GRAMMATICAL CONCEPTS BOOK Elisa Jones Periodo 3 Honors Spanish 3
Table of Contents <ul><li>Preterite </li></ul><ul><li>Preterite Trigger Words </li></ul><ul><li>Car-Gar-Zar </li></ul><ul>...
Preterite <ul><li>actions that are completed </li></ul><ul><li>to express the beginning or end of a past action </li></ul>...
Preterite Trigger Words <ul><li>el dia anterior </li></ul><ul><li>ayer </li></ul><ul><li>la semana pasada </li></ul><ul><l...
Car-Gar-Zar <ul><li>Verbs ending in.. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-car  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>change the  c  to: - qu <...
Spock Verbs <ul><li>ver (to see)/ dar (to give): use the same endings in the preterite </li></ul><ul><li>ser (to be)/ ir (...
Cucaracha Verbs -e  -iste  -o  -imos  -ieron all share same endings! Verb 1st Person  Andar Anduve Conducir* Conduje Decir...
Snake/Snakey Verbs <ul><li>only changes in 3 rd  person </li></ul><ul><li>e>i: venir, servir, preferir, pedir. </li></ul><...
Imperfect <ul><li>actions that are not completed </li></ul><ul><li>to express habitual past actions </li></ul><ul><li>to d...
Imperfect Trigger Words <ul><li>todos los dias </li></ul><ul><li>siempre </li></ul><ul><li>nunca </li></ul><ul><li>a veces...
Imperfect Irregular Verbs IR (to go) SER (to be) VER (to see) yo iba era veía tú ibas eras veías él/ella/ud. iba era veía ...
Preterite vs. Imperfect <ul><li>Preterite: perfect action in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfect: unperfected action in t...
Ser vs. Estar <ul><li>d escription </li></ul><ul><li>o rigin </li></ul><ul><li>c haracteristics </li></ul><ul><li>t ime </...
Verbs Like Gustar <ul><li>hacer </li></ul><ul><li>faltar </li></ul><ul><li>soprender </li></ul><ul><li>disgustar </li></ul...
Comparatives/Superlatives
Connecting Words <ul><li>aunque </li></ul><ul><li>tambi é n </li></ul><ul><li>mientras </li></ul><ul><li>pero </li></ul><u...
Future Tense <ul><li>I, you, he/she, we, they  WILL. </li></ul><ul><li>same endings for -ar, -er, & -ir </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Future Trigger Words
Future Irregular Tense <ul><li>decir    dir </li></ul><ul><li>hacer    har </li></ul><ul><li>poder    podr </li></ul><u...
Por <ul><li>passing through </li></ul><ul><li>general rather than specific </li></ul><ul><li>how long something lasts </li...
Para <ul><li>for whom something is done </li></ul><ul><li>destination </li></ul><ul><li>purpose for which something is don...
Demonstrative Adjectives <ul><li>always are in the front of the verb  </li></ul><ul><li>always agree in gender & number </...
Demonstrative Pronouns <ul><li>Singular masculine   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>éste  (this)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ése  (t...
