Intermediary Organizations
GovernmentIntermediary
Organizations
Citizens/
the Public
Are interest groups good?
 Interest Groups enhance democracy.
 Interest Groups represent the evils of faction
Madison an...
Strategies of Influence
Contemporary
interest groups seek
influence over policy
makers through a mix
of “inside” strategie...
Interest groups “lobby” legislators
in efforts to shape policy as it is
being made.
Interest groups also seek to
cultivate...
Interest groups hire lawyers to
influence the judiciary.
Sometimes groups are litigants
in lawsuits.
Often groups submit a...
Interest groups seek to
influence public opinion by
 developing media strategies
and advertising (known as
going public);...
Finally, interest groups seek to
influence the outcome of
elections.
 By mobilizing their members, groups
can deliver vol...
Interest Group Print Ads
How does persuasion in politics
work?
 “The Persuaders”– Frontline
– Focus on Chapters 4, 5, and 6.
Functions of Interest Groups
 Representation
 Participation
 Interest Aggregation
 Education
 Agenda-Building
 Progr...
Why Some Groups Organize
 Selective Incentives Theory
– Material selective benefits
– Purposive selective benefits
– Soli...
Why Some Groups Organize
 Selective Incentives Theory
 Disturbance Theory– People unite against a
common harm after a th...
Why Some Groups Organize
 Selective Incentives Theory
 Disturbance Theory
 Entrepreneur Theory– People are brought
toge...
“By a faction I understand a
number of citizens, whether
amounting to a majority or
minority of the whole, who are
united ...
Following Madison, mid-
20th century pluralists
argued that interest group
politics was a major
strength of American
gover...
Pluralists argued that interest
groups
 represent many diverse
interests in society;
 provide expert information
and per...
Pluralist Model of Politics
 Assumptions:
– System is open
– System is responsive
– Activity is restrained
INTEREST GROUPS
BAD FOR
DEMOCRACY?
Schattschneider
Scope and Bias: Who can get into the fight and
who is excluded?
“The flaw in the pluralist heaven is that ...
Critics of pluralism argued that
interest groups
 represent “special interests”
and do not reflect the broader
will of th...
 The best Congress money can buy?
– Buying support vs. rewarding supporters
– Most IG money goes to the strongest support...
Iron Triangle
Executive Branch Congressional
Agency Committee
Interest Group
Good or Bad for Democracy?
 Iron triangles don’t last forever
 Evidence suggests that the “public interest” is
on the ri...
Good or Bad for Democracy?
 Iron triangles don’t last forever
 Evidence suggests that the “public interest” is
on the ri...
Chapt 12 interest groups
Chapt 12 interest groups
Chapt 12 interest groups
Chapt 12 interest groups
Chapt 12 interest groups
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Chapt 12 interest groups

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Chapt 12 interest groups

  1. 1. Intermediary Organizations GovernmentIntermediary Organizations Citizens/ the Public
  2. 2. Are interest groups good?  Interest Groups enhance democracy.  Interest Groups represent the evils of faction Madison and the Federalists were concerned with in Federalist #10.
  3. 3. Strategies of Influence Contemporary interest groups seek influence over policy makers through a mix of “inside” strategies and “outside” strategies. Inside strategies include:  lobbying  influencing administrative rule- making  litigation Outside strategies include:  influencing election outcomes  affecting media coverage
  4. 4. Interest groups “lobby” legislators in efforts to shape policy as it is being made. Interest groups also seek to cultivate access to officials in the executive branch to influence administrative rule making and the details of policy implementation.
  5. 5. Interest groups hire lawyers to influence the judiciary. Sometimes groups are litigants in lawsuits. Often groups submit amicus curiae briefs giving their perspectives on cases to which they are not a party.
  6. 6. Interest groups seek to influence public opinion by  developing media strategies and advertising (known as going public);  mobilizing citizens at the grass roots.
  7. 7. Finally, interest groups seek to influence the outcome of elections.  By mobilizing their members, groups can deliver volunteers and votes to campaigns.  Through political action committees (PACs), groups contribute money to candidates. The influence of PAC contributions has increased considerably in recent years.
  8. 8. Interest Group Print Ads
  9. 9. How does persuasion in politics work?  “The Persuaders”– Frontline – Focus on Chapters 4, 5, and 6.
  10. 10. Functions of Interest Groups  Representation  Participation  Interest Aggregation  Education  Agenda-Building  Program Monitoring`
  11. 11. Why Some Groups Organize  Selective Incentives Theory – Material selective benefits – Purposive selective benefits – Solidary or social selective benefits
  12. 12. Why Some Groups Organize  Selective Incentives Theory  Disturbance Theory– People unite against a common harm after a threshold of negative experience is reached. I.E., unions  Entrepreneur Theory
  13. 13. Why Some Groups Organize  Selective Incentives Theory  Disturbance Theory  Entrepreneur Theory– People are brought together by ambitious, energetic, charismatic, entrepreneurial leadership. For instance the role of Billy Graham in the Christian Coalition.
  14. 14. “By a faction I understand a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community.” —James Madison, Federalist 10 Madison believed:  Balancing the conflicting interests of different factions was the most reliable way to control the negative effects of factional politics.  Increasing the number and variety of factions actually aided the pursuit of the public good. Interest Group Pluralism
  15. 15. Following Madison, mid- 20th century pluralists argued that interest group politics was a major strength of American government and society. Pluralism is the theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for influence in the government. The outcome of this competition is compromise and moderation.
  16. 16. Pluralists argued that interest groups  represent many diverse interests in society;  provide expert information and perspectives that improve policy making.
  17. 17. Pluralist Model of Politics  Assumptions: – System is open – System is responsive – Activity is restrained
  18. 18. INTEREST GROUPS BAD FOR DEMOCRACY?
  19. 19. Schattschneider Scope and Bias: Who can get into the fight and who is excluded? “The flaw in the pluralist heaven is that the heavenly chorus sings with a strong upper class accent.”
  20. 20. Critics of pluralism argued that interest groups  represent “special interests” and do not reflect the broader will of the people or the public good;  over-represent the wealthy in society;  provide self-serving and biased information that warp policy making.
  21. 21.  The best Congress money can buy? – Buying support vs. rewarding supporters – Most IG money goes to the strongest supporters – Buying time in committee
  22. 22. Iron Triangle Executive Branch Congressional Agency Committee Interest Group
  23. 23. Good or Bad for Democracy?  Iron triangles don’t last forever  Evidence suggests that the “public interest” is on the rise
  24. 24. Good or Bad for Democracy?  Iron triangles don’t last forever  Evidence suggests that the “public interest” is on the rise  What other organization would perform the intermediary functions… parties?  If Madison is right– factions are inevitable– the institutional arrangement matters!
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