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  • 1. Mobile populations – F rom Nepal
  • 2. Understanding mobile populations • Routes • Who are they? • What d o they d o? • What are their vulnerabil ities? • Legal awareness/ status • Awareness about HIV/ Access to services • Locations and num bers
  • 3. The RoutesM id -westernTulsipur Gorahi Khiri Agra D el hiGorahi D hangad hi Bareill y D el hi
  • 4. Who is mobile?• M obile popul ation from the M id -western d istricts• Easily d istinguishabl e-Fair M ongol features oid• M ostl single m obile m en y• Highl m obil across cities as well as within cities y e• Set up tents and stay in one area• Go back hom e at l east once in three/ four m onths• General d o not m ix with others/ ly local population
  • 5. What do they do?• M ostly artisans/ ers trad• Sell two m aj item s (shoes and bed sheets) or• They get shoes/ leather from Agra and cloth/sheets from pilkhawa from UP• Sell in various parts of d estination sites
  • 6. Vulnerabilities• Reported exploitation by police• Som e reported going to SWs at d estination
  • 7. The RoutesWesternTam ghar Butwal Parasi Pal pa Sid harthnagar Sunol i D el hi
  • 8. The RoutesFar WesternAchham D hangarhi Baitarhi D ad eld hura Banbasa Tanakpur Pilibhit D el hi
  • 9. Who is mobile?• M obile population from the western d istricts• Easil d istinguishable-Fair M ongoloid features y• Initially single m ales com e to d estination sites• Som e get their fam il and som e m arry here ies• Approxim atel 40% are single/ ale y m• O l est inhabitants-8 years Newest inhabitants-2 d m onths• Average num ber of years in d estination – 3/ 4
  • 10. What do they do?• Stay near ind ustrial areas• Work as security guard s• Work as sem i-skil workers in factories led• Wom en work as house m aid s• Sm all proportion work as Sex workers
  • 11. Vulnerabilities• Fem al as house m aid s reported having sex in houses es worked for (extra m oney/ forced )• Ind ustrial area attracts a l arge num ber of people-som e Nepalis act as pim ps• As security guard s provid e safe space for sex• Approxim ate average of having sex for girls is 1 2/ 3 years 1• Both m ales and fem ales d rink alcohol• Som e al take d rugs (M arij so uana/ charas)• Very few child ren are sent to schools-sent to work
  • 12. The RoutesC entral Gaur Kal aiya Raxaul Birganj M uzzafarpur D el hi
  • 13. Who is mobile?• M obile popul ation from the central d istricts• Easily d istinguishabl e-Fair M ongol features oid• Initiall singl m ales and single fem al com e to d estination y e es sites• M ost m arry here• Approx. Average age – 25-30• Average num ber of years in d estination – 7/ 8• Go back hom e at l east once in three/ four m onths
  • 14. What do they do?• Stay near ind ustrial/resid ential areas• Work in shops/ habas/ restaurants d• Som e wom en work as house m aid s/ workers sex
  • 15. Vulnerabilities• Both m en and wom en reported exploitation be supervisors.• All wom en are seen as sex workers• M en are paid less than other workers
  • 16. The RoutesEastRaj biraj Supaul Barauni Patna D el hiJanakpur M ad hepura Barauni Patna D el hi
  • 17. Who is mobile?• M obile popul ation from the Eastern d istricts• Not d istinguishabl from other Biharis/ e• M ostl m obile with fam il y ies• Average num ber of years in d estination – 8/ 9• Go back hom e at once a year• Population increased since unrest in Nepal• Known as Biharis in d estination – Speak M aithili• C al them selves as Nepalis-M ad heshis l
  • 18. What do they do?• Stay near ind ustrial areas• Work as security guard s• Work as sem i-skil workers in factories led• Wom en work as house m aid s• Som e wom en as sex workers
  • 19. Vulnerabilities• Reported less vulnerabilities• Access the governm ent services-School, health, and ration card s• Som e read y to go back to Nepal as situation im proves
  • 20. The RoutesEastJ pa ham Kankarm ita J paiguri al Katihar D el hi
  • 21. What do they do?• Work as trad ers• Sell tea and hing
  • 22. Mobile population in K olkata • Nepali m al work in shops/ es restaurents • Single m ales • Single fem ales ( m ostl sex workers) y • Som e are trafficked • Approxim ate num ber in three Nepali specific brothels/areas - 600
  • 23. S ome general observations
  • 24. How do they move across borders? • Through a relative or som eone from their own village • There is no agent system • Relatives and friend s provid e them with shelter at the d estination sites • Visit at least once a year. C ould be m ore for peopl on d aily wages e
  • 25. How do they get work? • Peopl from Nepal are highly regard ed for their e honesty and hard work • Usuall supervisors ask existing Nepali people to y get other Nepalis • Supervisors can m ake them work for long hours for l pay ess • Supervisors can throw the out of j whenever ob they want to
  • 26. L egal status• Som e (l ers) are aware of the Ind o-Nepal Treaty. ead• They fel that Ind ia is not following the term s of the treaty. t• “Nepali peopl in Ind ia are not getting healthcare, security, e em pl ent, Ed ucation… as m and ated , whereas Ind ians in oym Nepal are getting all that.”• At least half had Ind ian ration card s• None of the card s have been renewed in the last 6-8 m onths
  • 27. A wareness/access to servic es • In general, awareness about HIV is low, Am ong wom en even l ower. • In general, m obile Nepali d o not access the governm ent health services (have to stand in lines, get no respect, not treated wel l..) • Access private practitioners. Som e always consult the trad itional healer within their com m unity. Som e consult private M BBS practiioners • General exploited for health care. A person with TB had to ly spend m ore than 20,000 rupees before D O TS • D o not access anganwad i services or school for child ren
  • 28. Resourc es/S upport• Fam ily and village networks (for j obs, m oney transfer, support)• Nepali associations – Nepali Ekta Sam aj – Bharat – Nepali M igrants Association• Transfer of m oney – Inform al transfer system – Transfer through banks
  • 29. Mobile populations – F rom Bangladesh
  • 30. The RoutesTransit points• Benapol - Petrapol e e• Ghoj D anga a• Long open bord ers/vilages/rivers l
  • 31. The RoutesWhere d o they go?• 24 Parganas• Howrah (sm aler proportion in Kol l kata)• O ther d istricts in WBO ther parts of Ind ia - D el hi
  • 32. Who is mobile?• M ostly with fam ilies• Few single m ales• Few single fem al es
  • 33. What do they do?• In arm eniam colony (fem ales work as sex workers)• M anual labour - Unskilled labour• Sem i-skilled (m asons)• Trad ers (big) bring in good s from Banglad esh• Trad ers (sm all) sell in other parts of Ind ia
  • 34. Vulnerabilities• Reported exploitation by police/ civil society• Sex workers (banglad esh) reported not being paid by clients• Som e are ID Us• Sex workers in Kol kata refuse to acknowled ge origins• Recent crackd owns (2/ years) 3• Newspaper reports
  • 35. Gaps• Valid ated d ata on num bers in each location for Nepali m obile population• Inform ation on Banglad eshi m obile population• Vulnerabilities and risk am ong sub-popul ations of m obile m en and wom en.
  • 36. THANK YO U