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JoelBauer
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M ark Levy
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M orePraiseforH ow toPersuadePeople
W ht?D on'tIAWJZ'toBePersuaded
''JoelBauerandMarkLev.srdraw backthecurtainand1etyousee...
''NvhilereadingJoelBauer'sbook you'llgetanurgetorushoutandtestwhat
you'velearned.W henyouseeyourfirst'victimkeyeslightupJy...
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G ET W HAT You W ANT- EVERY T IME!
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JoelBauer
&
M ark Levy
...
Thisbookisprintedonacid.freepaper.@
Copyright@ 2004byJoelBauerandlvlarkLe'o,.A11rightsresenred.
PublishedbyJohnW ileyscSon...
Formymother,Carol,whoneversaid,''ltcannotbe
done/''andmywife,Cherie,whosaid,''lsthata11?''
-
J.B.
Formymother,Rhoda,who re...
pe.1
C O N T EN TS
ACKNOW LEDGMENTS
Dluw Ix TI-IELlsvfExEk
CI-IANGETI-IEM OMENT
THETpakhlsyoltlvlzkTlox M ECI-IANISM
THEBO...
p-..1
A C K N O W LED G M EN TS
'd like to thank my wife,Cherie,who knew lhad potential
when itwaswellhidden;my am azing c...
ACKNOW LEDGM ENTS
'd liketo thank mywife,Stella,whose loveand supporthas
keptmegoing;my mom ,Rhoda;my brother,Paul;mysiste...
p-..1 1
D RAW IN T H E LISTEN ER
hatyou'reabouttoreadisabitfrightening.Some-
timesseminarattendeeswalkouton me aslde-
live...
a Dlt/tw Ix TI-IE Lls-fExElt
ularly,pitchmen.N aturally,l'm taking libertieshere with who l
callshow folk,butlet'snotsplit...
ovEltv lEw
thepoint:''Areyousureyouwanttoknow?lt'salittlefrightening.
M ostpeoplecan'thandleit.''W hen theysayyes,andthey ...
Dlu w Ix TI-IE LISTENEP-
Thosecondensedideasarehigh concepts.They takeacom -
plexplotandreduceittoitsmostcompellingpoint.T...
ovEltv lEw
Thethingthatreally separatestheseproductsistheircom pa-
nies'positioning strategies and the entertainment princ...
DPAW IN TH E LISTENER
W hatAreSomeoltheTechniques?
Youke already experienced atleasttwo techniques.The Fright
Challengewas...
ovEltv lEw 7
ferencebetween someone'stakingyoursuggestion ordismissing
it.Letmegiveyou an exampleofaTransformation M echan...
Dlu w Ix TI-IE LISTENEP-
thattheonly reason lhad been called inwasbecauseherfirm's
CEO had seen me draw crowdsfora rival,a...
OVERV IEW 9
''O hmygodl''shesaid ''that'sremarkable.Theband ishot.''
''That'sright/''lsaid ''lt'shot notbecauseofmagic,but...
DPAW IN TH E LISTENER
W ho Am Ito Teach You TheseM ethods?
lam JoelBauer,professionaltradeshow pitchman.lpersuadefor
alivi...
ovEltv lEw
Corllltgg.
')rwritesthatl'm ''anexpertatgettingtheattentionofpeo-
p1ewithlotsofchoicesaboutwheretospendtheirtim...
12 DlkAw IN TH E LISTENER
Thisisnotabookonhow towinatasinglenegotiation.This
fsabookonhow towinatlife.ltteachesthatthebest...
C H A N G E T H E M O M EN T
hatyoudo can have arem arkableeffecton peo-
ple.Don'tbelieve m e?Try this:Ask afriend to
thin...
CHANGETHEIVIOIVIENT
M ostpeople walk around in theirproblems.They view life
through theirperceivedlimitations.Theymeasuret...
CH ANGE TH EIVIOIVIENT W ITH W ORDS
''W hydoestheworldneed industrial-strength piping?''
''W ithoutit,you couldn'terectsky...
16 CI-IANGETI-IEM OM EN T
hopesforherselfand theorganization.lwanttohearrealmoti-
vations,inreallanguage.
Bythetimeeveryon...
FJAZJSAZDPLJSJIGSSJIVJSJVJF KNOW S EIVIOTION TRUIVIPSLOGIC
Becausetheparticipantsarenow in adifferentpsychological
place.T...
CHANGETH EM OM EN T
yourlistener.ltdoesn'tmatterifyourlistenerisanautomechanic,
orthe executive ofaconglomerate.You mustal...
FJAZJSAZDPLJSJIGSSJIVJSJVJF KNOW S EIVIOTION TRUIVIPSLOGIC
lfyoumanufacturedressshoes,you helppeoplefeelbet-
terabouthow t...
CHANGETH EIVIOIVIEN T
''Te11m eaboutatimeyouwerelostinbusiness.''
''W hat'sthe mostsignificantbusinesslesson youke learned...
FJAZJSAZDPLJSJIGSSJIVJSJVJF KNOW S EIVIOTION TRUIVIPSLOGIC
that enable you to communicate your ideas in mom ent-
changingw...
T H E T RAN SFO RM AT IO N
M EC H A N ISM
y favoriteway to changethemomentisthrough a
Transformation M echanism.lowe a1ott...
IVIETAPH ORSASA IVIEAN SOFIVIAKING SENSE 23
hermattresswas''hardasarock/''wouldyouunderstandwhatshe
meant?Ofcourse.You'dkn...
TI-IETp-/ttqsyolklklATlox M ECI-IAN ISM
geese.Thegratefulbirdsbreaktheirtraditionalform ationanduse
theirbodiesto form the...
THE M ECHAN ISIVIIN ACTION
mechanism isalearning lesson doneup asan intriguing dem on-
stration.
THE M ECH AN ISM IN ACTIO...
TH ETRANSFORM ATION IVIECHAN ISIVI
The nextday she received an overnightdelivery envelope
from me.lnit,wasaletterthatsaidt...
TI-IE M ECI-IAN ISM Ix Ac-rlox
W eread backoverthesheet,and ldiscussed each step:how
anynumberfrom 1to 10multipliedby 9mus...
TH ETRANSFORIV ATION IVIECHAN ISIVI
TAKIN G AN EN TERTAIN M ENT INVENTO RY
l'vecalled amechanism atrick,butitcan alsobeoth...
H OW DO YO U BUILD A IVIECHAN ISIVI? 29
H O W D O YO U BU ILD A M ECH ANISM ?
Creatingyourownmechanism iseasy,onceyougetth...
