Mac Intyre - Mintegiko aurkezpena ingelesez
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Mac Intyre - Mintegiko aurkezpena ingelesez Mac Intyre - Mintegiko aurkezpena ingelesez Presentation Transcript

  • Presented at EMUN October, 2007 Understanding and Developing the Willingness to Communicate Peter D. MacIntyre Cape Breton University Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • Plan for this workshop Brief review of underpinnings of WTC theory (20 minutes) Focus on the choice to communicate or not Brief review of studies of WTC (10 minutes) Activity showing situational variation in WTC (20 minutes) Group discussion of factors affecting WTC (35 minutes) Discussion of personal experiences with high and low WTC Discussion of ways to alter the situation to increase WTC Focus on the personal experiences of people attending the workshop Summary and Conclusions (5 minutes) 2
  • When does a language learner become a language speaker? (observations from a paper forthcoming in Modern Language Journal) Moment of decision reflects a collision of motivation and language anxiety implicates other process as well Volitional Action, Freely chosen Sometimes mindless, sometimes mindful Reflects the ‘self’ Four Studies Personal Experiences of attendees 3
  • Language anxiety “Worry and Emotionality (usually negative) associated with L2 learning” 3 levels of concepts 3 levels of prediction Trait Poor Situation-specific Very good State Not well known Observation #1: The relationships among variables under study in SLA may change substantially when concepts are defined at different levels of abstraction (e.g., state, situation-specific or trait levels). 4
  • Motivation Gardner’s SE model Integrative Motivate Dörnyei’s L2 Motivational Self System ‘Ideal’ Self ‘Ought to’ Self 5
  • Gardner’s integrative motive Integrative motivation: other other Integrativeness Motivation Language Attitudes toward Achievement the learning situation Language Aptitude Observation #2: The major motivation to learn another language is to develop a communicative relationship with people from another cultural group. 6
  • Expansion of motivation concepts in SLA Self-determination theory (Noels) Physiological approaches (Schummann) Learner Autonomy (Ushioda) Task Motivation (Julkunen) Process Model (Dörnyei & Otto) L2 Motivational Self System (Dörnyei) Critical-Qualitative Perspective (Norton) 7
  • Dörnyei’s L2 Motivational Self System Rephrasing of integrative motivation is needed to account for: Learning situations without contact World English has no ethnic group Integrative and instrumental co-occur Ideal Self (what we wish to be become) Ought to self (what we should become) L2 learning experience (past L2 behavior) 8
  • On the nature of ‘the self’ The Self: “What began as an apparently singular, static, lump-like entity has become a multi-dimensional, multifaceted dynamic structure that is systematically implicated in all aspects of social information processing.” (Markus & Wurf, 1987, pg 301). • Identity – multifaceted, dynamic • Motivation - multifaceted, dynamic 9
  • Possible Selves (PS) as motivation PS are views of oneself in the future Both wanted and feared Theory emphasizes balance between wanted & feared Vague hopes and specific expectations The vision of a new self is motivating Articulate goals Links behaviour to goal Provide potential incentives for actions The more specific they are, the better they guide behaviour (Oyserman et al., 2004) 10
  • Motivation differs over time Different motivational processes occur before, during, and after behavior. Motivational approaches will implicate a time frame, for example Focus on longer lasting process (integrative) Focus on rapidly changing events (tasks) Observation #3:The manner in which motivation affects language learning changes as the time frame under study changes. 11
  • 1 Layer I Communication L2 Use Behaviour 2 Layer II Behavioural Intention Willingness to Communicate 3 4 Layer III Desire to State Situated Antecedents communicate with Communicative a specific person Self-Confidence 5 6 7 Layer IV Interpersonal Intergroup L2 Motivational Motivation Motivation Self-Confidence Propensities 8 9 10 Layer V Affective-Cognitive Context Intergroup Social Communicative Attitudes Situation Competence Layer 11 12 Social and Individual VI Context Intergroup Climate Personality 12
  • WTC concept Original L1 concept was ‘trait-like’ Our concept proposes a ‘state’ of readiness Initiating communication is a matter of choice Volitional act 13
  • Volition Long history in psychology and philosophy Concept all but abandoned as issues of ‘free will’ were found intractable Offers the potential to study how multiple, sometimes contradictory impulses, affect action Observation #4: Studying volitional choices demonstrates that opposing processes (e.g., approach and avoidance) converge to affect second language communication. 14
  • Two studies on the process of initiating communication MacIntyre, Babin & Clément (1999) communication in both oral and written forms. MacIntyre, Clément & Noels, 2007 In familiar conditions, introverts learned more and were more WTC than extraverts In moderately unfamiliar conditions, extraverts learned more and were more WTC than introverts 15
