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Programme for Internal UNIFEM meeting Migration team for finalizing the                     Project Document of Phase III ...
Session 1: 9.30-10.30 Presentation on LFA from UNIFEM perspectiveSession 2: 2.00-3.00 Presentation on Key aspects of Monit...
   To learn relevant planning techniques    1. Stakeholder Identification    2. Causal Analysis        Making a Problem ...
Session 1Planning techniques to develop a Logical Framework                                 4
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   UNIFEM would like to help to improve migrant    women’s situation in Asia.   What are the problems of migrant women i...
   List on cards all individuals, groups and    organizations related to migrant women in    Asia.                       ...
Community leaderChildren              Women in rural                areas in                Thailand     UNIFEM           ...
   For instance:    ◦   Who are beneficiaries?    ◦   Any negatively affected groups?    ◦   Who are decision-makers?    ...
   Different groups have different needs   Project may effect different groups in    different ways   Whose problems sh...
11
   Root causes is to keep looking.   Ask “why”, get a direct cause.   Keep asking “why”, get a cause that you can    ac...
   What are the problems in countries/areas you    are working?   List the problems.                                    ...
   Indicate existing problems (not theoretical or    potential)   One problem per card   Describe in a sentence   Try ...
Children cannot receiveThere is no school.     quality education.     AVOID                  PREFER                       ...
   Decide the core problem   Keep ask “why” to identify the causes                                            16
Core Problem                                            Children               Core Problem                               ...
Many street children     Children are exploited.                              are involved                                ...
   Causes     Core Problem Negative Effect   If we ask “why”, we know what the problem    is.   If we know what the pro...
Core Problem                                                                        Core                                  ...
.Children             can                                Children stay away     get an adequately                         ...
   Solutions         Core Objective    Positive    Ends   If we can act on causes, we can solve the core    problem.    ...
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1.   Use the Objective Tree2.   Categorize related topics into a group3.   Name the Group4.   Refer the selection criteria...
   Target group   Needs of people   Priority   Technical aspect   Social risk factors   Environment aspects   Input...
Children                                             complete                                                .            ...
1.   School infrastructure2.   Training3.   Income generation                             27
1. School        2. Training   3. Income                 infrastructure                 generationSize of target        ++...
1. School        2. Training   3. Income               infrastructure                 generationTechnical            +    ...
1. School      2. Training   3.Income                    infrastructure               generationInputs                    ...
1.   Training2.   School infrastructure3.   Income generation                             31
   Compare all approaches using the selection    criteria   Discuss advantage and disadvantage of    different approache...
33
Branch:Objective Tree    Project                 Approach                            34
Branch:         Pyramid:Project Approach   Project Logic                                   35
Strategic Result  Key Result  Key Result  Key Result  Key Result                   36
Positive EndsCore Objective  Solutions                 37
Positive Ends     Project GoalCore Objectives   Project Outcome   Solutions         Outputs                     Activities...
Project GoalProject Outcome   Outputs   Activities    Inputs                  39
Impacts                            Outcomes                      Outputs         ActivitiesInputs                         ...
   Resources used to implement activities    (financial, materials, human)   Inputs are what is needed for the Activitie...
   Activities daily efforts needed for the outputs    (and then objectives and goals).   Question: In Real Life, what ma...
   Outputs are the products needed to achieve    the objective.   They are the deliverables.   Question: In Real Life, ...
   Outcomes are the major CHANGES needed to    achieve the goal.   Question: In Real Life, what may be the    primary ou...
   Simple, clear statement of the IMPACT or    RESULT to achieve with by the project.   Change we hope to bring in the  ...
Narrative SummaryProject GoalProject OutcomeOutputsActivities                                      46
   At this point, you should have your own    “project logic”                                              47
48
IndicatorsProject GoalProject OutcomeOutputsActivities                               49
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Odometer                              12400km                                                     Petrol       Speed      ...
Project Goal      Ensure a protected environment for                  children.Project Outcome   Children complete school....
Narrative Summary                        IndicatorsProject Goal      Ensure a protected                   Number of childr...
Measures ultimate change desiredProject Goal   Impact     in people or a condition (not always                          fe...
   Impact Indicator   Outcome Indicator   Output Indicator   Process Indicator   Input Indicator                     ...
Specific (Who & What?)Measurable (How much?)Area specific (Where?) - AchievableRelevant – RealisticTime-Bound (When?)     ...
   Economic wellbeing of households restored    and construction of new houses.   Compound Indicator!!!                 ...
   Satisfaction in this workshop.   SMART: # participants in the Planning    workshop (date) who report they would    re...