TI-IETp-/ttqsyolklklATlox M ECI-IAN ISM
teenagerstossedyoutheFrisbeeandithityouintheface.Youtried
tothrow itstraight,butyo...
H OW DO YO U BUILD A IVIECHAN ISIVI?
involved in the situation m entally,emotionally,and physically.
Thereasons?
Situation...
TI-IETp-/ttqsyolklklATlox M ECI-IAN ISM
A /fge-frorlyourfgpeatory:''lcanjuggleknives.''
A rlec/gtggfsrl:Attherolloutparty,...
w HAT IFYOLlD ON'T HAVEA SKILL?
you'lltry each mechanism then and there.Atthebook'sconclu-
sion,lofferyouan additionalfour...
TH ETRANSFORIVIATION IVIECHAN ISIVI
A TransformationM echanism:TheM agazineTest
Thestene
You/rethedirectorofa marketingfir...
W HAT IFYOU D ON'T HAVEA SKILL?
(Continoed)
Turningback,youreachintoyouriacketpocket,extractabusi-
nesscard,scribblesometh...
TH ETRANSFORIVIATION IVIECHAN ISIVI
(Continoed)
Atyourseat,youtooarethumbingthroughyourow nmagazine,
whichisdifferentfrom ...
W HAT IFYO t1DO N'T HAVEA SKILL?
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TH ETRANSFORIVIATION IVIECHAN ISIVI
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# Frealtbeforceasinconseqoential:Youwantyourspectatorto
thinkofa random nu...
W HAT IFYOU D ON'T HAVEA SKILL? 39
(Continoed)
+ TheioboftheTransformationMechanismistomoveconversations
to a differentIev...
T H E BO D Y M ETA PH O R
he Transform ation M echanism has two subsets:the
Body M etaphorand thePaperM etaphor.Lkemecha-
...
W HAT A BODY IVIETAPH OR LO O KSLIKE
W H AT A BO D Y M ETAPH O R LO O KS LIKE
Aslsaid,theprim ary prop in aBody M etaphori...
TI-IEBODY M ETAPI-IOP-
''See,yourdetailquestionsareimportant,butlet'sneverforget
thatmy processand productare aboutcreatin...
BO DY M ETAPI-IOP.SAxo Yo u 43
burnout;relaxationwithouttension resultsinalifewithoutdirec-
tion.A yin-yangdemonstration.
...
44 TI-IEBODY M ETAPI-IOP-
forM e'?lfyouwantyoursalesmessageto getthrough to them,
you haveto m akesureyou'retalking aboutw...
APPLYING TI-IEBODY M ETAPI-IOP-
Can you seehow herdemonstration could be turned into a
rem arkableBodyM etaphorforyou?lm a...
TH EBODY M ETAPH OR
stration to show thatthere are tricksto making structureshold,
andyouknow thosetricks.
O r,youcouldmak...
APPLYING TI-IEBODY M ETAPI-IOP-
yourindex fingerforthepen,andyou haveyourselfapure
Body M etaphor.
+ A Leytot/?eJ-fgrststg...
TH EBODY IVIETAPH OR
(Continoed)
The headengineerIooksexhausted,soyouapproachhim and
say,zzIcanusepressurepointstoraiseyou...
APPLYING THEBODY IVIETAPH OR 49
(Continoed)
''Idid thisstunttoshow thatyoucanfeelsureaboutaneffect's
causeandstillbewrong....
TH EBODY IVIETAPH OR
(Continoed)
Asyoudiscusspressurepoints,reachacrosshisbodywithyour
righthand,andbendfolw ard totouch h...
APPLYING THEBODY IVIETAPH OR
(Continoed)
+ W hy give away thesecretto thismechanism?AsImentioned,
thisstunthasbeendescribe...
TH EBODY IVIETAPH OR
(Continoed)
them,butyoucan't.TheIidsarestucktightlytogether....'').If
youdiscoversomeonewho canopenhe...
T H E PA PER M ETA PH O R
he problem many people face when learning how to
persuadeisthatthey study tacticsthey can'tpossi...
TH EPAPER IVIETAPH O R
W H AT ISA PAPER M ETAPH O R?
A PaperM etaphorisadiagram ,sketch,orcartoon thatbrings
yourmain idea...
W HAT ISA PAPER IVIETAPH OR?
hammer?ltworksthroughforceandm akesaheckofanoise.The
characteristicsofahammeraremycharacteris...
56 TI--IEPAPEP-M ETAPI-IO P-
the sketch,asking him aboutthe booth'slayoutand wherethe
staffwillbepositioned.
''lwillstandh...
K'I-IAT IsA PAPEP-M ETAPI-IOP.? 57
new ideato takeitsplace.''AsM iddletonsaysthis,hedrawsina
new shape to replace the o1d ...
TH EPAPER IVIETAPH O R
H O W TO CREATE YO U R O W N PAPER
M ETAPH O R
Creating aPaperM etaphorisno differentthancreating a...
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
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Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
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  1. 1. H0# 10 P!R$dàB! PIOPL! WH0 B0N'I WàN1I0 B! P!R$dàB!B . '' # z '' t J0:L BA UQR & M ARK LQVY
  2. 2. l1()A102E28t))l)E IIEIII'LEAI1()COJ'IA/JI 10SE2E28tAl)El) G ET W HAT You W ANT- EVERY T IME! p*.!1 JoelBauer & M ark Levy +W ILEY JO HN W ILEY & SO NS,INC.