  • Effects of Extraversion and Familiarity of Study Situation 25 20 Posttest 15 Score Introvert 10 Extrovert State WTC 5 0 Very Similar Somew hat Similar Not at all Similar 16
  • Two Focused Essay Studies Baker & MacIntyre (2000) 200 English speaking students learning French, regular and immersion programs Described 2 situations most willing least willing We looked for themes and noticed emotional expression 17
  • Most willing Immersion students had weaker emotional reactions in these situations than non-immersion students Non-immersion students were pleased with small successes: “My father has a tailoring and bridal shop… and one day a French speaking lady came in and my Dad’s wife can speak French but she was off that day, so I was able to help her [the lady] out enough so that she would come back.” 18
  • Least Willing Immersion students expressed stronger emotion in these situations In both immersion and non-immersion, the type of event that upset them most was a Francophone interlocutor switching to English a dramatic rejection of volitional self-presentation, it is ignominious unexpectedly, many reported this was a motivating experience 19
  • Second Focused Essay Study Again used Most / Least Willing Over 100 Anglophone and Francophone students in Ottawa strongly bilingual institution, bilingual city Typically, Francophones have higher more experience speaking English than Anglophones have speaking French 20
  • Most Willing Anglophones most willing in situations where the only other choice was silence (25% of situations described) Interlocutor was expected to speak English if possible Anglophones said error correction increased and decreased WTC, depending on context (20% mentioned error correction). “I’d be most willing if I had friends around me. I always felt comfortable in a classroom giving a speech. When you are out of the classroom I feel like people are analyzing me. I don’t mind when a teacher does it, but not an acquaintance.” Francophones were generally highly willing, especially if friends spoke English 21
  • Least Willing - Anglophones Anglophones described two situations: a lack of self-confidence in French (over 20%) speaking to strangers (over 20%) reported a feeling of being analyzed and critiqued, especially for accent and grammar Recall William James’ account of the ‘cold outside’ as a paralyzing force. 22
  • Least Willing – Francophones Least willing with Francophones (50%) family, friends, etc. Political dimension, English poses a threat to the vitality of French Highly specific situational vocabulary “Quand je dois parler de sujets tres precis ou je ne suis pas certains de l’exactitude des termes.” (“When I must talk about precise topics and I am not certain of the exact terminology.”) 23
  • At the moment of decision… Many factors can increase or decrease the likelihood of ‘crossing the Rubicon’ Psychological Pedagogical Situational Linguistic Sociopolitical The influence of these will vary, wax and wane over time 24
  • Kurt Lewin’s Field Theory Action is based on totality of co-existing, mutually interdependent facets. General life vs momentary influences Momentary influences have greater impact on action Driving vs Restraining forces Easier to modify action by reducing restraining forces. Anglophone speakers in Ottawa were clearly holding back 25
  • Future research Better understand the combinations of multiple driving and restraining forces Focus on the moment, state-level processes Increases the complexity of the models Wen & Clément (2003) additional restraining forces among Chinese (based on deference and responsibility) Yashima (2002) found WTC predicted adjustment and satisfaction with a stay-abroad program Observation #5: Future research in SLA should focus on the momentary restraining forces that come into play when a speaker is choosing whether or not to initiate communication. 26
  • Summary: The ‘Observations’ #1: The relationships among variables under study in SLA may change substantially when concepts are defined at different levels of abstraction (e.g., state, situation-specific or trait levels). #2: The major motivation to learn another language is to develop a communicative relationship with people from another cultural group. 27
  • Summary: The ‘Kernels of Wisdom’ #3: The manner in which motivation affects language learning changes as the time frame under study changes. #4: Studying volitional choices demonstrates that opposing processes (e.g., approach and avoidance) converge to affect second language communication. #5:Future research in SLA should focus on the momentary restraining forces that come into play when a speaker is choosing whether or not to initiate communication. 28
  • Workshop activities WTC most and least willing exercise (handout) WTC questions for the workshop participants (handout) WTC and possible selves (handout) 29
  • Presented at EMUN October, 2007 Willingness to Communicate: crossing the psychological Rubicon from learning to communication. Peter D. MacIntyre Cape Breton University Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada