Meet up alzheimer's


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Meet up alzheimer's

  1. 1. Alzheimer’s disease Eman youssif
  2. 2. The content: Introduction definition Causes of Alzheimer's disease (proteins) Symptoms and diagnosis treatment discussion
  3. 3. definition a serious brain disorder that impacts daily living through memory loss and cognitive changes. Although not all memory loss indicates Alzheimer’s disease, one in ten people over 65 years of age, and over half of those over 85 have Alzheimer’s disease.
  4. 4. The problem in Alzheimer’s disease: plaques and tangles accumulate in the brain affect hippocampus that responsible for memory levels of Alzheimer’s defect in language text in reading emotions sense, hearing family names it take 10 years to reach to this part
  5. 5. risk of Alzheimer’s disease The primary risk factors of Alzheimer’s are age, family history, and genetics.
  6. 6. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is an integral membrane protein expressed in many tissues and concentrated in the synapses of neurons.
  7. 7. Mutations in critical regions of Amyloid Precursor Protein, including the region that generates amyloid beta (Aβ), cause familial susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease.For example, several mutations outside the Aβ region associated with familial Alzheimer's have been found to dramatically increase production of Aβ
  8. 8. Many of the key pathological events of AD may also be directly related to the intracellular accumulation of this insoluble amyloid. The aggregated, intracellular amyloid induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation products and ultimately results in the leakage of the lysosomal membrane. The breakdown of the lysosomal membrane may be a key pathogenic event, leading to the release of heparan sulfate and lysosomal hydrolases into the cytosol.
  9. 9. Result of accumulation: Aβ oligomers and plaques are potent synaptotoxins, block proteasome function, inhibit mitochondrial activity, alter intracellular Ca2+ levels and stimulate inflammatory processes
  10. 10. Aβ interacts with the signalling pathways that regulate the phosphorylation of the microtubuleassociated protein tau. Hyperphosphorylation of tau disrupts its normal function in regulating axonal transport and leads to the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles and toxic species of soluble tau.
  11. 11. Tau protein
  12. 12. Symptoms: It is normal for age-related brain shrinkage to produce changes in processing speed, attention, and short term memory, creating socalled “senior moments.”
  13. 13. Stages of Alzheimer’s disease Stage 1 – No impairment. Memory and cognitive abilities appear normal. Stage 2 – Minimal Impairment/Normal Forgetfulness. Memory lapses and changes in thinking are rarely detected by friends, family, or medical personnel, especially as about half of all people over 65 begin noticing problems in concentration and word recall. Stage 3 – Early Confusional/Mild Cognitive Impairment. While subtle difficulties begin to impact function, the person may consciously or subconsciously try to cover up his or her problems. Expect to experience difficulty with retrieving words, planning, organization, misplacing objects, and forgetting recent learning, which can affect life at home and work. Depression and other changes in mood can also occur. Duration: 2 to 7 years.
  14. 14. Stage 4 – Late Confusional/Mild Alzheimer’s. Problems handling finances result from mathematical challenges. Recent events and conversations are increasingly forgotten, although most people in this stage still know themselves and their family. Experience problems carrying out sequential tasks, including cooking, driving, ordering food at restaurants, and shopping. Often withdraw from social situations, become defensive, and deny problems. Accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease is possible at this stage. Lasts roughly 2 years.
  15. 15. Stage 5 – Early Dementia/Moderate Alzheimer’s disease. Decline is more severe and requires assistance. No longer able to manage independently or unable to recall personal history details and contact information. Frequently disoriented regarding place and or time. People in this stage experience a severe decline in numerical abilities and judgment skills, which can leave them vulnerable to scams and at risk from safety issues. Basic daily living tasks like feeding and dressing require increased supervision. Duration: an average of 1.5 years.
  16. 16. Stage 6 – Middle Dementia/Moderately Severe Alzheimer’s disease. Total lack of awareness of present events and inability to accurately remember the past. People in this stage progressively lose the ability to take care of daily living activities like dressing, toileting, and eating but are still able to respond to nonverbal stimuli, and communicate pleasure and pain via behavior. Agitation and hallucinations often show up in the late afternoon or evening. Dramatic personality changes such as wandering or suspicion of family members are common. Many can’t remember close family members, but know they are familiar. Lasts approximately 2.5 years. Stage 7 – Late or Severe Dementia and Failure to Thrive. In this final stage, speech becomes severely limited, as well as the ability to walk or sit. Total support around the clock is needed for all functions of daily living and care. Duration is impacted by quality of care and average length is 1 to 2.5 years
  17. 17. Treatment: Cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil (Aricept®), rivastigmine (Exelon®), galantamine (Razadyne®/Reminyl®)) can help manage Alzheimer’s, but they do not cure or reverse the course of AD.
  18. 18. Thank you