  3. 3. M orePraiseforH ow toPersuadePeople W ht?D on'tIAWJZ'toBePersuaded ''JoelBauerandMarkLev.srdraw backthecurtainand1etyousee,hear,touch, andtfscthemostmysteriousmechanismsofsuccess--ir-fïtfewccfpg.ilècrsuasion.lf you'rethinkinglightweightcunningorheavyweightsociologs forgetit.W e're talkingaboutanancientcraftourancestorsknew thatourgenerationforgot. Thisbookwillteachyouhow towieldyourbestideastoinfluenceotherswith themysticaldexterit.srofacavemanwhostrikesaflintytfstso- andcreatesfire.'' .- hlickCorcodilos,founderoftheNorthBridgeGroup,Inc. and authorofzlsk tlleH eadllunter ''J-J/tpttlPtrsuatk Pcc')!cTbtlDon'tWkg.tttll?cPtrsuatlc?isagem.ltsconceptsare clear/itsexamplesarepowerful/andthewritinginitprovidesreaderswiththe energ.srinherentinagreatpitch.lfyouwanttoelevateyourideasandgetthem receivedasiftheyweremannafrom heaven/youmustreadthisbook.'' - l-eslieYerkes,presidentofCatalystConsultingGroup,Inc.andauthor of301W flpstoHaveFunatW tvk Fun W tvks andBeansf f ''JoelBauerandMarkLe'orteachyouhow togetintothemindofthedecision akerandconvert'no'into'es'''m y . - leffreyGitomer,authorofTlw SalesBibleand TllePattersonPrinciplesofSelling ''l'vewatchedJoelBauerworkwithaudiencesfor12yearsandnow lunder- standwhy he'sbeentheundisputed leaderinpersuasion.ButHow ttlPcrsuatk Pcc')!cW'-l,tlDc'g.ïWffwtttll?cPcrsuatk?isn'tjustastonraboutJoel.lt'sanunselfish recipeforpersonalandprofessionaldevelopment.Thisbookisagift.'' .- M attHill,president,TheHillGroup ''JoelBauerandMarkLev.srelevatetheartofsalesmanshiptoalevelothersonly dream aboutandrevealpersuasionstrategiesfew professionalswould bewill- ingtoshare.Tl-uly/thisisabookonhow tobeasuccess.'' - l-arryBecker,formercreativepartnerofBecker-KanterAdvertising ''&1r.Bauerpossesses amazing insight/and offers inspired revelations into humanbehavior.Thisbookisdangerous.'' - W illiam Bakoyni,presidentandCEO ,VideoTechnologies ''N0hocus-pocushere.Thisbookwillawakenthenegotiatorwithinanden- ableyoutobemorepersuasivethatyoueverthoughtpossible.'' .- M axCohen,cofounderandCEO ,CashAdvance.com ''BauerandLev.srdon'tjustprovethepowerofpersuasionintheirnew book/they show youhow tobecomeanexpertatthiskeylifeskill- quicklyandeasily'' - peterEconomy,coauthorofM anagingforDummies
  4. 4. ''NvhilereadingJoelBauer'sbook you'llgetanurgetorushoutandtestwhat you'velearned.W henyouseeyourfirst'victimkeyeslightupJyou'llrealizehis persuasiontechniquesreallywork.From thatmomentonJyou'rehooked.'' - scottGoodman,CEO ,SamsonTechnologies ''HowttlPcrsuatkPcc')!cTbtlDon'tWkg.tttll?cPtrsuatlctliscandid/insightful,educa- tional/and fun.Readitandputsomemagicintoyourbusinesslife.'' - leffreyJ.Fox,authorofHow toM akeBigAzftlse.yinYtlvrOwnSmall BusinessandHow toBecom eCEO ''DonaldTrump'sairlojt/Dcfp!andJoelBauer'sHowttlPtrsuatkPcc')!cTbtlDc'g.ï Wffwtttll?cPtrsuatlc?aretwoessentialsforthoselookingtosucceedinbusiness.'' .- llobBedbury,directorofBttsinessDevelopment,GumasAdvertising ''MasterJoelandMark'sinfluencestrategiesandyoucanbecomethebusiness world'snextpiedpipen'' - stewartLevine,authorofTlleBooktl/zlgrccvscvzf' and GettingtoResolution ''lfoundinfluenceprincipleslcouldimmediately apply tomy businessona1- m ostevenrpage.'' .- DavidGoldsmith,founder,M etaMatrixConsulting,Inc. ''JoelBauerissucharockstar.Hehasshownupwithhisownbrandofreal magicanditwillrockyourworld.Readevenrwordandreaditagain.'' - AngelicaJ.Holiday,'TV producer,entedainment/advertising/marketing &brandconsultant ''A mustreadandafunread forbusinesspeopleatany level.Thebook grabs youthemomentyoupickitupandisfu11ofundergroundpractices/whichwill haveyoupersuadinglikeaprofessionalpitchman.'' - -l-homasJ.W aletzki,president,EizoNanaoTechnologies 'How ttlPcrsuatkPcc')!cTbtlDc'g.ïWffwtttll?cPcrsuatk?willshakeyou outofyour comfortzone and/intheprocess,draw othersto yourideas.A wonderfully unorthodoxlookathow toinfluenceandgetattention.'' .- lohnIzzo authorofSecondInnocence:RediscoveringIoy & W tlsflc'randAwakeningtlleCorporateSoul
  5. 5. l10A102E28gàpE IIEIIIII.EAI10l)0J'IAàJI 10SE2E28gàpEp
  6. 6. l1()A102E28t))l)E IIEIII'LEAI1()COJ'IA/JI 10SE2E28tAl)El) G ET W HAT You W ANT- EVERY T IME! p*.!1 JoelBauer & M ark Levy +W ILEY JO HN W ILEY & SO NS,INC.
  7. 7. Thisbookisprintedonacid.freepaper.@ Copyright@ 2004byJoelBauerandlvlarkLe'o,.A11rightsresenred. PublishedbyJohnW ileyscSons/lnc./Hoboken/Newlersey. PublishedsimultaneouslyinCanada. ThankstoAigfcmagazinepublisherStanAllenandeditor.in.chiefJohnlvloehringfor permissiontouseinterview materialthatwaspublishedinitsApril2003issue. Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced/storedinaretrievalsystem /ortransmitted inanyform orbyanymeans/electronic/mechanical/photocopying/recording/scanning/ orotherwise/exceptaspermittedunderSection 1O7and 108ofthe 1976UnitedStates CopyrightAct/withouteitherthepriorwrittenpermissionofthePublisher/orauthoriza. tionthroughpaymentoftheappropriatepencopyfeetotheCopyrightClearanceCen. ter/lnc./222lkosewoodDrive/Danvers/&lA 10923/(978)750.8400/fax(978)646.8600/ oronthewebatMmrwccopyright.com.lkequeststothePublisherforpermissionshouldbe addressedtothePermissionsDepartment/lohnW ileyscSons/lnc./111lkiverStreet/ Hoboken/NJ07030/(201)748.6011Jfax(201)748.6008. LimitofLiability/DisclaimerofW arranw:W hilethepublisherandauthorhaveused theirbesteffortsinpreparingthisbook/theymakenorepresentationsorwarranties withrespecttotheaccuracyorcompletenessofthecontentsofthisbookandspecifi. callydisclaim anyimpliedwarrantiesofmerchantabilityorfitnessforaparticularpur. pose.Nowarranw may becreatedorextendedbysalesrepresentativesorwrittensales materials.Theadviceandstrategiescontainedhereinmaynotbesuitableforyoursit. uation.Thepublisherisnotengagedinrenderingprofessionalsenrices/andyou shouldconsultaprofessionalwhereappropriate.Neitherthepublishernortheauthor shallbeliableforanylossofprofitoranyothercommercialdamages/includingbut notlimitedtospecial/incidental/consequential/orotherdamages. ForgeneralinformationonourotherproductsandsenricespleasecontactourCus. tomerCareDepartmentwithintheUnitedStatesat(800)762.2974/outsidethe UnitedStatesat(317)572.3993orfax(317)572.4002. W ileyalsopublishesitsbooksinavarietyofelectronicformats.Somecontentthat appearsinprintmaynotbeavailableinelectronicbooks.Formoreinformationabout W ileyproducts/visitourwebsiteatw'vwcv/riley.com. I.ibraryojcongressCataloging-in-publicationData: Bauer/Joel1960- How topersuadepeoplewhodon'twanttobepersuaded:getwhatyouwant- everytimeL/Joe1Bauer/lvlarkI-e'o,. p.cm . lncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindex. ISBN 0-471-64797-7(hardcover) 1.Persuasion(Psycholomr)1.l-evy/lvlark/1962-ll.'Tltle. 81:637.1748322004 153.8'52.--(1(222 2003027633 8
  8. 8. Formymother,Carol,whoneversaid,''ltcannotbe done/''andmywife,Cherie,whosaid,''lsthata11?'' - J.B. Formymother,Rhoda,who readmeT'retgsgreJs/tggk,and mywife,Stella,whocanpersuadewiththebestofthem .
