An Introduction to InnovationThomas J. Howardthow@mek.dtu.dk                         Unless otherwise stated, this materia...
What is Innovation?2       Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard    20...
Why Innovation?…$$$!…growth……demand……competition……sustainability…    Innovation is a way of generating    business!3      ...
Definitions…    • “An innovation is an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as      new by an individual or other u...
Image taken from http://www.effectiveui.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/innovation.png5          Adapted from David Sm...
Famous Inventions…Bicycle                                                            Pierre Lallement, 1866Radio          ...
Invention vs. Innovation                                                                                      Singer    Sp...
Invention vs. Innovation8       Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard ...
Invention, Commercialisation & Diffusion    Invention                            Commercialisation                        ...
Innovation…?10       Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard    2012    ...
Degree of Innovation                                                    Newness to market                                 ...
Classifying InnovationR. Garcia, R. Calantone (2002), A critical look attechnological innovation typology and innovativene...
Technology/Market Taxonomy         Breakthrough Novelty of Technology                                             Technica...
Typology – Markets & Technology• Application Innovator   – Uses existing technology to produce complementary products   – ...
Application Innovators  The iPhone applications provide a user with a slew of  different kinds of features or attributes. ...
Market Innovators: The Sims                                    Will Wright and Maxis team created                         ...
Technology Innovators17       Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard   ...
Paradigm InnovatorsThe Global Positioning System is a constellationof 31 satellites that is used to calculate yourposition...
3 Routes to Invention                 Individual                 ( heroic )                   Corporate                   ...
Risky business…20       Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard    2012 ...
Sometimes it works               http://bit.ly/A1fBtA          Shared using Image Space Media (www.imagespacemedia.com)21 ...
And sometimes…               http://www.zoxed.eu/photos/bikes_c5.html22       Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innova...
You may not be far from success!                                                                      http://www.hoinareal...
Why do Innovations fail?•Technological failure     –it doesn’t work              • e.g. Rolls-Royce’s ‘Hyfil’ carbon fibre...
No one is perfect                                                  EDISON:                                                ...
Accidentals: Bill & SteveThink of the computer entrepreneurs such as Bill Gates at Microsoft or SteveJobs at Apple - both ...
Accidentals: ViagraThe drug company Pfizer was looking for something that would relax these blood vesselsto treat angina, ...
Summary• Innovation is trick to define but is generally seen as theexploitation of an new idea.• Many ways to categorise i...
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42629 lecture 1 pt3

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Introduction to Innovation
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42629 lecture 1 pt3

  1. 1. An Introduction to InnovationThomas J. Howardthow@mek.dtu.dk Unless otherwise stated, this material is under a Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution–Share-Alike licence and can be freely modified, used and redistributed but only under the same licence and if including the following statement:“Original material by Thomas J. Howard for course 42629 – Innovation and Product DevelopmentDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, The Technical University of Denmark”
  2. 2. What is Innovation?2 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  3. 3. Why Innovation?…$$$!…growth……demand……competition……sustainability… Innovation is a way of generating business!3 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  4. 4. Definitions… • “An innovation is an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption” Rogers (1995) • “Innovation is the successful exploitation of ideas” DTI (2004) • “Innovations are new things in the business of producing, distributing and consuming new products or services” Betje (1998) • “The first commercial application or production of a new process or product” Freemen & Soete (1997) • “The things that make your wonder how it was done before they appeared on the market” Tim McAloone 2010 during a drinking session with Sofiane Achiche and Thomas Howard, Copenhagen K.4 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  5. 5. Image taken from http://www.effectiveui.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/innovation.png5 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  6. 6. Famous Inventions…Bicycle Pierre Lallement, 1866Radio Guglielmo Marconi, 1897Computer Alan Turing, 1945Penicillin Florey & Heatley, 1940Internal Combustion Engine Nicolaus Otto, 1876World Wide Web Tim Berners-Lee, 1989Light Bulb T. Edison/J. Swan 1879Cat’s Eyes Percy Shaw, 1936Television John Logie Baird, 1923Telephone Alexander G. Bell, 18766 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  7. 7. Invention vs. Innovation Singer Spengler Hoover Howe7 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  8. 8. Invention vs. Innovation8 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  9. 9. Invention, Commercialisation & Diffusion Invention Commercialisation Diffusion INNOVATION9 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  10. 10. Innovation…?10 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  11. 11. Degree of Innovation Newness to market New Completely Product New Products Lines Newness to Company Improvements to Existing Line Products Extensions Cost Product Re- Reductions positioning11 Source: Adapted from R.G.Cooper (2001) Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  12. 12. Classifying InnovationR. Garcia, R. Calantone (2002), A critical look attechnological innovation typology and innovativenessterminology: a literature review12 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  13. 13. Technology/Market Taxonomy Breakthrough Novelty of Technology Technical Paradigm Innovators Innovators Application Market Innovators Innovators Established Emerging Novelty of Market13 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  14. 