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  • Grammatical concepts book

    1. 1. GRAMMATICAL CONCEPTS BOOK Elisa Jones Periodo 3 Honors Spanish 3
    2. 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>Preterite </li></ul><ul><li>Preterite Trigger Words </li></ul><ul><li>Car-Gar-Zar </li></ul><ul><li>Spock Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Cucaracha Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Snake/Snakey Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfect </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfect Trigger Words </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfect Irregular </li></ul><ul><li>Preterite vs. Imperfect </li></ul><ul><li>Ser vs. Estar </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs Like Gustar </li></ul><ul><li>Comparatives/ Superlatives </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting Words </li></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul><ul><li>Future Trigger </li></ul><ul><li>Future Irregular </li></ul><ul><li>Por </li></ul><ul><li>Para </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrative adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrative pronouns </li></ul>
    3. 3. Preterite <ul><li>actions that are completed </li></ul><ul><li>to express the beginning or end of a past action </li></ul><ul><li>to narrate a series of past actions/events </li></ul>-AR -ER/IR yo -é -í tú -aste -iste él/ella/ud. -ó -ió nosotros -amos -imos ellos/ellas/uds. -aron -ieron
    4. 4. Preterite Trigger Words <ul><li>el dia anterior </li></ul><ul><li>ayer </li></ul><ul><li>la semana pasada </li></ul><ul><li>en fin de semana pasada </li></ul><ul><li>el mes pasado </li></ul><ul><li>el otro dia </li></ul><ul><li>anoche </li></ul><ul><li>the day before </li></ul><ul><li>yesterday </li></ul><ul><li>last week </li></ul><ul><li>last weekend </li></ul><ul><li>last month </li></ul><ul><li>the other day </li></ul><ul><li>last night </li></ul><ul><li>En Espa ñol </li></ul><ul><li>En Inglés </li></ul>
    5. 5. Car-Gar-Zar <ul><li>Verbs ending in.. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-car </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>change the c to: - qu </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-gar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>change the g to: -gu </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-zar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>change the z to: -c </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ONLY IN ‘YO’ FORM! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>yo ju gué (I played) yo bus qué (I looked) yo almor cé (I ate lunch) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Spock Verbs <ul><li>ver (to see)/ dar (to give): use the same endings in the preterite </li></ul><ul><li>ser (to be)/ ir (to go): have same conjugation in the preterite </li></ul><ul><li>hacer (to do) </li></ul>fui fuiste fue fuimos fueron vi viste vio vimos vieron di diste dio dimos dieron hice hiciste hizo hicimos hieron
    7. 7. Cucaracha Verbs -e -iste -o -imos -ieron all share same endings! Verb 1st Person Andar Anduve Conducir* Conduje Decir* Dije Estar Estuve Verb 1st Person Hacer Hice Poner Puse Poder Pude Querer Quise Verb 1st Person Saber Supe Tener Tuve Traer* Traje Venir Vine
    8. 8. Snake/Snakey Verbs <ul><li>only changes in 3 rd person </li></ul><ul><li>e>i: venir, servir, preferir, pedir. </li></ul><ul><li>o>u: dormir, morir. </li></ul><ul><li>only changes in 3 rd person </li></ul><ul><li>i>y: oir </li></ul><ul><li>e>y: leer, creer </li></ul><ul><li>snake </li></ul><ul><li>snakey </li></ul>
    9. 9. Imperfect <ul><li>actions that are not completed </li></ul><ul><li>to express habitual past actions </li></ul><ul><li>to describe physical/emotional states or characteristics. </li></ul>-AR -ER/-IR (yo) aba (yo) ía (t ú ) abas (t ú ) ías (él/ella/ud.) aba (él/ella/ud.) ía (nosotros) abamos (nosotros) íamos (ellos/ellas/uds.) aban (ellos/ellas/uds.) ían
    10. 10. Imperfect Trigger Words <ul><li>todos los dias </li></ul><ul><li>siempre </li></ul><ul><li>nunca </li></ul><ul><li>a veces </li></ul><ul><li>a menudo </li></ul><ul><li>casi siempre </li></ul><ul><li>todo el tiempo </li></ul><ul><li>every day </li></ul><ul><li>always </li></ul><ul><li>never </li></ul><ul><li>sometimes </li></ul><ul><li>often </li></ul><ul><li>almost always </li></ul><ul><li>all the time </li></ul><ul><li>En español </li></ul><ul><li>En Inglés </li></ul>
    11. 11. Imperfect Irregular Verbs IR (to go) SER (to be) VER (to see) yo iba era veía tú ibas eras veías él/ella/ud. iba era veía nosotros íbamos éramos veíamos ellos/ellas/uds. iban eran veían
    12. 12. Preterite vs. Imperfect <ul><li>Preterite: perfect action in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfect: unperfected action in the past </li></ul>