  9. 9. pe.1 C O N T EN TS ACKNOW LEDGMENTS Dluw Ix TI-IELlsvfExEk CI-IANGETI-IEM OMENT THETpakhlsyoltlvlzkTlox M ECI-IANISM THEBODYM ETAPI-IOR THEPAPERM ETAPI-IOR THEQulcltPITCHOPENING THEQulcltPITCHBODY THESLOGAN PITCI-I CotkvlxcEwl7'l-ISAMPLES THEPowEkoyFItEE 11 THEPowEkOFGIFTS 12 SOLID Pkooy 13 DYNAMIC CI-ARlTY BEDls-rlxc'r O vEkcolvlEREsls-r/txcE 16 THELOOK 17 THEPLATFOR&1PITCH 18 THEV ECHANISIVIEMERGENCYKIT INDEX ABO UTTHEAUTHOZS 1 13 22 40 53 66 78 90 1O1 112 125 133 15O 159 176 186 197 213
  10. 10. p-..1 A C K N O W LED G M EN TS 'd like to thank my wife,Cherie,who knew lhad potential when itwaswellhidden;my am azing children,Chanelle, Briana,and Sterling,who everydayteachm ewhatlifeisre- ally about;my mother,CarolBauer,and my father,Stephen Shoyer;my adoringgrandfathers,AlbertandDuf-fy;andmyclos- estfriends,Bi11Bakoyni,LarryBecker,DavidBorys,GaryLamers, Eric M aurin,Dale Penn,Jason Randal,David Stahl,and Jon Stetson.W ithouttheirongoingsupport,thejourneytowardget- ting whatl'vealwayswantedwould havebeen lonely.l'd liketo thankmylifeteachers,JackChanin,PaulDiamond,JoeDeLjon, G ary Hunter,H idy Ochiai,Ron Praver,Benny Ray,and Gregg W ebb;theKeninCoin& Stamp Shop M agicDepartmentwhen l waseleven;thestaffofCarnivalCruiseLneswhenlwasthirteen; andmy publicist,PhilLobel,who hasworkedbrilliantlywiththe mediatogetthewordoutaboutme. l'd also liketothankmy co-author,M arkLevy,whoisawrit- ing god.W orkingwithM arkistheonly way my techniquesand philosophy could have everbeen transferred so expertly to the page.Heclim bedinsidemyworld,andbecameafriendaswell. L fe hasdealtmeagreathand,and thecardswillrem ain in play untilmylastbreath. - J.B.
  11. 11. ACKNOW LEDGM ENTS 'd liketo thank mywife,Stella,whose loveand supporthas keptmegoing;my mom ,Rhoda;my brother,Paul;mysister, Joyce;and,a11myotheramazingrelatives,likeGi1,lrwin,and Joan.lthankmyfriendswhosewisdom helpedJoeland me write this book:Dick ''The Guru''Axelrod,Renee Babiewich, LarryBecker(forintroducingmetoJoel),Steve''There'sapeculi- arityinmy shoe''Cohen,PattiDanos,Kevin Daum (foratwo- hourconversationthatmadeita11clear),ChristopherDiltsand his hair,Jack Foster,Bob 'The Happy Skeptic''Friedhoffer, M ichael''Leonardo''Gelb,N athan Gold,David ''FerrisBuehler'' Goldsmith,M ichelle Herman,PaulH arris,Robert''ShortSen- tences''Jacobs,M ac ''Vegas,babyl''L ng,PaulLemberg,Steve ''How did itwalk?''Sanderson,RichSchefren,Adam Snukal,Ken Swezey (whowasexcited by ourbook conceptbeforeanyone else, whose the ''Pitchh/lind''rocketa liftand enthusiasm gave into orbit),and KarlWeber.Also,thankstoourliterary agent, M urielNellis,and herassistant,Jane Roberts,to everyone at W iley,with a big shoutoutto M att''The N urturer''Holtand Tamara''The Transylvanian''H ummel,and to Claire Huism ann andthekillerstaffatlmpressionsBookandJournalServices.Also also,l'd liketothankmypets.W henyou'rewritingelevenhours adaywithnohum ansinsight,abark,ameow,oratweetcanbe awfully comforting.Blessyou Kuma,Jofu (''Fuzio''),Xger,and Betsy. Finally,lwouldliketothankthemanhimself,JoelBauer.Joel isamasterfulbusinessperson,performer,and friend.lfyou ever getthechanceto seehim in action,takeit! M
  12. 12. p-..1 1 D RAW IN T H E LISTEN ER hatyou'reabouttoreadisabitfrightening.Some- timesseminarattendeeswalkouton me aslde- liverthismaterialbecausethe/re disturbed by whatthey hear.These are sm artpeoplewalking out.ldon'tblamethem forleaving.Thisisthestuffofnightmares. Asyoucontinuereading,you'regoingtolearntopersuadein awayyouneverim aginedpossible.Notin aDaleCarnegieway. Notby smiling and tossing in people'sfirstnamesasyouspeak with them.Thisis aboutgetting people to do whatyouwant. Particularly strangers.(W hena J//fre;treportersaw hundredsof strangersfollow mycomm andsinunison,hecalledthedisplay''a featofmassobediencethatmustbeseentobebelieved.'') M y persuasionm odelisunusual,butdeadlyeffective.ldidn't readaboutitinamagazineordevelopitwith ateam ofuniversity scholars.lnstead,itcomesfrom my 37years'experiencein front ofaudiencesand from my study ofthose true mastersofinflu- ence,show folk;mostlyshow folkinthe''darkarts.'' Yes,a11lknow aboutpersuasion l've learned from carnies, fakirs,hypnotists,magicians,mentalists,spiritualists,and,partic-