   Quantitative - Can be directly counted and expressed as a    number    ◦   % of……    ◦   # of ……    ◦   Frequency of……...
   Objective Tree      Branch (Project Selection)       Pyramid (Project Logic)   Project Logic (Inputs, Activities, Out...
Expected Results Statements                     Indicators            Means of Measurement   Assumptions/Risks            ...
62
Session 2:Apply the Logical Framework to develop a Monitoring and Evaluation (ME) Plan                                 63
    To apply the skills to develop a Monitoring     and Evaluation (ME) plan    1. Monitoring – What to monitor?    2. Ev...
MONITORING                         EVALUATION   Clarifies program objectives      Analyzes why intended                 ...
Impacts                            Outcomes                      Outputs         ActivitiesInputs                         ...
1. Monitoring– What to monitor?                     67
Expected   Indicators   Sources/Me Baseline   Collection   Responsibiresults                 ans of                methods...
   A description (qualitative or quantitative) of    the situation prior to the intervention against    which progress ca...
   The starting point   Data and information   Related to results (outputs, outcome and    impact)                     ...
2. Evaluation– What to evaluate?                      71
   Making a decision   Enable managers and partners to make    decision and plan strategically   Programme improvement,...
   What you want to learn about the programme   What you need to know to make the    programme decisions you need to mak...
   Purpose of evaluation   Audience   Information to decide   Sources   How to collect the information   When   Ava...
Corporate & Decentralized Evaluations          Evaluation Sub-Types               Evaluation Modalities Scope      Timing ...
Terms      Definition         When used          QuestionsOutput       Goods and           Useful when       Deliveries in...
UNIFEM         Terms        Definition   When to use    Questionsprogramme   cycleFormulation   Ex-ante        Predict the...
UNIFEM       Terms         Definition    When to use   QuestionsprogrammecycleEvaluation   Formative     Early         Dur...
Ex-ante                            Formulation  Summa  tive and    Closing                     Appraisal  ex-postFormative...
Terms               Definition             How to useExternal evaluation   External specialists   Objective analysisSelf e...
Mandatory evaluation                 InvestmentA final evaluation during         Programme with budget over USDprogramme l...
   Need a quality Logical Framework   Decide which level you monitor and evaluate   Use UNIFEM Monitoring Framework   ...
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Monitoring & evaluation lfa presentation

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  • COMPLEMENTARY ROLES OF MONITORING & EVALUATIONHandout: Monitoring & EvaluationTaken fromRay Rist & Jody Kusek’s Ten Steps to a Results-Based M&E System (2004). While monitoring and evaluation are different functions – there is a good deal of complementarity between the two.MONITORING - Clarifies program objectives, Links activities & resources to objectives, Translates objectives into performance indicators & sets targetsRoutinely collects data, compares actual results with targets, Reports on progress & identifies problemsEVALUATION - Analyzes why intended results were or were not achieved, Assesses specific causal contribution of activities to results, Examines implementation process, Explores unintended results, Provides lessons, highlights significant accomplishment or program potential & offers recommendations for improvementDEFT - Implementation-based versus results-based monitoring - It is important to distinguish between implementation- and results-based monitoring. Implementation-based monitoring and evaluation are fully complementary with no overlaps, whereas results-based monitoring is overlapping with performance measurement and to some extent evaluation. In the latter case, results-based monitoring and evaluation are both concerned with “whether” results were achieved, but in addition, evaluation provides insights to the “why” and “how”.Monitoring and evaluation - Monitoring and evaluation are distinct but clearly inter-related “management processes” often using the same “elements of analysis” but for different, although complementary, purposes. Interaction between monitoring and evaluation - A close cooperation between evaluation and monitoring reinforces both “management processes”. On the one hand, evaluation provides an opportunity to strengthen monitoring by identifying adequate monitoring frameworks that will capture the most pertinent data and provide in-depth feedback on the underlying theories of change and why and how results were achieved and what eventual implementation adjustments are required. On the other hand, good monitoring data is the basis for evaluations.
