New عرض تقديمي من microsoft power point
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New عرض تقديمي من microsoft power point



eman mohamed rashad (my powerponin presentation about uses laser in medical feild)

eman mohamed rashad (my powerponin presentation about uses laser in medical feild)



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New عرض تقديمي من microsoft power point New عرض تقديمي من microsoft power point Presentation Transcript

  • L aser s Used i n the M edi cal F i eld• E l la hae been used in avrietyof wy dica sers v a asfor m nyy rs. M l la a used for cosm a ea edica sers re eticprocedures, surg a dianostic procedures. T ery nd g hevria of frequency pow a wv a tions , er nd aem surem sepa te both the ty of la tha ea ents ra pes sers thae been dev v eloped a the mria wy in w nd y d as hichthe different la m ybe used. N ty of sers a ew pestrea ent hae been dev tm v eloped in conjunction withnewty of m l la pes edica sers.
  • In the ea das of la it ca e a asurprise tha these tools of lig - rly y sers m s t htcould be used in the science of m edicine, since no one env isioned tha they tm ht be a to hea or otherw im e peoples phy l w being ig ble l ise prov sica ell- .B doctors a m l resea ut nd edica rchers quicklybeg n to see the possibilities, aa the num of uses for m l la m nd ber edica sers ultiplied ov the y rs. er eaAong other a tions, these include cutting into tissue in surg l m pplica icaprocedures; resha the corneaof the ey to im e sig clea ping e prov ht; ningclog ed a g rteries; burning a a caities a w wy v nd hitening the teeth; rem ing ovunwnted ha w a ir, rinkles, birthm rks, a freckles; a resha the fa a nd nd ping ce .in pla surg procedures stic ery
  • "T he A dvent of the " L aser Scal pelErlyexperim a enters w m l la pointed out tha there a surg l- ith edica sers t re icaopera tha a difficult to perform w the conv l sca a tions t re ith entiona lpel ndtha ala bea m ht be used instea Initia tria show tha afinely t ser m ig d. l ls ed tfocused bea from aca dioxide g s la could cut throug hum n m rbon a ser h atissue ea a nea . T surg could direct the bea from a a le sily nd tly he eon m ny ng .byusing am m irror ounted on am a m l a ovble eta rm
  • • S era a a ges of la surgeryquicklybeca e a rent. F the light bea is ev l dvnta ser m ppa irst, m consistent, w m ns tha it g es off the sa e a ount of energ from n this photo hich ea t iv m m y I taken during open-heartsurgery, a doctor uses a laser probeto punch small holes in thepatients heartmuscleto increase theorgans blood flow .• one second to the next. S a long a the bea is mov a , the cut it ma (the os s m ing long kes incision) does not vryin depth; w s w using asca adoctor ca a a herea hen lpel n ccidentally m ke pa of the incision too deep. A a rt second a a g of the surg l la is tha the hot dvntae ica ser t bea ca m uterizes, or sea off, the open blood v a it m es a . ( his w w ls essels s ov long T orks ell m inlyfor sm ll v such a those in the skin. T doctor still ha to sea off the a a essels, s he s l la er blood v using conv l m rg essels entiona ethods.) S a till nother a a g is tha the cells dvntae t in hum n tissue do not conduct hea v w so the skin or a other tissue nea the a t ery ell, ny r la incision does not g v hot a is not a ser et ery nd ffected bythe bea . T a a g of la m his dvntae ser surg is v helpful w adoctor m opera on atinya tha is surrounded by ery ery hen ust te rea t hea tissue or org ns. It should be pointed out tha the "la sca is not lthy a t ser lpel" necessa the best tool to use in ev opera S e doctors feel tha w the la rily ery tion. om t hile ser is useful in som situa it w nev tota repla the sca O a m e tions, ill er lly ce lpel. thers re ore optim a see ada w m a a la w m ke the sca athing of the istic nd y hen ore dvnced sers ill a lpel past.