  13. 13. a Dlt/tw Ix TI-IE Lls-fExElt ularly,pitchmen.N aturally,l'm taking libertieshere with who l callshow folk,butlet'snotsplithairs.Theirmethodsaretheim - portantthing,notthetaxonomy. Thesementorsofmine,whom you'lllearn aboutthroughout thebook,shareseveraltraits:lfthey don'tpersuade,they starve; theirstrategiesmayinvolveoutrightdeception;andthey use,for themostpart,entertainmentasameansofchanging minds.For wantofabetterterm ,let'scalltheirways''theatrical/''and my modelthe''TheatricalPersuasion M odel.''(Thingsalwaysseem morerealwhenyounamethem;there'syourfirstlesson.) So ifyou'reready foranundergroundeducation ininfluence, read on.lfyou're anxiousto learn whatmagiciansdub ''the real work/''thisisthe only place to find it.lt'sa11very doable,and you'llbe abletousethemodelno matterwhatyoursituation- thatis,ifyoudon't1etyourfearsgetthebestofyou. Reader,ljusthityouwithaninfluencetechnique:theFright Challenge.Lkenittothecarnivalbarker'sballyhoousedtosnare peoplestrollingthemidway:''Ladiesandgentlem en,canyoubear it?Sho-cking!H orr-i-fy-ing!A living,breathing nightmare!The mostintelligentamongyouwillwanttokeepwalkingl''Themore thecarnyprotests,thelargerthecrowd grows. lflwassuccessfulwith my pitch,you didn'tnoticeyouwere beinginfluenced.Or,ifyourealizedit,youwereatleastintrigued enoughtoreadthisfar.W hateveryourreaction,lnow haveyour attention,andlintend to keepit. You can rely upon theFrightChallengewhateveryouraudi- ence'ssizeandintellectualmakeup.Everyone- andlmeanevery- one- respondstothissimpletactic. lusedalengthychallengetoopenthischapterbecauseyoucan build slowly onpaper.Readersliketofeelthetimbreofawriter's voiceandseehow heorshegoesaboutdevelopinganargument.ln person,though,it'sadifferentstory;ifyoutaketoolongsettingthe challenge,youcrossthelinefrom provocateurtomenace. W hen thepeoplel'm trying to influence are standing before meandwanttoknow how learnaliving,myFrightChallengeisto
  14. 14. ovEltv lEw thepoint:''Areyousureyouwanttoknow?lt'salittlefrightening. M ostpeoplecan'thandleit.''W hen theysayyes,andthey always do,lconspiratorially add:''M ovein closer.ldon'twanteveryone hearing this.''Suddenly,lhavetheirattentionin away thatmakes them hungryformywords.The/remineforthemoment. Reading J-foa?toPersgtgkePeobleJ///?0D0g1J//tggttoBePersgtgtle;t willbeanexperienceforyou.M uch ofwhatyou'reabouttolearn isavailablenowhereelse. Ladiesandgentlemen,canyoubearit?lt'soverview time! O VERV IEW W ho Should Read ThisBook? lwroteitpredominantly forbusinesspeople.M y techniqueswill helpexecutives,m anagers,entrepreneurs,salespeople,m arketers, advertising staff,human resources personnel,presenters,job seekers,andjustaboutanybodylookingforawaytomakepeople receptiveto suggestions. O fcourse,youdon'thavetobeinbusinesstoprofitfrom this book.Anyonewhowantstoinfluenceotherstohisorherwayof thinking willwantto read it.Thataudience includesactivists, counselors,negotiators,performers,physicians,politicians,pub- 1icspeakers,andteachers. Anaudiencethatdeservesspecialmentionissingles.M yper- suasionstrategiesarenaturalswhen itcomestom eeting and im - pressingpeople.lfyou'reaCasanova-orvamp-in-training,youke cometotherightplace. W hatIsthe Book'sH igh Concept? Beforelanswer,1etmeexplainwhatahighconceptis.Theprin- cipleiscriticalifyouwanttobeapowerfulpersuader.Theterm bèbcogcel)tismostoftenusedintheTV andfilm industries,par- ticularly during pitch meetings,in which writers throw con- densed ideasatastudio executive,hopingthattheexecutivewill buyoneofthem and turnitinto aseriesoramovie.
  15. 15. Dlu w Ix TI-IE LISTENEP- Thosecondensedideasarehigh concepts.They takeacom - plexplotandreduceittoitsmostcompellingpoint.Theresulting sentenceorphraseiswhatthewriterfiresattheexecutive. W hat'sthemostfamoushigh concepteverpitched?Accord- ing to ''PerfectPitch/''aTV documentary,itwas delivered by Aaron Spelling to sellhisproposed seriesAlbtinyales.Spelling pitchedtheseriesas''nursesinwett-shirts.''Thestudio boughtit immediately. SoW hatIsThisBook'sHigh Concept? Jtsllofz?syou/90f,17tobersuaijebygsf'lgt/?etecllgftyesojbrojessionalIlftcllmea. Thatconceptmay notbe assexy asSpellingk,butit'saccurate. Thisbook bringsthe secretsofshow folk to theboardroom.lt teachesyouhow touseentertainm enttoinfluence. Thinkthesepremisessound odd?Then lsuggestyouswitch on yourtelevision.lfthesuccessoftelevision hastaughtusany- thing,it'sthis:Peoplewillopen themselvesup to acommercial m essagef-fyouentertainthem.Takeawaytheentertainment,and theviewersurfsofftoanotherstationwhilethesponsor'smessage goesunheard. Productsalesriseandfallbasedupontheentertainmentvalue oftheirmessages.A messagethatticklesthepubliccan beworth billions.Attimes,anentertainingmessagem ay betheonlything separatingoneproductfrom another. Bottledwaterisagoodexample.lt'sa$35billionayearin- dustry.That's$35billionforaproductnotsubstantiallydifferent from whatyoucangetoutofyourfaucet. O bviously,thepeopleinthatindustryarebright.Theynotonly created amarket,butthey work hard atm akingeach brand seem differentfrom itscompetitor.O newaterisfrom astream .O neis from themountains.Oneisfrom France.Onehasaddedvitamins. O necomesinasquirtbottleforpeopleonthego.Thelistgoeson. lwould argue thatvery little separatesonewaterfrom the other.lfyou were to conductataste testam ong the top three brands,ldon'tthinkyou'dfindanobviouswinner.
