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    WP Lecture1 introduction WP Lecture1 introduction Presentation Transcript

    • PSPA 4070: Women and Politics
      Prof. Emily Neff-Sharum
      Office: Oxendine 1320B
      Email if you have questions or issues.
    • Developing a Research Topic
      START WORKING ON YOUR TOPIC NOW!
      Finding a policy area
      Women’s organization websites– NOW, NWPC, WISH, Feminist Majority
      Women’s research organizations– IWPR, Center for American Women and Politics
      Pay attention to the news, read back news stories, search thomas.loc.gov for congressional action
      Look to your own interests
    • Suggestions--
      Issues regarding women in the military
      Issues regarding violence against women (rape, sexual assault, domestic violence)
      Sexual harassment
      Pay gap or comparative worth policies
      Disparate impact of Social Security on women
      Women’s poverty
      Reproductive rights (this can be beyond abortion)
      Pornography or prostitution regulation
      Discrimination against mothers
      Title IX protections
    • Policy analysis– choose a current issue that is on the agenda but unresolved and provide a researched policy solution to advocate in your paper.
      1) a discussion of why the issue is considered a women’s issue
      2) a brief discussion of the historical development of this issue in the U.S.
      3) a discussion of current problems advocates are concerned with or enduring issues or threats to women’s rights in this area
      4) propose possible solutions with supporting evidence that your solution is credible.
    • Key concepts from MAtthews
    • Public versus Private
      Public Domain– Those parts of life that
      deal with the outside world
      Public Policy-- problems and issues
      that can/ should be dealt with politically;
      those under the purview of government
      Private Domain- Those parts of
      life that deal with the personal and home. Those problems and
      issues that are out of bounds
      for government involvement
    • Understanding Publicfor Matthews
      Legal- legal identity. Does the law recognize you as a claimant? How does the court receive you. Rights under the law.
      Political– ability to engage in politics. Can you act? If so, as an insider or an outsider? How is influence constrained?
      Spatial– Public spaces where presence is acceptable. Segregation norms/ rules/ laws? Prohibited places?
      Cultural– What positions in society is seen as taboo? What behavior is acceptable?
    • Social Construction
      Generally- social construction refers to the way individuals conceptualize the world around them. We assign meaning to everything that comes in before us as positive or negative, as problematic or not, as deserving or undeserving, etc.
      Application to politics– If we construct a situation as public then politics becomes a forum for engaging in social constructions (to either change or re-affirm the social construction).
    • Social Construction
      Public policy is the primary tool through which government acts to exploit, inscribe, entrench, institutionalize, perpetuate, or change social constructions. It is fair to observe that there are many different sources of social constructions besides policy… The role of governance in social construction probably is smaller than the combined influence of market advertisements, music, film, and other aspects of historical custom and popular culture. Yet, policy is the dynamic element through which governments anchor, legitimize, or change social constructions. (Schneider and Ingram 2005: 5)
    • Feminism
      “Feminism is a critique of male supremacy, formed and offered in the light of a will to change it, which in turn assumes a conviction that it is changeable.” (Matthews 1992: 11)
      Differences in feminist understandings are usually sourced in either
      Disagreement in the importance of taking biological differences into consideration
      The role the government is able to take in improving women’s lives and creating real social change
    • A Few Types of FeminismSee Matthews for definitions.
      Social Feminists- “who considered women to be fundamentally different from men and in need of special protection.”
      Egalitarian Feminists-“who ignored biology and wanted men and women treated identically.”
      Liberal Feminists—“focus on the similarities between women and men as human beings and citizens and sought removal of stereotypes and legal barriers that have kept women from reaching their full potential.” Issue focused and work to change laws in order to improve women’s lives (i.e. work and pay issues, educational opportunities, and reproduction).
      Radical Feminists-—“focused on sexual differences and analyzed patriarchy as the dominance of males over female sexuality.” This form of feminism proscribed women taking control of their sexuality as a way of escaping patriarchy. Until this happened laws would not help women. This group tends to be very skeptical of state intervention into improving the lives of women.