  • • T second of these v s ma prov to be the most a te, for surgica use of he iew y e ccura l la is ra a a . Afirst, la w considered m effectiv in sers pidly dvncing t sers ere ost e opera on a s tha a ea to rea rea on the body exterior, including the ting rea t re sy ch—a s s skin, m nose, ea a ey B in recent y rs doctors hae dem ted outh, rs, nd es. ut ea v onstra rem rka prog in dev a ble ress eloping la techniques for use in interna explora ser l tion a surg . O course, in order to be a to direct the la bea the doctor m nd ery f ble ser m ust be a to see inside the body In som ca this is asim m tter of m king a ble . e ses ple a a n incision a opening up the a to be opera on. B there a situa in w nd rea ted ut re tions hich this step ca be aoided. n v
  • Cl eani ng A r ter i es wi th L i ght• F insta la a increa lyused to clea pla frompeoples a . P que is atough fa substa tha or nce, sers re sing n que rteries la tty nce t ca build up on the inside wlls of the a . Eentua the v ca g so clog ed tha blood does not flow n a rteries v lly essels n et g t norm lly a the result ca be ahea a ck or stroke, both of w a serious a som es fa l. T tra l a , nd n rt tta hich re nd etim ta he ditiona m for rem ing the pla inv es opening the chest a m king sev l incisions, along a som es risky ethod ov que olv nd a era nd etim opera . It is a expensiv a requires w for recov . tion lso e nd eeks ery• A effectiv a tiv is to use ala bea to burn a a the pla . T keyto ma this w is the doctors n e lterna e ser m wy que he king ork a to see inside the a a direct the bea , a bility rtery nd m nother a in w fiber optics a la a com into a rea hich nd sers re bined m w tool. A optic fiber tha ha been connected to atinytelev ca eraca be inserted into a a . odern onder n t s ision m n n rtery T elem nowbecom am ture sensor tha a s the doctor a nurses to see inside the a w asecond hese ents e inia t llow nd rtery hile fiber is inserted to ca the bursts of lig tha w burn a a the pla . rry ht t ill wy que• T technique w in the follow wy T fiber- a yis inserted into ablood v in a a or leg a he orks ing a. he optic rra essel n rm nd m ed slow into the a of the hea a blocked a . W the a yis in pla the la is fired a the ov ly rea rt nd rteries hen rra ce ser nd pla destroy a then the exha vpors a sucked ba throug atinyhollowtube tha is inserted a w que ed, nd ust a re ck h t long ith the optica fibers. W the a ha been clea out the doctor rem es the fibers a tube, a the opera is l hen rtery s ned ov nd nd tion finished. T m l process is know a la a iopla . It ha sev l obv a a g . F no incision is needed his edica n s ser ng sty s era ious dvntaes irst, (except for the sm ll one in the v to insert the fibers) T is a little or no bleeding a the pa ca a essel . here lso , nd tient n enjoytota recov in ada or tw. l ery y o• Lser a iopla does hae some potentia risks tha must be considered. F w the la bea fires a the pla a ng sty v l t irst, hen ser m t que it m be a ed v ca ust im ery refullybeca aslig m could cut throug the wll of the a a ca serious use ht iss h a rtery nd use bleeding T pa chest w then hae to be opened up a a . A problem inv es sm ll pieces of burnt . he tients ould v fter ll nother olv a debris fromthe
  • • Surgeons useatiny laser tocutaway tissuein agallbladder operation. The laser and atiny c era are insert intothe navel, so noabdom am ed inal incision is necessary.• destroy pla . If these enter the bloodstrea , theyca ca blockae in sm ller ed que m n use g a blood v bring further com tions. F tely continuous technica essels, ing plica ortuna , l a a ents hae considera reduced these risks, a the num of successful la dvncem v bly nd ber ser a iopla perform is increa ea y r. ng sties ed sing ch ea
