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    • 1. GRAMMATICAL CONCEPTS BOOK Elisa Jones Periodo 3 Honors Spanish 3
    • 2. Table of Contents
      • Preterite
      • Preterite Trigger Words
      • Car-Gar-Zar
      • Spock Verbs
      • Cucaracha Verbs
      • Snake/Snakey Verbs
      • Imperfect
      • Imperfect Trigger Words
      • Imperfect Irregular
      • Preterite vs. Imperfect
      • Ser vs. Estar
      • Verbs Like Gustar
      • Comparatives/ Superlatives
      • Connecting Words
      • Future
      • Future Trigger
      • Future Irregular
      • Por
      • Para
      • Demonstrative adjectives
      • Demonstrative pronouns
    • 3. Preterite
      • actions that are completed
      • to express the beginning or end of a past action
      • to narrate a series of past actions/events
      -AR -ER/IR yo -é -í tú -aste -iste él/ella/ud. -ó -ió nosotros -amos -imos ellos/ellas/uds. -aron -ieron
    • 4. Preterite Trigger Words
      • el dia anterior
      • ayer
      • la semana pasada
      • en fin de semana pasada
      • el mes pasado
      • el otro dia
      • anoche
      • the day before
      • yesterday
      • last week
      • last weekend
      • last month
      • the other day
      • last night
      • En Espa ñol
      • En Inglés
    • 5. Car-Gar-Zar
      • Verbs ending in..
        • -car
          • change the c to: - qu
        • -gar
          • change the g to: -gu
        • -zar
          • change the z to: -c
              • ONLY IN ‘YO’ FORM!
      • yo ju gué (I played) yo bus qué (I looked) yo almor cé (I ate lunch)
    • 6. Spock Verbs
      • ver (to see)/ dar (to give): use the same endings in the preterite
      • ser (to be)/ ir (to go): have same conjugation in the preterite
      • hacer (to do)
      fui fuiste fue fuimos fueron vi viste vio vimos vieron di diste dio dimos dieron hice hiciste hizo hicimos hieron
    • 7. Cucaracha Verbs -e -iste -o -imos -ieron all share same endings! Verb 1st Person Andar Anduve Conducir* Conduje Decir* Dije Estar Estuve Verb 1st Person Hacer Hice Poner Puse Poder Pude Querer Quise Verb 1st Person Saber Supe Tener Tuve Traer* Traje Venir Vine
    • 8. Snake/Snakey Verbs
      • only changes in 3 rd person
      • e>i: venir, servir, preferir, pedir.
      • o>u: dormir, morir.
      • only changes in 3 rd person
      • i>y: oir
      • e>y: leer, creer
      • snake
      • snakey
    • 9. Imperfect
      • actions that are not completed
      • to express habitual past actions
      • to describe physical/emotional states or characteristics.
      -AR -ER/-IR (yo) aba (yo) ía (t ú ) abas (t ú ) ías (él/ella/ud.) aba (él/ella/ud.) ía (nosotros) abamos (nosotros) íamos (ellos/ellas/uds.) aban (ellos/ellas/uds.) ían
    • 10. Imperfect Trigger Words
      • todos los dias
      • siempre
      • nunca
      • a veces
      • a menudo
      • casi siempre
      • todo el tiempo
      • every day
      • always
      • never
      • sometimes
      • often
      • almost always
      • all the time
      • En español
      • En Inglés
    • 11. Imperfect Irregular Verbs IR (to go) SER (to be) VER (to see) yo iba era veía tú ibas eras veías él/ella/ud. iba era veía nosotros íbamos éramos veíamos ellos/ellas/uds. iban eran veían
    • 12. Preterite vs. Imperfect
      • Preterite: perfect action in the past
      • Imperfect: unperfected action in the past
    • 13. Ser vs. Estar
      • d escription
      • o rigin
      • c haracteristics
      • t ime
      • o ccupation
      • r elationships
      • p ossession
      • e vent
      • d ate
      • h ealth
      • e motions
      • l ocations
      • p resent condition
      • i
      • n
      • g
      • ser (to be)
      • estar (to be)
      • present participles
      • -ar: -ando
      • -er/ir: -iendo or -yendo
    • 14. Verbs Like Gustar
      • hacer
      • faltar
      • soprender
      • disgustar
      • doler
      • apetecer
      • preocupar
      • interesar
      • encantar
      • fascinar
      • example of gustar: “Me gusta mi perro.”
      • the subject pronoun is placed in front of the verb, which is subjugated according to the direct object (singular or plural).
        • example: “Te amo” literally translated means “you I love.”
      me te le nos les
    • 15. Comparatives/Superlatives
    • 16. Connecting Words
      • aunque
      • tambi é n
      • mientras
      • pero
      • por lo tanto
      • a pesar de
      • sin embargo/no obstante
      • even though
      • also
      • while
      • but
      • therefore
      • in spite of
      • nevertheless
      • en espa ñol
      • en inglés
    • 17. Future Tense
      • I, you, he/she, we, they WILL.
      • same endings for -ar, -er, & -ir
        • yo + infinitive + é
        • tú + infinitive + ás
        • él/ella/ud. + infinitive + á
        • nosotros + infinitive + emos
        • ellos/ellas/uds. + infinitive + án
      comer yo comeré tú comerás él comerá nos comeremos ellos comerán
    • 18. Future Trigger Words
    • 19. Future Irregular Tense
      • decir  dir
      • hacer  har
      • poder  podr
      • poner  pondr
      • querer  querr
      • saber  sabr
      • salir  saldr
      • tener  tendr
      • valer  valdr
      • venir  vendr
      all still keep the same future tense endings!
    • 20. Por
      • passing through
      • general rather than specific
      • how long something lasts
      • cause of something
      • an exchange
      • doing something in place of someone else
      • means of transportation
      • por tal
      • por tugal
      • por ever
      • por puse
      • im por t/ex por t
      • por someone else
      • trans por tation
    • 21. Para
      • for whom something is done
      • destination
      • purpose for which something is done
      • to express opinion
      • contrast/compare
      • to express deadline
      • para ty
      • para guay
      • para sites
      • para don me…
      • com para
      • para medic!
    • 22. Demonstrative Adjectives
      • always are in the front of the verb
      • always agree in gender & number
    • 23. Demonstrative Pronouns
      • Singular masculine
        • éste (this)
        • ése (that)
        • aquél (that)
      • Plural masculine
        • éstos (these)
        • ésos (those)
        • aquéllos (those)
      • Singular feminine
        • ésta (this)
        • ésa (that)
        • aquélla (that)
      • Plural feminine
        • éstas (these)
        • ésas (those)
        • aquéllas (those)
      • Singular neuter
        • esto (this)
        • eso (that)
        • aquello (that)
      same as demonstrative adjectives, except these stand in for the noun instead of modifying it.