Along with the high expectations, new science creates an interesting and complex mixture of reactions, leading to significant debate about its real implications….
Our current focus on R&D is the continuation of a long innovation tradition, and a willingness to make new technologies the foundation of discontinuous change in our business portfolios. We are over 200 years young, and over our history, we have repeatedly renewed our technology base as shown in this chart, to stay abreast of changing opportunities and changing needs.
I won’t go quite as far as the ACS, but it is a fact that science at the nanoscale has a profound connection with most of the building blocks that are at the core of our competencies This chart shows the main building blocks in DuPont’s materials science portfolio. . (Click for animation) If there has been a discontinuity, it is been in our ability to visualize, measure and model materials on the nanoscale. This is an ability we intend to exploit.
Our success is measured not by the science that we create, but by the value that we generate, and that value is determined by the marketplace. So the innovation challenge for us is to understand the needs that create innovation opportunities for our target applications, and then put our technology tools to work to meet those needs. NS&E in DuPont is therefore not an end in itself, but enriches our toolbox to give us a larger number of solution options.
What possibilities do we see. As I have said before, the control of nano-scale structure influences many of the critical properties of materials, and is therefore a natural goal for a materials science company. Nanoscale materials, and nanoparticles in particular, have enormous surface areas relative to their volume, and this makes them very effective in applications where surface area is a key parameter. Nature has developed wonderful tools for nanoscale manipulation of materials, and we may be able to use some of these biological tools to develop new materials and devices. And, as mentioned earlier, none of this could be done by design without the powerful new tools that are available to us today. The bottom line is that NS&E is an important knowledge space as we look for new growth opportunities.
For us to invest in NS&E and to intelligently leverage what we learn, we must find a practical way to subdivide this space into useful domains. This chart shows one way to think of materials and their nanoscale structures. If time permits, I will give you some examples of what DuPont is doing in each of these domains. Starting from the top right and moving counterclockwise: We are working with nanoparticles in applications such as polymer nanocomposites and printable electronics. We are investigating ways to control the nanostructure of bulk materials, to modify their physical properties. We are working on techniques to control nanoscale features on surfaces. We have an interest in thin film technologies that lay down uniform, continuous coatings a few atoms thick. And we have done some early research with devices – particularly sensors – that exploit nanoscale behavior. Each of these is a distinct application of NS&E, with little overlap with the others
Let’s move on to talk about the internal nanostructure of bulk materials can create innovation possibilities.
The evolution of nanoscience will obviously continue for some years, as we learn to use the new tools and improve our understanding of nanoscale behavior. This is a chart that we borrowed from Jim Murday of the Naval Research Lab, who many of you may know. The point of this chart is not the accuracy of the timeline, but the recognition that this is a knowledge area where we still have a lot to learn, and where there is considerable scope for progress.
NS&E is relevant to a very diverse set of opportunities with very different timelines. This chart provided courtesy of Sean Murdoch, Nanobusiness Alliance, give some examples of possible applications in different market sectors. Examples of applications that are being pursed by various businesses in DuPont: Upper right: Platinum catalysts being developed for fuel cells, where catalyst performance is critical to fuel cell economics Bottom right: Field emission displays are the next generation flat panel displays, and we are developing proprietary carbon nanotube materials as the critical element of these displays. Top left: Carbon nanotubes have many interesting properties, including an affinity for DNA. We have used this property to disperse and purify semiconducting CNTs, which will have future utility in sensors. Bottom left; We are doing some exciting research in the area of nanoporous materials, that could for example be used in high performance filters or in chem/bio protection. This image shows one such membrane.
1. DuPont Nanoscale Science & Engineering: Reality & Promise Homi C. Bhedwar Director, DuPont Knowledge Center, Hyderabad EmTech India 2010 9 March 2010 Bangalore
2. New Technologies Generate … Hope, Fear, Prentice Hall PTR; 1st edition (November 8, 2002) Harper Collins; 1st edition (November 1, 2002) Prometheus Books (December 30, 2005) and Skepticism
3. DuPont: 207 Years of Product Innovation 1802 1830 1850 1900 1925 1945 1990 2000 2050 2090 Birth Growth Maturity Birth Growth Maturity Birth Growth Explosives Chemistry, Polymers Integrated Science: Biology, Chemistry, Materials Science, Knowledge Intensity Maturity To be the world’s most dynamic science company, creating sustainable solutions essential to a better, safer, healthier life for people everywhere.