    13. 13. Ser vs. Estar <ul><li>d escription </li></ul><ul><li>o rigin </li></ul><ul><li>c haracteristics </li></ul><ul><li>t ime </li></ul><ul><li>o ccupation </li></ul><ul><li>r elationships </li></ul><ul><li>p ossession </li></ul><ul><li>e vent </li></ul><ul><li>d ate </li></ul><ul><li>h ealth </li></ul><ul><li>e motions </li></ul><ul><li>l ocations </li></ul><ul><li>p resent condition </li></ul><ul><li>i </li></ul><ul><li>n </li></ul><ul><li>g </li></ul><ul><li>ser (to be) </li></ul><ul><li>estar (to be) </li></ul><ul><li>present participles </li></ul><ul><li>-ar: -ando </li></ul><ul><li>-er/ir: -iendo or -yendo </li></ul>
    14. 14. Verbs Like Gustar <ul><li>hacer </li></ul><ul><li>faltar </li></ul><ul><li>soprender </li></ul><ul><li>disgustar </li></ul><ul><li>doler </li></ul><ul><li>apetecer </li></ul><ul><li>preocupar </li></ul><ul><li>interesar </li></ul><ul><li>encantar </li></ul><ul><li>fascinar </li></ul><ul><li>example of gustar: “Me gusta mi perro.” </li></ul><ul><li>the subject pronoun is placed in front of the verb, which is subjugated according to the direct object (singular or plural). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>example: “Te amo” literally translated means “you I love.” </li></ul></ul>me te le nos les
    15. 15. Comparatives/Superlatives
    16. 16. Connecting Words <ul><li>aunque </li></ul><ul><li>tambi é n </li></ul><ul><li>mientras </li></ul><ul><li>pero </li></ul><ul><li>por lo tanto </li></ul><ul><li>a pesar de </li></ul><ul><li>sin embargo/no obstante </li></ul><ul><li>even though </li></ul><ul><li>also </li></ul><ul><li>while </li></ul><ul><li>but </li></ul><ul><li>therefore </li></ul><ul><li>in spite of </li></ul><ul><li>nevertheless </li></ul><ul><li>en espa ñol </li></ul><ul><li>en inglés </li></ul>
    17. 17. Future Tense <ul><li>I, you, he/she, we, they WILL. </li></ul><ul><li>same endings for -ar, -er, & -ir </li></ul><ul><ul><li>yo + infinitive + é </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tú + infinitive + ás </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>él/ella/ud. + infinitive + á </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nosotros + infinitive + emos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ellos/ellas/uds. + infinitive + án </li></ul></ul>comer yo comeré tú comerás él comerá nos comeremos ellos comerán
    18. 18. Future Trigger Words
    19. 19. Future Irregular Tense <ul><li>decir  dir </li></ul><ul><li>hacer  har </li></ul><ul><li>poder  podr </li></ul><ul><li>poner  pondr </li></ul><ul><li>querer  querr </li></ul><ul><li>saber  sabr </li></ul><ul><li>salir  saldr </li></ul><ul><li>tener  tendr </li></ul><ul><li>valer  valdr </li></ul><ul><li>venir  vendr </li></ul>all still keep the same future tense endings!
    20. 20. Por <ul><li>passing through </li></ul><ul><li>general rather than specific </li></ul><ul><li>how long something lasts </li></ul><ul><li>cause of something </li></ul><ul><li>an exchange </li></ul><ul><li>doing something in place of someone else </li></ul><ul><li>means of transportation </li></ul><ul><li>por tal </li></ul><ul><li>por tugal </li></ul><ul><li>por ever </li></ul><ul><li>por puse </li></ul><ul><li>im por t/ex por t </li></ul><ul><li>por someone else </li></ul><ul><li>trans por tation </li></ul>
    21. 21. Para <ul><li>for whom something is done </li></ul><ul><li>destination </li></ul><ul><li>purpose for which something is done </li></ul><ul><li>to express opinion </li></ul><ul><li>contrast/compare </li></ul><ul><li>to express deadline </li></ul><ul><li>para ty </li></ul><ul><li>para guay </li></ul><ul><li>para sites </li></ul><ul><li>para don me… </li></ul><ul><li>com para </li></ul><ul><li>para medic! </li></ul>
    22. 22. Demonstrative Adjectives <ul><li>always are in the front of the verb </li></ul><ul><li>always agree in gender & number </li></ul>
    23. 23. Demonstrative Pronouns <ul><li>Singular masculine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>éste (this) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ése (that) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aquél (that) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plural masculine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>éstos (these) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ésos (those) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aquéllos (those) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Singular feminine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ésta (this) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ésa (that) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aquélla (that) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plural feminine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>éstas (these) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ésas (those) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aquéllas (those) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Singular neuter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>esto (this) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eso (that) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aquello (that) </li></ul></ul>same as demonstrative adjectives, except these stand in for the noun instead of modifying it.
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