  • L aser s H eal and R eshape the E yes• S e of the most rema ble brea hs for medica la hae been in the a om rka kthroug l sers v rea of ophtha olog , the studyof the structure a disea of the ey. O rea tha lm y nd ses e ne son t la bea s a so useful in trea the ey is tha the cornea the coa tha ser m re ting e t , ting t cov the ey ll a a its lig into the interior of the ey is tra rent. S ers eba nd dm ht e, nspa ince it is desig to a it ordina lig the cornealets in la lig just a w a ned dm ry ht, ser ht s ell nd rem ins una a ffected bythe bea . m• F the la is v useful in rem ing extra blood v tha ca formon irst, ser ery ov neous essels t n the retina thin, lig - e m bra a the ba of the ey ll. It is on the —the htsensitiv em ne t ck eba retinatha the im g of the thing the ey sees a form . D m g to the retinaca t aes s e re ed a ae n som es ca blindness, the m com on formin the U S tes resulting from etim use ost m nited ta dia ( disea cha cterized byhig lev of blood sug r) w in som a a betes a se ra h els a hen, e dvnced ca hundreds of tinyextrablood v formon the retina T block lig from ses, essels . hese ht the surfa of the m bra resulting in pa l or tota blindness. ce em ne, rtia l
  • • T la most often used in the trea ent of this condition is pow byamediumof he ser tm ered a on g s. T doctor a s the bea throug the corneaa burns a a the ta le of blood rg a he im m h nd wy ng v cov the retina T procedure ta onlyafewm a ca be done in the essels ering . he kes inutes nd n doctors office. T la ca a repa adeta retina tha ha broken loose from he ser n lso ir ched —one t s the rea pa of the ey ll. B the a ent of la deta retina ha to be r rt eba efore dv sers ched s d repa byha a beca the retinais so delica this ws av difficult opera to ired nd, nd use te a ery tion perform U the a on la the doctor ca a lly"w " the torn retinaba in . sing rg ser, n ctua eld ck pla . It is perha astra e coincidence tha G G one of the orig l inv ce ps ng t ordon ould, ina entors of the la la ha one of his ow retina repa this wy ser, ter d n s ired a.• A condition tha a the ey is gla a w is cha cterized bythe buildup of nother t ffects e ucom , hich ra fluid in the ey. N a the ey na l fluids dra a a alittle a atim a the ey e orm lly es tura in wy t e, nd e stas hea . In ey im ired w g ucom the fluid does not dra properly a the y lthy es pa ith la a in , nd buildup a v blindness ca som es result. In som ca drug ca be used to ffects ision; n etim e ses s n trea g ucom . If the drug fa how er, m nydoctors nowturn to the la to aoid t la a s il, ev a ser v conv l surg . T la punches ahole in aprepla spot a the fluid dra out entiona ery he ser nned nd ins throug the hole. Aa the trea ent ca be perform in adoctors office instea of a h g in, tm n ed d hospita.l
  • Usi ng L aser s for E ye Sur ger y• T la w like asew ma to repa adeta retina the membra tha he ser orks ing chine ir ched , ne t lines the interior of the ey. T la bea is a e he ser m djusted so tha it ca pa t n ss ha lesslythroug the lens a focus on tinyspots a the da aed a of the rm h nd round m g rea retina W it is focused, the bea ha the intensityto "w " or sea the deta . hen m s eld l ched a of the retinaba aa the wll of the ey ll. rea ck g inst a eba• P ps m exciting of a the ey- ted la a tions is the resha of the erha ost ll erela ser pplica ping ey cornea atechnique w know a LS ( hich sta for L a -A ssisted es , idely n s A wIK nds ser I n S itu K era ilensis) AB H describes it, tom . s reck itz
  • • T pa ey la prescription is litera ca ed inside the corneaw the bea of a excimer he tients eg ss lly rv ith m n la [ala dev tha produces pulses of ultraiolet, or U, lig ]. A a fla of the cornea ser ser ice t v V ht sm ll p is first rem ed w aprecision knife . . . a a ov ith nd nA pa underg ey surg perform byala bea . In tient oes e ery ed ser maddition to trea deta retina la ca rem e ca ra ting ched s, sers n ov ta cts.inner portion of the corneais exposed to the excim la A er ser. fterthe prescription is ca ed, the cornea fla tha ws opened is rv l p t athen put ba into pla ov the a ted [surg llya ck ce er bla ica ltered]cornea 6 .LS does not com w risks. T cha es it m kes in the A IK e ithout he ng acorneaa perm nent, a the da er of unexpected da ae is ev re a nd ng m g erpresent. H ev the procedure ha becom increa lypopula ow er, s e sing rea y r; a am Aerica ha it done in the y r 20, ch ea bout illion m ns d ea 00a a four thousa surg in the U S tes w tra nd bout nd eons nited ta ere inedto perform it.