  • Transcript of "Monitoring & evaluation lfa presentation"

    1. 1. Programme for Internal UNIFEM meeting Migration team for finalizing the Project Document of Phase III 26-27th August 2010 UNIFEM SARO office Delhi, India 1
    2. 2. Session 1: 9.30-10.30 Presentation on LFA from UNIFEM perspectiveSession 2: 2.00-3.00 Presentation on Key aspects of Monitoring and Evaluation 2
    3. 3.  To learn relevant planning techniques 1. Stakeholder Identification 2. Causal Analysis  Making a Problem Tree  Making an Objective Tree 3. Project Selection 4. Project Logic – Making a Logical Framework To apply the skills to develop a Monitoring and Evaluation (ME) plan 3
    4. 4. Session 1Planning techniques to develop a Logical Framework 4
    5. 5. 5
    6. 6.  UNIFEM would like to help to improve migrant women’s situation in Asia. What are the problems of migrant women in Asia? 6
    7. 7.  List on cards all individuals, groups and organizations related to migrant women in Asia. 7
    8. 8. Community leaderChildren Women in rural areas in Thailand UNIFEM 8
    9. 9.  For instance: ◦ Who are beneficiaries? ◦ Any negatively affected groups? ◦ Who are decision-makers? ◦ Who are funding agencies? ◦ Who are implementing? ◦ Who will oppose? ◦ Who will support? 9
    10. 10.  Different groups have different needs Project may effect different groups in different ways Whose problems should be solved? Women first! 10
    11. 11. 11
    12. 12.  Root causes is to keep looking. Ask “why”, get a direct cause. Keep asking “why”, get a cause that you can act on. 12
    13. 13.  What are the problems in countries/areas you are working? List the problems. 13
    14. 14.  Indicate existing problems (not theoretical or potential) One problem per card Describe in a sentence Try to avoid expression such as “No (solution or resource) is available). Describe the condition resulting from the lack or absence of resources. 14
    15. 15. Children cannot receiveThere is no school. quality education. AVOID PREFER 15
    16. 16.  Decide the core problem Keep ask “why” to identify the causes 16
    17. 17. Core Problem Children Core Problem drop out school. Causes Teachers’ skills Children Schools are too far. Schools are are not updated. need to work. poorly equipped. Education managers have Road connections inappropriate Household income are poor. planning and Is limited. management skills.17
    18. 18. Many street children Children are exploited. are involved in illegal acts. Many children Children are engaged become in child labor. street children. Negative Effects Children Core Problem drop out school.18
    19. 19.  Causes Core Problem Negative Effect If we ask “why”, we know what the problem is. If we know what the problem is, we should know how to solve! 19
    20. 20. Core Problem Core Children complete school. Objective Solutions Schools are built Teachers’ skills Children do not Schools are in their neighborhood. are updated. need to work. Well-equipped. Education managers have Rood connection appropriate Household income improved. planning and increased. management skills.20
    21. 21. .Children can Children stay away get an adequately from illegal acts. paid job. Children live Children can in a protected basic skills. environment. Positive Ends Children Core complete school. Objective21
    22. 22.  Solutions Core Objective Positive Ends If we can act on causes, we can solve the core problem. 22
    23. 23. 23
    24. 24. 1. Use the Objective Tree2. Categorize related topics into a group3. Name the Group4. Refer the selection criteria5. Compare and examine the different Groups6. Select one group to be developed into a project. 24
    25. 25.  Target group Needs of people Priority Technical aspect Social risk factors Environment aspects Inputs Economic aspects Probability of achieving goals Relationship with other projects 25
    26. 26. Children complete . Core Objective school. 3. Income generation Schools are Teachers’ skills Children do not Schools are built in Well equipped. are updated. need to work. their neighborhood.. 1. School infrastructure Education managers have appropriate Household planning and income increased. management skills.26 2. Training
    27. 27. 1. School infrastructure2. Training3. Income generation 27
    28. 28. 1. School 2. Training 3. Income infrastructure generationSize of target +++ ++ +groupNeeds of +++ +++ +++peoplePriority + +++ + 28
    29. 29. 1. School 2. Training 3. Income infrastructure generationTechnical + + ++aspects (newtechnology)Social risk +++ + +++factorsEnvironment +++ + ++aspects 29
    30. 30. 1. School 2. Training 3.Income infrastructure generationInputs + + ++Economic aspects +++ + +++Probability of +++ +++ +achieving goalsRelationship with Duplicated New Duplicated withother projects with ODA approach NGO project projects 30
    31. 31. 1. Training2. School infrastructure3. Income generation 31
    32. 32.  Compare all approaches using the selection criteria Discuss advantage and disadvantage of different approaches Decide an approach 32
    33. 33. 33
    34. 34. Branch:Objective Tree Project Approach 34