6. DuPont R&D Building Blocks…. … .are all connected to NS&E Chemical Synthesis (organic, inorganic, fluoro) Polymer synthesis & processing Advanced Fibers Particle & Dispersion Science Biology and bio-based processes Materials Science Catalysis Precision Patterning Surfaces and coatings Inorganic- Organic composites Leverageable Analytical Science, Toxicology, Scientific Computing Nanoscale Science and Engineering Leverageable Analytical Science, Toxicology, Scientific Computing: The Key to Nano-Progress “ New truths become evident when new tools become available.” - Rosalyn Yalow ( Nobel Laureate, ‘77)
7. All That is “Nano” is Not New David, stained-glass window, 19th century, Winchester Cathedral, England http://student.britannica.com/eb/art-16461/David-stained-glass-window-19th-century-Winchester-Cathedral-England A Damascus sword – 17 th century Blade showing the damask microstructure and remnant of cementite nanowires enclosed in CNT http://news.softpedia.com/news/Damascus-Swords-Product-of-Nanotechnology-40503.shtml http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/feb2007/279.pdf
8. All That is “Nano” is Not New to DuPont <ul><li>“ Established” nanosized materials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Black </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colloidal silver and gold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colloidal and fumed silica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pigments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalysts </li></ul></ul>Sauer, McLean Wood, Chou Anhydride Surlyn ® modifier in Nylon-6 500 nm 85 nm AFM image showing distribution of hard (bright) & soft segments in elastane fiber Web structure in PTFE membrane Coatings on pigmentary TiO 2
11. Nanostructure-based Behavior of Materials is Determined by: <ul><li>Relationship to other critical dimensions… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size or structure relative to wavelength of visible light (400nm -700nm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size or structure relative to molecular building blocks of bulk materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size or structure relative to biological building blocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active surface area relative to gross volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective surface area relative to nominal dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And fundamental, size related properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantum effects (e.g., quantum dots, single electron devices) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular architecture creating new forms of matter (buckyballs, carbon nanotubes) </li></ul></ul>
12. Partitioning the Innovation Space for Materials….. Levels of Nanoscale Design Films and coatings (Nanoscale in surface thickness only) Surfaces (Patterned or textured on the nanoscale) Nano Particles (nanoscale in one or more dimensions) 50 nm Nanodevices Nanostructured bulk materials (nanoscale internal structure)
13. DuPont (TM) Light Stabilizer 210 offers protection from the sun's UV rays for plastics used in products such as playground equipment, outdoor furniture and construction components. Introducing: DuPont (TM) Light Stabilizer 210 Helps Protect Plastics from Sun Damage First Product Developed Using DuPont-Environmental Defense Nano Risk Framework WILMINGTON, Del., Oct. 15, 2007 – DuPont today introduced DuPont(TM) Light Stabilizer 210, a product designed as sun protection for plastics. The product uses extremely small particles of titanium dioxide to efficiently absorb ultraviolet light, protecting plastic and anything it covers from the sun’s damaging rays. Because a sizeable percentage of titanium dioxide particles in the product are nanoscale, it was selected as a demonstration case for application of the Nano Risk Framework that DuPont and Environmental Defense introduced in June. The Framework is a systematic and disciplined process to evaluate and address the potential risks of nanoscale materials.
14. Attenuation of UV Radiation by DuPont ™ Light Stabilizer 210 Polymer DuPont ™ Light Stabilizer 210 Particles I o I r I s I t I a <ul><li>Attenuation defined as the total UV screening effect, due to both UV absorbance and scattering. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimized particle size to provide broad spectrum UV attenuation. </li></ul><ul><li>Longer effective path length </li></ul>Anderson, M. W., J .P. Hewitt, S. R. Spruce, Broad-Spectrum Physical Sunscreens: Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide in Sunscreens , N.J. Lowe., Ed., Marcel Deker, Inc., New York, 1997, p 365 I o = incident radiation I r = reflected I a = absorbed I s = scattered I t = transmitted
15. TiO 2 Nanoparticles Provide UV Stabilization Hytrel® property retention after UV exposure
16. Partitioning the Innovation Space for Materials….. Levels of Nanoscale Design Films and coatings (Nanoscale in surface thickness only) Nanostructured bulk materials (nanoscale internal structure) Nano Particles (nanoscale in one or more dimensions) 50 nm Nanodevices Surfaces (Patterned or textured on the nanoscale)
17. DuPont SuperStructural Overview Tensile Strength Tensile Modulus Steel Al Future Mg EP Structural Engineering Polymers 0 200 GPa 0 500 MPa <ul><li>Hybrid solutions </li></ul><ul><li>to close gap on metals </li></ul><ul><li>METAFUSE™ NanoMetal/Polymer hybrid </li></ul><ul><li>other… </li></ul>New Product and Solutions Development to Replace Metals 20GPa <ul><li>Improved resins </li></ul><ul><li>for plastic structures </li></ul><ul><li>Long fibre reinforced (LFRT) </li></ul><ul><li>Stiffer via carbon fibre </li></ul>
18. Nanometal/Polymer Hybrid Solution Nanocrystalline Metal Alloy Cladding Polymer Substrate eg. compound, composite, film etc. Concept: Apply thin layer of nanocrystalline metal onto selected areas of a molded plastic part to increase stiffness and other properties. Unique: NanoMetal clad on plastic dramatically improves part stiffness because nanometal is ultra strong, can withstand high tensile loads at part surface when flexed