  • Some Cosmeti c Uses of L aser s• M l la a a w used for vrious ty of cosmetic surgery including edica sers re lso idely a pes , the rem a of certa kinds of birthm rks. P w sta reddish purple skin ovl in a ort- ine ins, blotches tha a r on a three out of ev one thousa children, a a t ppea bout ery nd re n exa ple. S sta ca m rk a pa of the bodybut a m com onlyfound on m uch ins n a ny rt re ost m the fa a neck. ce nd• T m l la is a to rem e aport- ine sta for the sa e rea tha a he edica ser ble ov w in m son t m ryla is a to fla am g to asubm ed subm rine. B la ta ilita ser ble sh essae erg a oth sers ke a a g of the m dvntae onochrom tic qua of la lig tha is, its a to shine a lity ser ht, t bility in one specific color. T sta is m de up of thousa of tinym lform blood he in a nds a ed v tha hae adefinite reddish purple color. T color v strong a essels t v his ery ly bsorbs a certa sha of g lig In fa tha is w the sta looks red. It a in de reen ht. ct, t hy in bsorbs the g a other colors in w lig but reflects the red ba to peoples ey reen nd hite ht ck es.
  • • S a exa ple of ala a cosmetic procedure is the removl of till nother m ser-ssisted a unwnted ha "T la em ag bea of lig expla C g cosm a ir. he ser its entle m ht," ins hicao etic surg J M eon effrey elton,• w onlyis a hich bsorbed in the ha follicle ( v the skin unha ed) T la ir leaing rm . he ser deliv energ w is a ers y hich bsorbed in the ha a tra ed to hea T hea ir nd nsform t. he t destroy the ha follicle w asm ll fra of asecond. . . . Lser ha s ir ithin a ction a ir rem a is g for both fa l ha rem a a for bodyha rem a . . . ovl ood cia ir ovl nd ir ovl. P ps the m com onlytrea a s a fa l ha in w en. 7 erha ost m ted rea re cia ir om
  • • T trea the sta the doctor runs aw lowpow bea of green light a the o t in, ide - er m cross discolored a . T m ss of blood v in the sta a rea he a essels in bsorbs the energ la lig a etic ser ht nd becom so hot tha it is a llyburned a a. T surrounding skin is adifferent color es t ctua wy he tha the sta so tha skin a n in, t bsorbs onlysm ll a ounts of the bea a rem ins unburned. a m m nd a ( f course, the burned O• A doctor uses an argon laser toremoveaport-winestain, akind of birthmark. Unw anted tissueis burned aw w normal skin remains ay hile undamaged.• a s must hea a during this process some minor sca sometimes occurs.) Asimila rea l, nd rring r m is often successful in rem ing ta A ttoo is form w v strong dy ethod ov ttoos. ta ed hen ery es a injected w needles into apersons skin. S eone w ha been ta re ith om ho s ttooed m ydecide a la in life tha he or she does not wnt the ta a m a in the pa the only ter t a ttoo ny ore; nd st, wyto rem e these desig inv ed surg or burning off the ta w a L , a ov ns olv ery ttoo ith cid. uckily the la offers a a tiv to such extrem m sures. T bea blea the dy in the ser n lterna e e ea he m ches es ta w burning the surrounding skin. ( s in the ca of port- ine sta som lig ttoo ithout A se w ins, e ht sca is possible.) rring
