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candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
candles manfacture
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candles manfacture

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  • 1. candles Eman youssif
  • 2. The content: History of candles tools of candles Photos Advantages and disadvantages of candles
  • 3. History of candles manufactures The earliest known candles were made from whale fat by the Chinese In India, wax from boiling cinnamon was used for temple candles. In parts of Europe, the Middle-East and Africa, where lamp oil made from olives was readily available, candle making remained unknown until the early middle-ages. Candles were primarily made from tallow and b eeswaxuntil about 1850, but subsequently have been made fromspermaceti, purified animal fats (stearin) and paraffin wax.
  • 4. Notes: There is a fish called the eulachon or "candlefish", a type of smeltwhich is found from Oregon to Alaska. During the 1st century AD,indigenous people from this region used oil from this fish for illumination. During the Middle Ages in Europe, The popularity of candles is shown by their use in Candlemas and inSaint Lucy festivities.
  • 5. Manufacturing of candles Joseph Sampson was granted a United States patentfor a new method of candle making in 1790 In 1834, Joseph Morgan began to industrialise the production of candles. He created a machine that allowed for continuous production of molded candles by using a cylinder with a moveable piston to eject candles as they solidified. This more efficient mechanized production produced about 1,500 candles per hour which allowed candles to become an easily affordable commodity for the masses.
  • 6. Not until the mid-1850s did paraffin wax become commercially viable, when James Young produced it by distillation of coal.[9] Paraffin could be used to make inexpensive candles of high quality. Paraffin wax could also be processed by distilling residue left after crude petroleum was refined. The introduction of stearin, discovered by Michel Eugène Chevreul, solved this problem. Stearin is hard and durable, with a convenient melting point of 55 °C (131 °F). It was being produced in mass quantities at the end of the 19th century. By this period, most candles being manufactured consisted of paraffin and stearic acid.
  • 7. Decline of the candle industry Despite advances in candle making, the candle industry declined rapidly upon introduction of kerosene and lamps and the 1879 invention of the light bulb. From this point, candles became more of a decorative item. In 1829, William Wilson of Price's Candles invested in 1,000 acres (4 km²) of coconut plantation in Sri Lanka.[11] His aim was to make candles from coconut oil.[12] Later he tried palm oil from palm trees. An accidental discovery swept all his ambitions aside when his brother George Wilson distilled the first petroleum oil in 1854.
  • 8. 20th Century Candles became available in a broad array of sizes, shapes and colors, and consumer interest in scented candles began to grow. During the 1990s, new types of candle waxes were being developed due to an unusually high demand for candles. New waxes have been introduced including soybean wax, which was a softer and slower burning wax than paraffin wax, and palm wax
  • 9. Weeding candles
  • 10. Decorative candles
  • 11. Why candles
  • 12. Method of manufacture :
  • 13. Tools and method
  • 14. Mistakes in manufactures
  • 15. Product and present to as a gift
  • 16. Quotes –hand made
  • 17. Some designs and photos
  • 18. photos
  • 19. photos
  • 20. New ideas
  • 21. New ideas
  • 22. references

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