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  • Explain how this is oftentimes different from IDEOLOGY


  • 1. Public Opinion
  • 2. Public Opinion’s Influence
    Public opinion is the values and attitudes that people have about issues, events, and personalities.
    Political values are
    Importance for democracy
    Impact on elites– i.e. electoral concerns of Congress
    Activating direct action.
  • 3. “I cannot find time to do what is expected of me in the theory of democracy; that is, to know what is going on and to have an opinion worth expressing in every question which confronts a self-governing community. And I have not happened to meet anybody, from a President of the United States to a professor of political science, who came anywhere near to embodying the accepted ideal of the sovereign and omni-competent citizen.”
    -- Walter Lippman (1925)
  • 4. How we make political decisions
    Heuristics or cognitive shortcuts are a big part of this—
    Cue-taking about how to vote or what opinion to hold.
    What cognitive shortcut do you use?
    Family member? Spouse? Friend?
    Political pundit? Celebrity?
    Interest group?
  • 5. Receive- Accept- Sample (RAS)
    People have predispositions
    People have access to various forms of political information
    Predispositions impact whether we accept or reject information we represented with… how we translate information into a “consideration.”
    We often form opinions, but our memory does not necessarily keep the reasons for the opinion in an easily accessible place.
  • 6. Surveys measure the average of what we were thinking about beforehand– not knowledge or competency.
    Implicit result– reliance on cognitive shortcuts.
  • 7. Two models of public opinion
    “They” said that…. (The Elite Model)
    Cognitive shortcuts, elites, and RAS
    Elites generate messages that citizens absorb. Public opinion is measuring which elites are winning this battle.
    Current trends in using the internet to get elite messages out
    My people talk to your people…(Activated Masses Model)
    Cognitive shortcuts, counter-publics and counter-elites, and RAS
    Public opinion can be driven by citizens talking with each other. Usually opinion leaders who are not elites drive this.
    Possibility of true grass roots campaigns– many point to the Civil Rights Movement as an example.
  • 8. Activated Masses
    “Big” issues–
    Race and the Civil Rights Movement
    Women and the Feminist Movement
    “Small” issues—
    MADD and drunk driving
  • 9. Pre-dispositions -- Ideology
  • 10. What ideology to you identify with
    Black power/ insurgency
    Don’t Know
  • 11. Pre-dispositions
    Democrat versus Republican
    Third parties?
  • 12. What party do you identify with
    Libertarian/ Reform
    None– I’m independent
    None– I don’t get involved in politics
    I don’t know
  • 13. Pre-dispositions
    The complex process through which people become aware of political life, learn political facts, and form political values.
  • 14. Agents of Socialization
    Agents of socialization are the social institutions that help shape individuals’ basic political beliefs and values.
    Primacy principle
    Structuring principle
    Peer Groups
    Political Events
  • 15. What was your first political memory?
  • 16. What is the strongest influence on you politically?
  • 17. Measuring Opinion
  • 18. Public opinion has direction.
    Whatever the response to a public opinion poll (yes or no; more or less; 1 or 100) people have opinions about proper directions and preferred alternatives.
    Liberals are said to be on the “left,” and conservatives are said to be on the “right.”
  • 19. If “direction” measures what people think, intensity refers to how deeply individuals hold a given opinion and how likely they are to act on it.
    Not all opinions are equally felt by citizens, so not all opinions are equally consequential for politics.
  • 20. If direction and intensity characterize individual opinions, saliency and latency are characteristics of overall opinion.
    Salient opinion is that which enjoys widespread public attention and is a high priority.
    Latent opinion may be widespread but generally remains in the background unmolded, unmobilized, and uncrystallized.
  • 21. Differences in Public Opinion
    Despite widespread agreement, fundamental disagreements continue, over not only specific issues but also how we define our core areas of consensus.
    Political divisions between “liberals” and conservatives” reflect relatively consistent differences among Americans.
    Moreover, demographic differences (between and among racial and ethnic groups and between men and women) persist and define many of the important political battles in American politics.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24. But these trends may be changing
    See the Pew Center’s study on this question by clicking here.