  16. 16. ovEltv lEw Thethingthatreally separatestheseproductsistheircom pa- nies'positioning strategies and the entertainment principles eachusesinitsmarketingmessage.l'veseenbrandsadvertisedby modelsinflowingrobes,by glamorousmoviestars,andby beau- tiful,sweating athletes. M odels,moviestars,and athleteshavelittleto dowithwater. Theyhavea1ottodowithtellinganattention-grabbingdramatic story,fast.lnotherwords,they'retheretoentertainyou.Forno otherreason. Perhapstheentertainmentcomponentinbottledwaterissub- tle.Aftera11,mostcompaniesintheindustry takeadignified ap- proachto pitchingtheirproduct.lt'snotsowith beer. The beerindustry is a11aboutassociating its productwith goodtim esandwildentertainment.To pushtheirproduct,brew - ershaveusedawidevariety ofentertainingmeans:Theykeflown blimpsover sporting events;run contestswith a billion-dollar prize;andairedcommercialsfeaturingwomenwrestlinginmud,a dog with human girlfriends,frogscroaking abeer'sname,and a footballgam eplayedbetweenrivalbottlesofbeer. W ith exaggerated vehicleslikethose,it'seasy to dismissthe brillianceofthebeerindustry.Thatis,untilyourealizeonething: ln 2002,beersalestotaled $74.4billion.Saywhatyoulike.En- tertainm entsells. W illM yTechniquesRequireYou to Becomean Entertainer? You willnothave to sing,dance,act,recite,getup in frontof crowds,orwrestleinm ud,unlessyouwantto.W henltalkabout entertainmentasapersuader,lmeanthatyouwillusecompelling, often whimsicalstrategiesdesigned to putpeoplein areceptive mood forwhatyouhavetooffer. And keep in m ind, entertainment isn't necessarily light- hearted.A dramaisentertaining.Soisahorrorfilm .ln thework we'llbedoing together,you'llbeusing thefullrangeofhuman em otiontomakeyourpointforcefully.
  17. 17. DPAW IN TH E LISTENER W hatAreSomeoltheTechniques? Youke already experienced atleasttwo techniques.The Fright Challengewasone,and contained within itwasasecond tech- nique:stgrlll/fg-f?.lfyou wantto persuade people,you're going to haveto figureoutwaysofletting them sampleyoursuggestion, idea,service,orproduct.Otherwise,they'lldoubtyou,and that doubtm ay keepthem from actingonyourwishes. lopened with theFrightChallengebecauseit'san attention- grabber(gg;titacted asasampleofwhatyou'regoing tolearn.lf youthoughtthechallengeflim flam ,thenyouinstantly knew this bookisn'tforyou.Conversely,ifyou thoughtthechallengein- triguing,thenyou'reno doubteagerto tearthrough therestof thisbookand makeitsstrategiesyourstrategies. Sampling helps people draw conclusionsquickly and hon- estly.lt'san ethicalway to win them overto yourside.Later, you'lllearn the bestwaysto offersamplesin situationsprofes- sionaland personal. Besidesthe FrightChallenge and sampling,you'llalso learn how topersuadeusingdozensofothertactics.Amongthem :the BodyMetaphor,thePaperMetaphor,theQuickPitch,andthe Platform Pitch.A11are entertaining.A11are effective.You and thepeopleyou'repersuadingwillhavefunwhileyougetyourway. O fcourse,notevery techniquein thisbookfunctionssolely to entertain.Yourofferings should be flavored with entertain- mentprinciples,notdrowningin them .W hileyou'relearningto entertain,you'llalso be learning good,solid businessand influ- encepractices. ldon'twantto leavethisintroductory chapterwithoutput- ting thespotlighton an influencetechniqueparticularly dearto me:theTransformationM echanism . W hatIsaTranslormationM echanism ? ltisademonstrationthatgainsyouraudience'sattention,lowers theirdefenses,and servesasametaphorforyourmessage.Jtk(g trfcêt/gtgtrltg/tes(gIlofgt.A majorpoint.Onethatmightspellthedif-
  18. 18. ovEltv lEw 7 ferencebetween someone'stakingyoursuggestion ordismissing it.Letmegiveyou an exampleofaTransformation M echanism l usedtomakea$45,000sale.ltinvolvedarubberband. M yprospectwastheheadofm arketingforaW estCoastsoft- warefirm.Hercompanywasrentingmajor1700thspaceatanup- comingconvention,and shehadcontacted measapossiblehire fortheshow.M yjob?To actasthe company'spitchman and draw peopletoher1700th. Becauseitwasshewhohadcalledthemeeting,lthoughtthe salewouldbeeasy.W asleverwrong.W henlaskedherabouther company'sgoalsfortheshow,shewasvague.W hen lshowedher client testimonials and photographs of me drawing overflow crowdsatpreviousshows,sheglanced atthem asiflhad handed heryesterday'snewspaper. Shethankedmeforcomingandsaidshe'dgetbacktome.But lwasn'tleaving.Themeeting had costm etimeand money,and herget-back-to-m espeechwasn'tgivingmefalsehope.lflleft,l would neverhearfrom heragain. lrosefrom my chairandpretendedto pack up.Aslshutmy laptop andrepositioned im aginary itemsinmy briefcase,lasked herthesamequestionslhadjustaskedher,onlylsoftenedthem. Forinstance,ratherthanaskingabouthercompany'sgoalsforthe upcoming show,lasked aboutherbestm omentsfrom previous shows,and how she planned on duplicating them.Afterafew moments,lsmokedoutherobjectiontomyservices. H er company had always relied on winning over early adopterswhowouldgettheword outaboutthenew softwareto theirfellow hard-core users.Thisstrategy had served herfirm well.lthaddoubledinsizeoverthelastthreeyearsbycateringto early adopters. M y servicedidn'tfitthatearly-adoptermodelatall- atleast notinhermind.W hatl'm a11aboutisdrawingthelargesttrade- show crowds possible, and that's not what she thought she needed.''The massesaren'tgoing to buy ourproduct/''shesaid, '' so lseeno reason to attractand entertain them .''Sheconfessed
  19. 19. Dlu w Ix TI-IE LISTENEP- thattheonly reason lhad been called inwasbecauseherfirm's CEO had seen me draw crowdsfora rival,and he thoughtit mightbeagoodideato hearwhatlhadtosay. ''Letmemakesurelunderstand/''lsaid.''Youbelievethatlcan draw amob toyour1700th,butyou think that'soverkill.Yoube- lievethatthousandsofundifferentiatedonlookersareawastedex- pense,a distraction.They m ay even keep away the folksyou reallywant:theearly adopters.''Sheagreed,thatwasherdilemma. lknew whatlhadto do.lhad to transform themomentfor her.lhad to takeherfrom whereshewasand moveherto adif- ferentvantage point.W ords alone weren'tgoing to do it.Sbe geer/e;tt/?eexberienceojseeiny/?ertlf/twlrltg(ggefz?. lnoticed arubberband encirclingherwristand asked herto rem ove it. ''lmaginethatyoursm allrubberband isyoursmallgroup of early adopters/''lsaid.'Those arethepeopleyoureally wantat theshow.Theyspellthedifferencebetweenyourcompany'ssuc- cessand failure.Agreed?'' gree . ''Holdoneendofthatrubberband atyourleftfingertips,the otherendatyourrightfingertips,andpressthebandagainstyour upper1ip.''Thewom an looked atme asiflwerefresh from the asylum . ''Don'tworlx ''lsaid ''you know lm akemy living asashow - m an.lwanttodrivehomeapoint,butlwanttodoitin aspecial way.Pleaseputthebandagainstyour1ip.''Shecomplied. ''Doesthebandfeelhotorcold?''lasked. O ltl. ''Good.Now im aginethatbesidesthatsm allbandofadopters, hundredsofotherpeoplecomealong and expand thecrowd.To getavivid image ofwhatl'm talking about,expand the band. Stretchitbetweenyourfingersuntilitnearlysnaps.''Shedid. ''Yourlargerubberbandnow symbolizesthemobsurrounding your1700th iflwaspitching.Keepthebandtaut,andputitupto yourlipsagain.W hatdoyoufeel?''
