ul><ul><li>energy projects </li></ul><ul><li>Create revenue sources for Hopi and Navajo economic development </li></ul><ul><li>through the sale of pollution credits and carbon not burned </li></ul><ul><li>Help finance capital costs by modifying CAP repayment terms </li></ul>
    17. 20. “ Operating on the assumption that energy would be both cheap and superabundant, I led my generation to make misjudgments that have come back and now haunt and perplex your generation… Now, the paramount task of your generation will be to correct those mistakes with an efficient infrastructure that respects the limitations of our environment to keep up with the damages we are causing. ” Stewart Udall, “A Letter to My Grandchildren”, 2009

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