14. Typology – Markets & Technology• Application Innovator – Uses existing technology to produce complementary products – Usually into more specialised/niche markets• Market Innovator – Develop new markets with existing technologies• Technology Innovators – New technologies used in new products sold in established markets• Paradigm Innovators – New technologies, new products and new markets14 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  15. 15. Application Innovators The iPhone applications provide a user with a slew of different kinds of features or attributes. The new version equips a user with a camera producing good quality photos but the older version had only 2.0 mega pixel camera. In the latest iPhone version, you can click photos and also edit the images.http://www.iphone4developers.com 15 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  16. 16. Market Innovators: The Sims Will Wright and Maxis team created tools, and mechanisms with which to construct relationships between objects, and some basic spaces - but that’s it. The rest is over to the user. Therefore, a pretty adaptive approach and extraordinarily successful: The best selling computer game of all time (with significant female userbase) so it clearly tapped into something. www.cityofsound.typepad.com/blog/designingforadaptation. ppt%2016 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  17. 17. Technology Innovators17 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  18. 18. Paradigm InnovatorsThe Global Positioning System is a constellationof 31 satellites that is used to calculate yourposition.http://www.unavco.org/edu_outreach In 1991 WiFi was developed in the/resources/how_gps_works/Larson_GPS_MiddleSchool.ppt Netherlands by Vic Hayes under the former NCR Corporation/AT&T. www2.hawaii.edu/~mpolende/p7mylafep.ppt18 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  19. 19. 3 Routes to Invention Individual ( heroic ) Corporate Invention ( Closed ) Open19 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  20. 20. Risky business…20 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  21. 21. Sometimes it works http://bit.ly/A1fBtA Shared using Image Space Media (www.imagespacemedia.com)21 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  22. 22. And sometimes… http://www.zoxed.eu/photos/bikes_c5.html22 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  23. 23. You may not be far from success! http://www.hoinareala.ro/detop/2_68_Segway%20004.jpghttp://0.tqn.com/d/motorcycles/1/0/R/C/-/-/BMW_action.jpg http://www.beloblog.com/ProJo_Blogs/newsblog/archives/smartcar.jpg 23 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  24. 24. Why do Innovations fail?•Technological failure –it doesn’t work • e.g. Rolls-Royce’s ‘Hyfil’ carbon fibre fan blade•Market failure –Change in market conditions • e.g. Dupont’s Corfam artificial leather –Product doesn’t meet consumer needs • e.g. Sinclair C5 electric car had a range of 6 miles –Poor marketing • e.g. Sinclair C5 – an open topped vehicle was launched in mid-winter24 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  25. 25. No one is perfect EDISON: “I have not failed. Ive just found 10,000 ways that wont work.” Thomas Edison became a holder of 1,093 US patents as a result of one thing - perseverance. He had no formal education yet by the age of 14 had developed an entrepreneurial spirit and started his own newspaper, which funded a kit for a chemical laboratory that he set up in the basement of his family home.25 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  26. 26. Accidentals: Bill & SteveThink of the computer entrepreneurs such as Bill Gates at Microsoft or SteveJobs at Apple - both born in 1955, making them the right age to have timeto play with the newfangled microprocessors in their teens.Then Michael Dell was the right age to exploit the idea of making cheap clonecopies of IBM PCs in the 1980s. Of course, the country and society you areborn into may also have a profound influence on your career prospects.In research Jim Bright conducted with Robert Pryor and others, they found ina sample of more than 750 young Australians that about 80 per centreported a chance event had significantly influenced their careers. Luck, itturns out, is the norm, not the exception.Many in our sample reported that being in the right or wrong place at theright or wrong time had impacted their careers. Others said unintendedexperiences had led them into different opportunities. So if luck plays such asignificant role, how can we make ourselves more lucky? http://thebigchair.com.au/news/career-couch/success-luck-or-planning26 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  27. 27. Accidentals: ViagraThe drug company Pfizer was looking for something that would relax these blood vesselsto treat angina, however its trials in people were disappointing. Pfizer were about toabandon further trials when the trial volunteers started coming back and reporting anunusual side effect - lots of erections.Pfizer senior scientist Chris Wayman was charged with investigating what was happening.He created a model man in the lab. He took a set of test-tubes filled with an inertsolution, and in each one placed a piece of penile tissue, taken from an impotent man.Each piece of tissue was then connected up to a box that, at the flick of a switch, wouldsend a pulse of electricity through the tissue.Applying this current of electricity mimics what happens when a man is aroused.The first time he did this nothing happened to the vessels. However, when he addedViagra to the tissue bath the penile blood vessels suddenly relaxed - as they would for aman to give him an erection.He said: "What was amazing about this study was that we saw a restoration of theerectile response. Now we were on to something which could only be described asspecial". ...Viagra was used to treat nearly 30m men in its first ten years http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/8466118.stm27 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
  28. 28. Summary• Innovation is trick to define but is generally seen as theexploitation of an new idea.• Many ways to categorise innovation types, but the simplest andperhaps most useful are those that categorise on 2 axis: Technologynewness vs Market newnessExercise• In groups of 3, try to think of a new example of a product orservice to fit in each category of innovation.• Place on the same matrix at least one of your business ideas youwill be proposing to you group this week.28 Adapted from David Smith’s “Exploring Innovation” by Sofiane Achiche and Thomas J. Howard 2012 for course 42629: Innovation and Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
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