What is Politics?<br />The conflicts and struggles over the leadership, structure, and policies of government. (Lowi, et. ...
Aspects of the study of politics<br />Identifying and justifying values and goals<br />Identifying and explaining trends<b...
What is Government?<br /><ul><li>The institution in society which as a “monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force.”...
A permanent structure or institution composed of decision makers who make society’s rules about conflict resolution and th...
COERCION is the government’s use of force.<br />	Common examples of government coercion include:<br /><ul><li>Taxation
Conscription
Incarceration</li></li></ul><li>
An Introduction to the Five Principles of Politics<br />	Throughout the semester, both the textbook and many class discuss...
The Rationality Principle:  All political behavior has a purpose.<br />		1. Political behavior is goal-oriented.<br />		2....
The Collective-Action Principle:<br />All politics is collective action.  <br />Government requires collective social acti...
The Institution Principle:  Institutions<br /> routinely solve collective action problems.<br />1. 	Institutional arrangem...
The Policy Principle:  Political outcomes are the products of individual preferences and institutional procedures.<br />1....
The History Principle:  History matters.<br />1.   Historical processes shape institutions.<br />2.   History provides a n...
Collective Action<br />
Collective Action Problems<br />Coordination problems<br />Cooperation and trust problems<br />Prisoner’s Dilemma<br />Tra...
Understanding the difference between Tragedy of the Commons and Free Riders: A Story of Seattle OLA.<br />
Free Riders and Olsen<br />Small Groups<br />Easy to deter free-riding because you can track who is not participating<br /...
Selective Incentives<br />Material benefits<br />Solidary benefits<br />Purposive benefits<br />
Tragedy of the Commons<br />Overuse or misuse of common pool resources<br />People have a hard time self regulating<br />R...
Ways to solve collective action problems<br />Iteration—<br />Doing the same tasks with the same people over and over.<br ...
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Chapt 1

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Chapt 1

  1. 1. What is Politics?<br />The conflicts and struggles over the leadership, structure, and policies of government. (Lowi, et. al.)<br />Deciding who gets what, when, where, and how. (Lasswell)<br />
  2. 2. Aspects of the study of politics<br />Identifying and justifying values and goals<br />Identifying and explaining trends<br />Identifying and explaining trend conditions<br />Project/ predict future developments<br />Identify policy alternatives for achieving values/goals.<br />
  3. 3. What is Government?<br /><ul><li>The institution in society which as a “monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force.” – Max Weber.
  4. 4. A permanent structure or institution composed of decision makers who make society’s rules about conflict resolution and the allocation of resources and who possess the power to enforce those rules.</li></li></ul><li>LEGITIMACY, the widespread perception that the government has the right to rule, is enhanced by popular participation and consent of the governed.<br />
  5. 5. COERCION is the government’s use of force.<br /> Common examples of government coercion include:<br /><ul><li>Taxation
  6. 6. Conscription
  7. 7. Incarceration</li></li></ul><li>
  8. 8. An Introduction to the Five Principles of Politics<br /> Throughout the semester, both the textbook and many class discussions will use the following Five Principles Of Politics to illuminate some of the central questions of American government and politics.<br />
  9. 9. The Rationality Principle: All political behavior has a purpose.<br /> 1. Political behavior is goal-oriented.<br /> 2. Political actors make instrumental choices about how to act.<br />
  10. 10. The Collective-Action Principle:<br />All politics is collective action. <br />Government requires collective social action.<br /> As the number and diversity of the relevant actors increase, so does the collective action problem.<br />
  11. 11. The Institution Principle: Institutions<br /> routinely solve collective action problems.<br />1. Institutional arrangements provide for a division of labor, rules regarding decision making, and checks on the powers of political actors and institutions.<br />2. These routines and structured relationships enable cooperation that alleviates impediments to collective action.<br />
  12. 12. The Policy Principle: Political outcomes are the products of individual preferences and institutional procedures.<br />1. Outcomes are the products of the intermingling of individual goals and institutions.<br /> 2. Individuals have competing goals that are shaped, channeled, and filtered through relevant processes.<br />
  13. 13. The History Principle: History matters.<br />1. Historical processes shape institutions.<br />2. History provides a normative context through which we can understand and interpret political events and outcomes.<br />
  14. 14. Collective Action<br />
  15. 15. Collective Action Problems<br />Coordination problems<br />Cooperation and trust problems<br />Prisoner’s Dilemma<br />Tragedy of the Commons<br />Free Riders<br />
  16. 16. Understanding the difference between Tragedy of the Commons and Free Riders: A Story of Seattle OLA.<br />
  17. 17. Free Riders and Olsen<br />Small Groups<br />Easy to deter free-riding because you can track who is not participating<br />Large Groups (i.e., public goods)<br />Larger the group smaller fraction of benefit enjoyed by individuals<br />Larger the group, individual cost starts to override individual benefit<br />Larger group means higher organizational cost, leading to less resource left for providing collective benefit.<br />Larger group means easier to get away with not contributing.<br />
  18. 18. Selective Incentives<br />Material benefits<br />Solidary benefits<br />Purposive benefits<br />
  19. 19. Tragedy of the Commons<br />Overuse or misuse of common pool resources<br />People have a hard time self regulating<br />Rational self interest<br />Difficulty understanding accumulative effects<br />Difficulty in identifying offenders<br />Two solutions<br />Privatization<br />Coercive government regulation<br />
  20. 20. Ways to solve collective action problems<br />Iteration—<br />Doing the same tasks with the same people over and over.<br />Learn to trust and reciprocate<br />Selective Benefits<br />People who contribute to providing the public good get something more than the public good.<br />Privatization<br />Don’t have public goods. Give a little of something to everyone.<br />Coercive Authority<br />Punish those who don’t contribute<br />
  21. 21. The founding story– a lesson in politics<br />As you read for next week<br />What does the founding story have to say about the “who, what, when, where, and how”<br />Were the authors of the U.S. Constitution rational actors?<br />What collective action problems do you detect? How were these solved?<br />

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