      Black Feminists and Multi-cultural Feminists- highlight the differences in challenges of women of color and those who engage the above forms of feminism (which tend to be white- middle class women). The work of these feminists challenge notions of what is “best” from women espoused by the above groups.
    • Intersectionality
      The idea that focusing on one aspect of identity is problematic
      Such a focus assumes a common, shared experience that does not exist
      Ignores the complexity of problems faced by individuals because of multiple identities that are experienced together.
    • Such work uses layers of analysis to understand the influences of
      Sex and Gender
      Race and Ethnicity
      Class
    • Terms
      Coverture– a form of legal status for women after marriage in which she assumes the legal identity of her husband. This means that the husband assumes control of property, is the legally responsible party in court (has the power to sue or is the litigant in a lawsuit), and generally means that married women cannot enter into contracts.
    • Subjectivity– recognizing the power dynamics embedded in a particular identity by those that hold that identity. Such recognition allows individuals to assume more control of their position through recognition of common experiences and power positions.
    • Differences– Region and Religion
      How did Puritans, Quakers, and the inhabitants of the Colonial South view and treat women? What was similar? What was different?
      Puritians (Upper New England)–
      head of household, family owed obedience, but he was obligated to show them respect.
      Deeply entrenched patriarchal ideas, especially those guiding property ownership and inheritance law.
      Wives did have autonomy when acting on behalf of husband
      No man in life? At-risk for persecution.
    • Quakers- (middle New England– PA)
      Religious beliefs give women a source of authority– 1) everyone cultivates an “Inner Light,” 2) no church heirarchy, and 3) women allowed to be preachers.
      Women have central role in family decision-making
      Women allowed to speak in public and travel alone.
      Women still have little legal rights, especially once married.
      Example of importance… Susan B. Anthony.
      Southern Colonies/ States
      Women have more economic rights due to high death rates in the South.
    • Commonalities?
      Differences existed between legal rights and social reality.
      No access to democratic rights (i.e. voting and participating IN government).
      Need to be respectable, even during periods of changing roles. Gossip is a tool that both helps and harms women’s advancement during this period.
      Increasing value of private life
    • What/ how did economic change erode patriarchal control?
      Economic growth
      Increased differences in wealth
      More economic options with increased industries and education.
      Commercial development and the increased importance of personal wealth
      Marriage is less about economic arrangements
      Quaker women start to engage “gender-based commodity production.”
    • What are the different ways that emotional life became more important? Why does this matter?
      Marriage changes
      Women have more control over identity of who they want to marry.
      More about affection and companionship
      Increased value on emotional/ private life
      Fathers want love not fear
      Forced marriage becoming socially unacceptable
      Romantic love becomes main determinant of marriage choice for men (as well as women)
    • Effect of the Great Awakening– encouraged the analysis/writing of your feelings and considering their connections to Christ. Women as well as men are directed to think through religious struggles.
    • Republicanism
      How does republicanism provide a space for women to become more public actors?
      Offers a path to connect private and public (think of Wollstonecraft’s response to Rousseau).
      Women have an elevated role as training men to be virtuous citizens and become icons of virtue
      Valorizing private life increases visibility of women.
      Gives women a basis for justifying acting publicly. (Examples?)
      What were ways that women either saw or were able to act as public actors? Which do you find significant?
    • Power of Word
      Colonial and Constitutional Era Novel
      Spread developments in women’s “position” due to republicanism
      “women ‘publicized’ their subjectivity.” (73)
      Bridges the gap of public and private.
      Allowed by the increased value placed on private live and emotional fulfillment, but also deepened this value.
      Emphasis on feelings allows for “a break in patriarchal discourse.” (75)
    • Importance of the Novel Con’t
      Offers an avenue for critiquing aspects of public life that are overtly patriarchal.
      Key is seduction which
      1) warns women to safeguard their personal virtue and
      2) a republican metaphor for public virtue, warning the broader public to not be corrupted by enticement. (Key works are Charlotte Temple and Coquette)
    • The Antebellum Period (1812ish to the Civil War)
      Domestic novel– includes “intimate details of the daily life of ordinary women.” (78) i.e., how to become a housewife, how to support oneself, how to deal with men. PRIVATE becoming PUBLIC
      Changes influence literature and women’s situation
      Increased amount of products commercially available
      More education for women
      Decreasing birthrate
    • How domestic novels impacted the real world
      Gave voice to a broader spectrum of female experiences.