19. NanoCrystalline Metals <ul><li>Based on patented technology/proprietary process </li></ul><ul><li>Produces fully-dense metals/alloys </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme grain refinement results in high strength and hardness/wear-resistance </li></ul>Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEMs) Illustrating the Crystalline Structure Conventional metal Nanocrystalline metal 15 µm 15 µm 15 µm 1n m 15 µm y = 0 + K d
20. METAFUSE™ NanoMetal/Polymer Hybrid Much Higher Performance than Polymer Alone 25% GR PA66 0 10 30 GPa Flexural Modulus Plastic only Plastic/Metal 20 0 10 20 Total Energy, Joules Plastic only Plastic/Metal Multi-axial Impact 100 µm NanoMetal alloy clad on 25% GR PA66 DMA Curves Plastic only Plastic/Metal
21. METAFUSE™:NanoMetal/Polymer Hybrid Solution <ul><li>Nanocrystalline metal clad on polymer offers high performance with new design freedom : </li></ul><ul><li>Designing for high strength and stiffness at minimum weight </li></ul><ul><li>Direct fabrication of structural components in complex shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Improving strength, stiffness and creep of plastic parts at elevated temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Adding hard, wear resistant coating to plastics </li></ul><ul><li>Make plastics more impermeable, conductive and dimensionally stable </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics / metal look </li></ul>
22. A Nanomaterials “Roadmap” 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 Complexity Surface/Interface Control Nanostructured Polymers 3-D Nanofabrication Selectively Permeable Membranes Biointeractive Lightweight Structures Smart/Interactive Textiles Nanoscale Building Blocks – variety of shape, size, composition Specialty Coatings Hierarchically-Structured Materials Multifunction composites Directed, Self Assembled Materials Fuel Cell/Solar Cell DEVICE/APPLICATION SCIENCE Slide Provided by Jim Murday, NRL Mechanical properties at nanoscale Integrated model nano-macro “ Aldrich” catalog of nanostructures Cost effective 3-D nanoassembly Plethora of systems with “Nano inside” Nanostructure in metals High Power Ceramic Laser http://www.chemicalvision2020.org/nanomaterialsroadmap.html
23. NS&E is relevant to virtually every materials market… 1-4 5-8 9-14 15+ Years Membranes Food packaging Energy/ fuel cells Medical applications Bio- materials Tissue/ organ regen Nanobio NEMS Smart implants Drug delivery Medical diagnostics Nano- arrays Coatings & Dispersions Chemical catalysts Textiles Lubricants Coatings Cosmetics Paints Devices & Microelectronics Micro- processors Quantum computing Simple ICs Memory/ Storage devices Sensors Displays Molecular circuitry Energy, Industrial Composites Solar cells Prototype FED with carbon nanotubes DNA wrapped around an individual carbon nanotube Low-cost Energy
24. DuPont is Leading in Nanomaterials Stewardship <ul><li>Strategic Collaborations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked with Environmental Defense to publish a practical framework to identify, manage and reduce SHE risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading 14 company consortium to develop new tools and techniques for generating nanoparticle safety data and monitoring safety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establishment of Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement with external industry peers, academia, NGOs and standards development organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement with EPA and OECD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conducting and publishing toxicology studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DuPont Haskell Lab. widely recognized as a leader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active internal coordination & alignment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ One DuPont” guidelines established for nanomaterials development and commercialization </li></ul></ul>
25. Nanoparticle Occupational Safety and Health (NOSH) Consortium <ul><li>A consortium of companies, government, academia, and public interest groups, including*: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DuPont Procter & Gamble Dow Chemical Air Products & Chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DeGussa Rohm & Haas PPG Health & Safety Executive (UK) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Corporation Dept of Energy Office of Science General Electric </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sponsored research at DuPont to advance our ability to assess and control occupational exposures to engineered nanoparticles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate nanoparticle aerosols and measure their behavior as a function of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a simple, robust, portable device to measure airborne nanoparticles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure the barrier efficiency of various materials to nanoparticles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost shared among 14 organizations </li></ul><ul><li>* Other organizations have requested that their identities not be disclosed </li></ul>
26. Environmental Defense – DuPont Draft Nano Risk Framework <ul><li>“ A framework to facilitate the responsible development, production, use and disposal of nano-scale materials .” </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration begun in October 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Objective: A systematic and disciplined process, developed with broad collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to identify, manage and reduce potential health, safety and environmental risks throughout the lifecycle of such nanomaterials” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model and tool for industry , public interest groups, academia and government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make available information, tools and methods developed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Framework was published on June 21, 2007 </li></ul>
27. Summary <ul><li>Strong tradition of R&D and innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology is yet another tool in DuPont’s technology tool-kit. </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology can deliver value through ordered hierarchies. </li></ul><ul><li>DuPont is a leader in Nanomaterials stewardship </li></ul>