  • L aser -A ssi sted D enti str y• Dentistryis a bra of medicine tha ha benefited tremendouslyfromla nother nch t s ser technolog . Indeed, la hae m de som people stop drea av to the dentist. y sers v a e ding isit N one enjoy haing acaitydrilled, of course. It usua requires a a o s v v lly n nesthetic (a pa inkiller like nov ine) tha ca uncom ble num in the m a the oca t uses forta bness outh; lso, sound of the drill ca be irrita or ev sickening to som people. n ting en e• Mnydentists nowemploya N-A la (w uses acry l for its la medium) a n d YG ser hich sta sing instea of adrill for m caities. T la trea ent ta a a g of the d ost v he ser tm kes dvntae sim fa tha the m teria tha form in acaityis m softer tha the ena el ple ct t a l t s v uch n m ( ha pa of atooth) T la is set a apow tha is just strong enoug to the rd rt . he ser t er t h elim te the decaed tissue but not strong enoug to ha the ena el. W trea ina y h rm m hen ting av deep caitybleeding som es occurs, a the la bea often sea off ery v etim nd ser m ls blood v a stops the bleeding essels nd .
  • • T most often a question a trea caities w la is: Does it hurt?T he sked bout ting v ith sers he a er is no. Ech burst of la lig fromadenta la la onlythirty nsw a ser ht l ser sts - trillionths of asecond, m fa tha the a ount of tim anerv ta to trig er uch ster n m e e kes g pa . In other w the bea w hae to la 10 m tim long in order in ords, m ould v st 0 illion es er to ca a discom . S this sort of trea ent requires no a use ny fort o tm nesthetic.• T a litera hundreds of other m l uses for the la . S num here re lly edica ser till, erous m l conditions ca be helped byla lig . A ev in those tha do respond edica nnot ser ht nd en t to la trea ents, adoctor m yhae ag rea for choosing adifferent m ser tm a v ood son ethod in aspecific ca . T pla fa is tha w the la is am rv m l tool, se he in ct t, hile ser a elous edica it ca cure ev ill. Y the w ha seen proba onlyasm ll fra of the nnot ery et orld s bly a ction la potentia. A a this supertool ha onlyexisted since 190 a considering sers l fter ll, s 6, nd, the m l a a it a dyha crea the future a rs prom indeed. edica dvnces lrea s ted, ppea ising
  • A a g of Lsers for D l S ery dvntaes a enta urg• In this excerpt froma a in TheDental Clinics of N orth A merica n rticle R AS uss of the M l C e of V iniam obert . tra edica olleg irg entions som of the a a g e dvntaes of using la for ora surg . sers l ery• D sed post- tiv sw is cha cteristic of la use [for ora surg ]. ecrea opera e elling ra ser l ery D sed sw a s for increa sa w perform surg w the ecrea elling llow sed fety hen ing ery ithin a a [the m ] . . . a increa the ra e of surg tha ora surg ca irwy outh nd ses ng ery t l eons n performsa w fea of a a com ise. T effect a s the surg to fely ithout r irwy prom his llow eon performm nyprocedures in a office or outpa fa tha prev w a n tient cility t iously ould hae required hospita tion. . . . T hea a sca a a im ed v liza issue ling nd rring re lso prov w the use of the la . . . . Lser w g llyhea w m a sca ith ser a ounds enera l ith inim l r form tion a . . . often ca be left unsutured [w stitches], a a nd n ithout nother distinct aa g dvntae