  20. 20. OVERV IEW 9 ''O hmygodl''shesaid ''that'sremarkable.Theband ishot.'' ''That'sright/''lsaid ''lt'shot notbecauseofmagic,butbe- causeofphysics.W hen youstretchedtherubber,youexcited its electronsandheateduptheband. ''Thesam ekind ofexcitement-and-heatreactioniswhathap- penswhenyouexpandyourtrade-show audiences,too. ''W henyouhaveabigcrowd,passersbyrealizesomethingbig ishappening in the 1700th.The crowd'ssizecreatesan expecta- tion,an excitement,aheat.Thepeoplesauntering paststop and wonder,'W hatare a11these people looking at? W hatdo they know thatldon't'?'Then theyruntojointhecrowd,makingit bigger. ''Now,someofthesepeoplerunningtojointhecrowdwillbe early adopters.Early adoptersalwayswanttobeon theinside.lf they spota crowd and they don'tknow whatit'sabout,they'll practicallyshovetheirwaytothefront.l'veseenthishappenover and overthroughtheyears. ''M y crowdswillpullin moreearly adoptersthanyoukeever had,preciselybecausemy crowdsaresobig,soexcited,sofullof energy.A crowddrawsalargercrowdl'' She satsilently forafew seconds,playing with the rubber band.Thensheasked mequestions:aboutmy fees,my methods, the logisticsofmy perform ances.W hen lleftheroffice,itwas with asigned contract. Transformation M echanismshelp you make yourpointin a waymoreeffectivethanstraightforwardlogic.Theyworkforthe samereasonDetgt/gojaStg/esrltggforcesustoreexamineourvalues and Jtk(gJ//ogtler-fg/Lih letsusre-seeourplaceintheworld.Their lessonscometousinaTrojanhorse.Theyappealtousbecauseof story,color,andentertainment.Theytouchusin awaythatbald inform ationmisses. M orethan one-thirdofthisbookisdevoted totheTransfor- m ation M echanism.Youcan usethesemechanismsin any situa- tion youcanimagine:to rouseaworkforce,to closeasale,orto getchildrentocleantheirroom .
  21. 21. DPAW IN TH E LISTENER W ho Am Ito Teach You TheseM ethods? lam JoelBauer,professionaltradeshow pitchman.lpersuadefor aliving.Fortune5OO companieshiremetostandatop a26-inch- highriserinfrontoftheirboothsandpitch theirproducts. W hatdo these companieshave invested in a typicaltrade show?Theykespentuptotenm illiondollarson 1700thconstruc- tion,fivehundred thousand dollarsto rentfloorspace,and hun- dreds of thousands m ore on union fees, drayage charges, personnelcosts,and travelexpenses.Butthose dollarsare the leastoftheirconcerns. O ften,thefutureoftheirorganizationsrestsupon how well they do atthe show.lfthey have a new productrollout,they wantthe pressto see it,the TV camerasto shootit,and their prospects to buzz aboutit.A bad show m eans a bad product launch,and thatcansinkacompany.W henpeoplehireme,they havehigh expectations. W hatisthetrade-show environment?W henyou'reatatrade show,you're in an environmentthatcan be impersonaland at timesbrutal.Thecompetition surroundsyou,and they wantto seeyoufailbadly.Andthepeopleyou'retryingtopersuade- the show attendees- arerushing pastyou.They don'tcarewho you are,how niceyouare,how fearfulyouare,orhow superioryou thinkyourproductis. Persuading atatradeshow isakintopersuadingonthestreet orin the ancientbazaar.Therearerules,butfew ofthem arein yourfavor.lt'smyresponsibilitytostoppassersby,getthem tolis- ten to aproductpitch,and coaxthem into leaving theircontact inform ation. To be costeffective,lcan'tpersuadepeople to stop one by one.lnstead,lmustcreate crowds.Large,scary crowds.lmust getsom anypeopletostop andwatch andlistenandactthrough- outthedaythatmyclient'slead-generationm achinesareflooded with prospects. H ow welldo ldo?The J'$Q//StreetJogrgtg/Onlinecallsme''the chairman oftheboard''ofcorporatetradeshow rainmaking.f'tgst
  22. 22. ovEltv lEw Corllltgg. ')rwritesthatl'm ''anexpertatgettingtheattentionofpeo- p1ewithlotsofchoicesaboutwheretospendtheirtime.'' Even my com petitorsunintentionally complimentme.They referto meas''thetrainwreck''meaningthatwhen l'm pitching there are people laid out everywhere,filling the 1700th and spilling outinto the aisles,making itim possible foranyone to move.lcreatesuch pandemonium ,they say,thathardly ashow goesby from which lam notthreatenedwith expulsion by show m anagem ent. Guiltyascharged. l'vebeenpitchingattradeshowsfor24yeals,andinthattime l'destimatethattwentymillionpeoplehavestoppedtohearwhatl hadtosay,resultinginmorethanthreemillionleadsformyclients. W ho IstheBook'sO therAuthor? lwroteJ-foa?toPersgtgkePeobleJ///?0D0g1J//tggttoBePersgtgtle;twith my colleagueM arkLevy.M arkisanexpertpitchm anandwriterwhose skillshavehelpedmakehisclientsmorethanabilliondollars. M arkhascontributed many ofhisown influencetechniques and anecdotesto thisbookwhileworkingto bring my concepts tolife. W hat'sM y Pitch to You? Thisisn'tanordinarybookonpersuasion.lt'snotatomeonhow tocontrol,manipulate,orforceotherstosubmittoyourwill. Books that promise such adolescent fantasies don't hold water.Theirwin/losemethodssoonturnintolose/lose.Theirphi- losophy goesagainstthewaymostofuslive,think,and actand doesn'ttakeinto accountwhoweareand whatwewanttooffer theworld. lam going toteachyouhow to persuadein awaythat'snei- thersinister,manipulative,norzero-sum.lam goingtoshow you how tobecomeinfluential,charismatic,andm agnetic. Youwillgetwhatyouwantby helping othersgetwhatthey want,andintheprocess,youwilla11haveagood time.