      Started to challenge different aspects of male privilege, such as property rights and divorce law. Allowed women to feel they were legitimately angry about difficult situations they faced in relation to this.
      Offered alternative arrangements of women’s place in the social structure.
      Offered women a sense of their power as housewives.
      Since women authors were respected, this activity starts the trend of women being able to speak more publicly.
    • Rise of woman’s autobiography-
      Starts as a path to self-representation for black women. 1) Our Nig by Harriet Wilson and 2) Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl by Harriet Jacobs.
      Similar to earlier novels by white women, the main themes of the work are around social justice, giving value to the experiences of black women who were enslaved, and exploring themes of self- preservation.
      Exception is when dealing with sexuality, love, and marriage. Because of the situation of slavery, these experiences have little comparable basis.
    • Key Developments of Antebellum and Post Civil War
      Increased employment
      Textiles and shoes
      School teaching
      Domestic work
      Religious change (again)– Second Great Awakening
      Rise of volunteerism
      Social housekeeping– the activities of women to use public means to enforce moral codes and normative standards of private life.
    • Increasing respect for domesticity
      Expansion of acceptable space for women to occupy (social geography) and ability to travel
      Increase in public speaking
      Religion
      Abolition of slavery
      Temperance
      Women’s Rights (Seneca Falls and afterwards)
    • Constraints
      Continued pressure to remain “respectable.”
    • Indirect effects
      Increased confidence
      Increased skill set
      Organizational skills
      Administrative skills
      Fund-raising skills
      Political skills
    • Social housekeeping– the activities of women to use public means to enforce moral codes and normative standards of private life. Relevant for chapter 8.
    • BEGINNING Erosions to Respectability Constraintchanges in space constraints
      Employment
      Rise of the Department Store
      Dress
      Increased “promiscuous activity”
      Goldman and others who begin to speak about sexuality (and remain respected by many)
    • Women Creating New Respectability
      Temperance movement
      Settlement houses and the development of social work
      Women’s clubs
    • Nature of Political Change
      Speed
      Comprehensive change– sweeping reform
      Incremental change– reform in small pieces
      Cause
      Idiosyncratic factors- individual actors and their personality, unique time and events. Can we imagine suffrage without Stanton and Anthony?
      Structural factors- how political institutions and cultural practices are situated. Some states had already given women the right to vote.
      Reality usually is a combination of the two
    • Politics of Suffrage
      Rise of first wave feminism– women deserve the vote and deserve to be treated equally under the law
      Organizing and lobby activity
      Grassroots
      Political parties
      Gaining the right to vote– mirrors policy tactics by some groups today.
      State by state push first
      After some success here start a more successful national push
    • Gains and Losses
      Suffrage gained
      Losses
      Decreasing solidarity based on womanhood
      Domestic life becomes a decreasing source of empowerment
      Political parties cut off access to political power. Women’s parties co-opted into women’s divisions.
      Women’s networks and organizations start to focus on topics other than politics.
    • Agenda Conflicts
      Equal Rights Amendment
      Laws to protect women
    • Employment
      Pioneer in women working in the labor movement.
      Work was focused on improving male working conditions in the mining industry.
    • Working class women
      How is the activism of working class women different from the model of upper class white women discussed in earlier chapters?
    • Women and Work Today
      http://www.iwpr.org/pdf/R260.pdf
    • Revival of the Quest for Rights
      Influence of the Civil Rights Movement
      2nd Wave Feminism
      Rise of new women’s groups– political in purpose
      NOW
      NWPC
    • Notes About Response Papers
      2-3 pages, 1.5 spacing, Times New Roman
      Name and reading single spaced in corner
      DO NOT SUMMARIZE
      Do bring in points from the reading that clarify the point you are trying to make– this means you MUST be making an ARGUMENT!
    • Highlight what you find interesting, reflection on how reading compliments or contradicts earlier reading or discussion, or poses a question about the reading in context of the course.
      You must post your response paper on the course discussion board AND turn a hard copy into me.