    35. 35. Branch: Pyramid:Project Approach Project Logic 35
    36. 36. Strategic Result Key Result Key Result Key Result Key Result 36
    37. 37. Positive EndsCore Objective Solutions 37
    38. 38. Positive Ends Project GoalCore Objectives Project Outcome Solutions Outputs Activities Inputs 38
    39. 39. Project GoalProject Outcome Outputs Activities Inputs 39
    40. 40. Impacts Outcomes Outputs ActivitiesInputs Module 2-1 40
    41. 41.  Resources used to implement activities (financial, materials, human) Inputs are what is needed for the Activities Question: In Real Life, what may be the inputs needed to build a bridge? Answer: Laborers, cement, steel beams, etc. 41
    42. 42.  Activities daily efforts needed for the outputs (and then objectives and goals). Question: In Real Life, what may be the activities involved in building a bridge? Answer: Identify plan, lay foundation, build structure, etc. 42
    43. 43.  Outputs are the products needed to achieve the objective. They are the deliverables. Question: In Real Life, what may be the product you want in building a bridge? Answer: completed bridge connecting two different towns. 43
    44. 44.  Outcomes are the major CHANGES needed to achieve the goal. Question: In Real Life, what may be the primary outcome you want to achieve with the bridge? Answer: Increase trade and between two towns. 44
    45. 45.  Simple, clear statement of the IMPACT or RESULT to achieve with by the project. Change we hope to bring in the community. Can be bigger than the project itself. Question: In Real Life, what may be the Overall Reason you want to build a bridge between 2 communities? Answer: Improve economy in two towns. 45
    46. 46. Narrative SummaryProject GoalProject OutcomeOutputsActivities 46
    47. 47.  At this point, you should have your own “project logic” 47
    48. 48. 48
    49. 49. IndicatorsProject GoalProject OutcomeOutputsActivities 49
    50. 50. 50
    51. 51. Odometer 12400km Petrol Speed How much did we do? Are people happy with our work?How fast are we Oil How manygoing? resources did we use to get Not there? Enough Enough 51
    52. 52. Project Goal Ensure a protected environment for children.Project Outcome Children complete school.Outputs Teachers’ skills are updated. Education managers have appropriate planning and management skills.Activities Conduct participatory teaching methods training for elementary school teachers. Conduct school management training for education managers in elementary schools. 52
    53. 53. Narrative Summary IndicatorsProject Goal Ensure a protected Number of children stay with environment for children. their care-givers.Project Outcome Children complete school. Number of children completed school.Outputs Teachers’ skillsare updated. # of teachers who receive a Education managers have certificate. appropriate planning and # of managers who updated management skills. management skills.Activities Conduct participatory teaching # of training conducted. methods training for elementary school teachers. Conduct school management training for education managers in elementary schools. 53
    54. 54. Measures ultimate change desiredProject Goal Impact in people or a condition (not always feasible or necessary). Project Outcome Outcome Measures key changes necessary for goal Outputs Output Measures the immediate product of an activity Process Measure the activities (process), Activities i.e. attendance at the activities Input Input Measures the resources used for the activities. 54
    55. 55.  Impact Indicator Outcome Indicator Output Indicator Process Indicator Input Indicator 55
    56. 56. Specific (Who & What?)Measurable (How much?)Area specific (Where?) - AchievableRelevant – RealisticTime-Bound (When?) 56
    57. 57.  Economic wellbeing of households restored and construction of new houses. Compound Indicator!!! 57
    58. 58.  Satisfaction in this workshop. SMART: # participants in the Planning workshop (date) who report they would recommend the workshop to others. 58
    59. 59.  Quantitative - Can be directly counted and expressed as a number ◦ % of…… ◦ # of …… ◦ Frequency of…… ◦ Ration of …… ◦ Amount of ……. ◦ Timeliness of …….. Qualitative – Involve perception ( can be expressed quantitatively or as narrative) ◦ Level of congruence with ◦ Satisfaction with….. ◦ Knowledge of….. ◦ Ability to…. ◦ Appropriateness of …. ◦ Importance of…… 59
    60. 60.  Objective Tree Branch (Project Selection) Pyramid (Project Logic) Project Logic (Inputs, Activities, Outputs, Outcome, and Goal) SMART Indicators for each Level. 60
    61. 61. Expected Results Statements Indicators Means of Measurement Assumptions/Risks / VerificationGoal – Link to SP. The programme isexpected to contribute towards theachievement of this result, collectively withother development partners.Outcome 1 – Link to SP. The programme is Link to relevant SPexpected to contribute towards the indicators.achievement of this result, collectively withother development partners.Output 1.1 – The programme will be directly X – not neededheld accountable for this result.Activity 1.1.1 X – Not needed XActivity 1.1.2 X XActivity 1.1.3 X X Module 2-1 61
