Chapt 4


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapt 4

  1. 1. Congress<br />Altruistic policy-makers<br />or<br />Single minded seekers of re-election<br />
  2. 2. Congress this week<br />The structure of Congress<br />Incumbency and elections<br />Congress and representation<br />In depth look at decision-making in Congress<br />
  3. 3. Congress<br />Founders believed that the bulk of power exercised by the national government should be in the hands of the legislature.<br />The Basics<br />Article I of the Constitution deals with the powers, structure and operation of the Congress.<br />Bicameralism: At founding it balances the interests and numerical majority of common citizens (House) with the interests of the less numerous elites (Senate). <br />
  4. 4. Great Compromise<br />Balance between small and large states<br />Compromise on degree of popular influence.<br />Senate switches from appointment by state legislatures to popular election with the 17th Amendment (1913).<br />
  5. 5. Difference between House and Senate<br />House of Representatives<br />435 Seats<br />2 year terms<br />Must be 25 years old<br />Popularly elected<br />Senate<br />100 Seats<br />6 year terms<br />Must be 30 years old<br />Popularly elected (17th Amendment, 1913)<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. The institutional functions of Congress and <br />Members’ individual goals are connected.<br />Functions of Congress<br />Representation<br />Legislation<br />Oversight<br />Goals of Members<br />Re-election<br />Public Policy<br />Political Influence<br />
  8. 8. Fig. 5.1<br />
  9. 9. Representation Styles<br />Members of Congress balance two styles based on the knowledge of their constituents, their own personal feelings, and public attention to an issue. <br /> Delegates closely follow and act on the preferences of their constituents.<br /> Trustees act based on their own judgments when they disagree with their constituents.<br /> Politicos are sensitive to the issue at hand when deciding whether to follow the preferences of constituents or to act based on their own judgments.<br />
  10. 10. Representation<br />Descriptive Representation<br />A congress that looks like us, matches our characteristics<br />Why would descriptive representation matter?<br />Substantive Representation<br />A congress that promotes policies that represents our interests<br />What is the appropriate standard for representation?<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
  13. 13. There are important differences between the House and the Senate in how they make legislation.<br />The House<br />435 Members representing narrow constituencies<br />More organized and with centralized authority<br />Greater degree of policy specialization<br />Generally quicker to act<br />The Senate<br />100 Senators representing broader, statewide constituencies<br />Less organized and more individualistic<br />Senators tend to be “generalists”<br />More deliberative<br />
  14. 14. Because it is larger and represents more specialized, narrow constituency, the House has naturally a greater collective action problem than the Senate.<br /> Still, to cope with this size difference the House has stronger rules and stronger parties and committees that facilitate legislative work.<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Rep. Mike McIntyre<br />
  18. 18. Rep. Larry Kissell<br />
  19. 19. Tracking midterm elections<br /><br />
  20. 20. Gerrymandering<br />a controversial form of redistricting in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are manipulated for an electoral advantage. <br />Incumbency<br />Race<br />
  21. 21. Gerrymandering<br />a controversial form of redistricting in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are manipulated for an electoral advantage. <br />Incumbency<br />Race<br />Partisanship<br />The Drama part I<br />The Drama part II<br />Oral Arguments<br />Court’s Decision<br />
  22. 22. Political Implications<br />Packing and Cracking<br />
  23. 23. Incumbency advantages<br />Advertising– creating a brand name<br />Creating name recognition<br />Credit claiming– taking personal responsibility for positive a government output<br />Casework<br />Legislative record<br />Pork Barrel<br />Seniority/ committee work<br />Position taking– demonstrating agreement with the district<br />Roll call votes<br />Speeches<br />Public statements<br />
  24. 24. Incumbent Advantages<br />Ties to elites, fundraising<br />Allow for retrospective voting<br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Political Implications<br />
  29. 29. Fig. 5.2<br />
  30. 30. Agenda-Settingor how Congress decides what to decide on<br />Committees in Congress<br />
  31. 31. Committees<br />Screen out the thousands of bills that are introduced into Congress. This is the real work of Congress.<br />Manage work load and allow for substantive debate<br />Expertise development<br />Balanced committees allow for good and substantive representation<br />Importance of chair and ranking member<br />Geographic representation<br />
  32. 32. Free-riders, Congress, and Committees<br />Getting on the “right” committee<br />Committee control of legislation<br />Jurisdiction over legislation<br />
  33. 33. Two Ways of Understanding Congressional Voting<br />Individual level analysis of decision-making<br />Why a single legislator votes the way she does<br />Aggregate level analysis of decision-making<br />How institutions arrive at the decisions they do<br />For today- how to explain when Congress is gridlocked and when it isn’t<br />
  34. 34. Individual Decision Rules<br />Congress members as “single-minded seekers of re-election.”<br />Who matters in an election (and thus in voting on a bill)?<br />Attentive publics<br />Inattentive publics<br />Latent publics<br />The truly inattentive<br />
  35. 35. Organized Groups and Attentive Publics <br /> salient group cost/benefits + traceable to legislator’s action + non-salient general cost/benefit <br />Potential Preferences Latent Publics <br />Group costs COULD be salient + possibility of traceability (if Congress gets it wrong)<br />