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Grammatical concepts book Grammatical concepts book Presentation Transcript

  • GRAMMATICAL CONCEPTS BOOK Elisa Jones Periodo 3 Honors Spanish 3
  • Table of Contents
    • Preterite
    • Preterite Trigger Words
    • Car-Gar-Zar
    • Spock Verbs
    • Cucaracha Verbs
    • Snake/Snakey Verbs
    • Imperfect
    • Imperfect Trigger Words
    • Imperfect Irregular
    • Preterite vs. Imperfect
    • Ser vs. Estar
    • Verbs Like Gustar
    • Comparatives/ Superlatives
    • Connecting Words
    • Future
    • Future Trigger
    • Future Irregular
    • Por
    • Para
    • Demonstrative adjectives
    • Demonstrative pronouns
  • Preterite
    • actions that are completed
    • to express the beginning or end of a past action
    • to narrate a series of past actions/events
    -AR -ER/IR yo -é -í tú -aste -iste él/ella/ud. -ó -ió nosotros -amos -imos ellos/ellas/uds. -aron -ieron
  • Preterite Trigger Words
    • el dia anterior
    • ayer
    • la semana pasada
    • en fin de semana pasada
    • el mes pasado
    • el otro dia
    • anoche
    • the day before
    • yesterday
    • last week
    • last weekend
    • last month
    • the other day
    • last night
    • En Espa ñol
    • En Inglés
  • Car-Gar-Zar
    • Verbs ending in..
      • -car
        • change the c to: - qu
      • -gar
        • change the g to: -gu
      • -zar
        • change the z to: -c
            • ONLY IN ‘YO’ FORM!
    • yo ju gué (I played) yo bus qué (I looked) yo almor cé (I ate lunch)
  • Spock Verbs
    • ver (to see)/ dar (to give): use the same endings in the preterite
    • ser (to be)/ ir (to go): have same conjugation in the preterite
    • hacer (to do)
    fui fuiste fue fuimos fueron vi viste vio vimos vieron di diste dio dimos dieron hice hiciste hizo hicimos hieron
  • Cucaracha Verbs -e -iste -o -imos -ieron all share same endings! Verb 1st Person Andar Anduve Conducir* Conduje Decir* Dije Estar Estuve Verb 1st Person Hacer Hice Poner Puse Poder Pude Querer Quise Verb 1st Person Saber Supe Tener Tuve Traer* Traje Venir Vine
  • Snake/Snakey Verbs
    • only changes in 3 rd person
    • e>i: venir, servir, preferir, pedir.
    • o>u: dormir, morir.
    • only changes in 3 rd person
    • i>y: oir
    • e>y: leer, creer
    • snake
    • snakey
  • Imperfect
    • actions that are not completed
    • to express habitual past actions
    • to describe physical/emotional states or characteristics.
    -AR -ER/-IR (yo) aba (yo) ía (t ú ) abas (t ú ) ías (él/ella/ud.) aba (él/ella/ud.) ía (nosotros) abamos (nosotros) íamos (ellos/ellas/uds.) aban (ellos/ellas/uds.) ían
  • Imperfect Trigger Words
    • todos los dias
    • siempre
    • nunca
    • a veces
    • a menudo
    • casi siempre
    • todo el tiempo
    • every day
    • always
    • never
    • sometimes
    • often
    • almost always
    • all the time
    • En español
    • En Inglés
  • Imperfect Irregular Verbs IR (to go) SER (to be) VER (to see) yo iba era veía tú ibas eras veías él/ella/ud. iba era veía nosotros íbamos éramos veíamos ellos/ellas/uds. iban eran veían
  • Preterite vs. Imperfect
    • Preterite: perfect action in the past
    • Imperfect: unperfected action in the past
  • Ser vs. Estar
    • d escription
    • o rigin
    • c haracteristics
    • t ime
    • o ccupation
    • r elationships
    • p ossession
    • e vent
    • d ate
    • h ealth
    • e motions
    • l ocations
    • p resent condition
    • i
    • n
    • g
    • ser (to be)
    • estar (to be)
    • present participles
    • -ar: -ando
    • -er/ir: -iendo or -yendo
  • Verbs Like Gustar
    • hacer
    • faltar
    • soprender
    • disgustar
    • doler
    • apetecer
    • preocupar
    • interesar
    • encantar
    • fascinar
    • example of gustar: “Me gusta mi perro.”
    • the subject pronoun is placed in front of the verb, which is subjugated according to the direct object (singular or plural).
      • example: “Te amo” literally translated means “you I love.”
    me te le nos les
  • Comparatives/Superlatives
  • Connecting Words
    • aunque
    • tambi é n
    • mientras
    • pero
    • por lo tanto
    • a pesar de
    • sin embargo/no obstante
    • even though
    • also
    • while
    • but
    • therefore
    • in spite of
    • nevertheless
    • en espa ñol
    • en inglés
  • Future Tense
    • I, you, he/she, we, they WILL.
    • same endings for -ar, -er, & -ir
      • yo + infinitive + é
      • tú + infinitive + ás
      • él/ella/ud. + infinitive + á
      • nosotros + infinitive + emos
      • ellos/ellas/uds. + infinitive + án
    comer yo comeré tú comerás él comerá nos comeremos ellos comerán
  • Future Trigger Words
  • Future Irregular Tense
    • decir  dir
    • hacer  har
    • poder  podr
    • poner  pondr
    • querer  querr
    • saber  sabr
    • salir  saldr
    • tener  tendr
    • valer  valdr
    • venir  vendr
    all still keep the same future tense endings!
  • Por
    • passing through
    • general rather than specific
    • how long something lasts
    • cause of something
    • an exchange
    • doing something in place of someone else
    • means of transportation
    • por tal
    • por tugal
    • por ever
    • por puse
    • im por t/ex por t
    • por someone else
    • trans por tation
  • Para
    • for whom something is done
    • destination
    • purpose for which something is done
    • to express opinion
    • contrast/compare
    • to express deadline
    • para ty
    • para guay
    • para sites
    • para don me…
    • com para
    • para medic!
  • Demonstrative Adjectives
    • always are in the front of the verb
    • always agree in gender & number
  • Demonstrative Pronouns
    • Singular masculine
      • éste (this)
      • ése (that)
      • aquél (that)
    • Plural masculine
      • éstos (these)
      • ésos (those)
      • aquéllos (those)
    • Singular feminine
      • ésta (this)
      • ésa (that)
      • aquélla (that)
    • Plural feminine
      • éstas (these)
      • ésas (those)
      • aquéllas (those)
    • Singular neuter
      • esto (this)
      • eso (that)
      • aquello (that)
    same as demonstrative adjectives, except these stand in for the noun instead of modifying it.