    62. 62. 62
    63. 63. Session 2:Apply the Logical Framework to develop a Monitoring and Evaluation (ME) Plan 63
    64. 64.  To apply the skills to develop a Monitoring and Evaluation (ME) plan 1. Monitoring – What to monitor? 2. Evaluation – What to evaluate? 64
    65. 65. MONITORING EVALUATION Clarifies program objectives  Analyzes why intended results were or were not Links activities & resources achieved to objectives  Assesses specific causal Translates objectives into contribution of activities to performance indicators & results sets targets  Examines implementation Routinely collects data, process compares actual results  Explores unintended results with targets  Provides lessons, highlights Reports on progress & significant accomplishment identifies problems or program potential & offers recommendations for improvement Rist & Kusek, 2004 Ten Steps to a Results-Based M&E System 65
    66. 66. Impacts Outcomes Outputs ActivitiesInputs Module 2-1 66
    67. 67. 1. Monitoring– What to monitor? 67
    68. 68. Expected Indicators Sources/Me Baseline Collection Responsibiresults ans of methods lities verificationGoalOutcomeOutputs 68
    69. 69.  A description (qualitative or quantitative) of the situation prior to the intervention against which progress can be assessed or comparison made Used as a benchmark for assessing programme induced outcomes or impacts Often the first data collected for an indicator is the baseline Baseline data are gathered before or shortly after project implementation begins 69
    70. 70.  The starting point Data and information Related to results (outputs, outcome and impact) 70
    71. 71. 2. Evaluation– What to evaluate? 71
    72. 72.  Making a decision Enable managers and partners to make decision and plan strategically Programme improvement, knowledge generation and accountability 72
    73. 73.  What you want to learn about the programme What you need to know to make the programme decisions you need to make. 73
    74. 74.  Purpose of evaluation Audience Information to decide Sources How to collect the information When Available resources 74
    75. 75. Corporate & Decentralized Evaluations Evaluation Sub-Types Evaluation Modalities Scope Timing Unit of Management Conduct Analysis Institution ExternalOutput Impact al evaluation evaluation Individual Policy, evaluation strategy, During: plan Self evaluatioOutcome Evaluability assessment; n evaluation Formative; Project Mid-term program me Cluster Joint PeerImpact After: Final; themat evaluation evaluation Summativ e ic Meta Sometime after: Ex- evaluat post ion
    76. 76. Terms Definition When used QuestionsOutput Goods and Useful when Deliveries in aevaluation services (results preceded by timely manner? of inputs) formative evaluation.Outcome Changes Immediately Achieve results?evaluation (behavioral following the Unintended change) by end of an results? Make a intervention activity (short difference? term influence)Impact Broad, long- After a Effect ofevaluation term impacts or programme has programme effects concluded outcome? How much better off? 76
    77. 77. UNIFEM Terms Definition When to use Questionsprogramme cycleFormulation Ex-ante Predict the Formulation Will the likelihood activities meet the needs?Before or Evaluability Meaningfully Before any Genderduring assessment evaluated evaluation equalityimplementat takes place identified?ion Objectives realistic? 77
    78. 78. UNIFEM Terms Definition When to use QuestionsprogrammecycleEvaluation Formative Early During What isphase evaluation insights implementat happening? ion Mid-term Half-way During Is it working evaluation implementat well? ionClosing Final End Immediately Achieving?phase evaluation implementat the end of ion an activity or intervention cycleClosing Summative Some time Concluded Makingphase and ex-post after the or a year difference? evaluation programme after 78
    79. 79. Ex-ante Formulation Summa tive and Closing Appraisal ex-postFormative , mid- term, Evaluation Approvaloutcome, impact Implementa Before and tion and during: Monitoring evaluability assessment 79
    80. 80. Terms Definition How to useExternal evaluation External specialists Objective analysisSelf evaluation Periodic reviews to By responsible for assess the implementation, often achievements and used in smaller constraints projects or as the first stepPeer evaluation Composed of external Formative, combine evaluators and internal understanding programme staff with external expertise. 80
    81. 81. Mandatory evaluation InvestmentA final evaluation during Programme with budget over USDprogramme life cycle 1 millionA mid-term and final evaluation Programmes with budgets overduring programme life cycle USD 3 million
    82. 82.  Need a quality Logical Framework Decide which level you monitor and evaluate Use UNIFEM Monitoring Framework Think about baseline from the beginning Decide what to evaluate and which level of the Logical Framework Evaluation is to make a decision about the programme. 82
    83. 83. 83
    84. 84. 84
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