  23. 23. 12 DlkAw IN TH E LISTENER Thisisnotabookonhow towinatasinglenegotiation.This fsabookonhow towinatlife.ltteachesthatthebestway toin- fluenceothersistolookandbehaveasifyou'reapersonofinflu- ence.Always.Ata11times. ltteachesthatthewaytomakemoneyistohavefun.M yway isthewayofthepitchman,theconjuror,theentertainer.Forthat, lmakeno apologies. lwillnotinflateordiminishwhatlhavetoteach.Youwillget the unvarnished truth,because the unvarnished truth is what works.ltworkswhetheryou're trying to influence a child at home,theboardofdirectorsinaconferenceroom,ortenmillion viewerssittingintheirlivingroom s,watchingyouontelevision. Areyou ready,then,to learn how aprofessionalpitchman persuadespeoplewhodon'twanttobepersuaded,andhow you can dothesame?lfso,step closer. ldon'twanteveryonetohearthis.
  24. 24. C H A N G E T H E M O M EN T hatyoudo can have arem arkableeffecton peo- ple.Don'tbelieve m e?Try this:Ask afriend to think aboutthebestsummerdayshe'severexpe- rienced,then watch herclosely.You'llwitnessa strikingchangeinherphysiognomy anddemeanor. Shemay look aboutdreamily,asifshe'strying to orienther mentalim age in physicalspace.H ereyesm ay widen whileher jaw slackens.She'llspeakslowly,andthen,asshecatchesholdof avisceralm emory,she'llramp upand tellyouaboutachildhood triptoacarnivaloralongkisson aparkbench. By the time she'sfinished,she'llbe grinning and feeling as though she'sfound something she'd lost.Shemay even beteary eyed.And a11you did was ask a question.You changed her thoughts,her posture,and her outlook with a question.One question!That'spower. Youdidn'twrestleherintoahappy state.Yousettheproper conditions and 1et her mind do the rest.You changed her m om ent.
  25. 25. CHANGETHEIVIOIVIENT M ostpeople walk around in theirproblems.They view life through theirperceivedlimitations.Theymeasuretodaybywhat happenedyesterday. W hen you change the moment,you shiftpeople'sperspec- tive,takingthem from wheretheyaretowherethey'd liketo be. From thatvantagepoint,peoplewillbem oreattentiveandmore receptiveto yourpropositions. Youcan changethemomentin anumberofways.lnthefol- lowing three chapters,you'lllearn methodsthatrequire sim ple props.Now,though,let'scontinuelearninghow to doitthrough language. C HAN GE TH E M O M EN T W ITH W O RD S ln acorporateplanningm eeting,lchangethemomentbyyettiny Ileoll/etosee(g.lïeneryeticy'gtgrein(gspltgg.')rsenses(gsbossible.Beforethe plannersstarttheirwork in earnest,lgo around theconference table and,one by one,ask the participantsabouttheirgoals.l wantto hearaboutthe organization'sgoalsand theirpersonal goals. Thefirstperson tospeakisusually guarded.H etalksin self- protective,distancing language.ln language that can neither offend norinspire.ltsoundssomething likethis:''Theorganiza- tion'sgoalisto assumeleadership ofthe industry by thefourth quarterofnextyear.Theorganization plansto do thisbyim ple- menting Six Sigmathroughoutthecompany and by im proving customerserviceasaresultofbreakingdown departm entalsilos. M y personalgoalistodowhateverittakestosupporttheleader- shipinm akingthishappen.'' Thatanswerwon'tdo.lt'smachinetalk.H umansdon'tspeak like that.Orifthey do,it'sacorruption ofwhatit'slike to be hum an. lchallengehim :''lheard whatyousaid,and lstilldon'tun- derstandyourcompany'sbusiness.W hatdoesitdo?'' ''ltmanufacturesindustrial-strength piping/''hesays.
  26. 26. CH ANGE TH EIVIOIVIENT W ITH W ORDS ''W hydoestheworldneed industrial-strength piping?'' ''W ithoutit,you couldn'terectskyscrapers,run submarines, havelastingsewersystems.'' ''Soyourproducthelpsbuildcities?'' ''ltdoes'' ''Protectsthenation'scoasts?'' leS. ''W ashesawaywasteandsafeguardspeoplefrom disease?'' ''Yes youcouldlookatitthatway.'' ''W hydoesyourcompanywanttobetheleaderinthisfield?'' ''W edeservetobetheleader.W edon'thidebehindmarketing claims,likesomeofourcompetitors.W egivethecustomerwhat the/repayingfor.Heavy-dutymaterialstrength.'' ''You talked aboutbreaking down departmentalsilos.W hat didyoum ean?'' ''Attimes,peopleindifferentdepartm entsdon'tcommunicate well.They don'tshareinformation.Theydon'thelp oneanother asmuchastheycould.'' ''lfyou gotthem sharing inform ation and acting asa team, whatwouldhappen?'' ''W ewouldm akeourproductsevenbetter,becausethere'dbe astrongercross-fertilizationofideas.'' ''lfthathappened,how wouldyourjobbedifferent?'' ''l'd probably havemoreresponsibility.There'd bemoreem - ployeesunderme,andl'dbeworkingonbiggerprojects.W hich isfineby me.l'm muchbetterwhenthepressure'son.'' ''W hatelse?'' ''l'm inon theprofit-sharing plan,so l'dstand tomakeagood dealmoremoney.'' ''W hatwouldyoudowiththatmoney?'' ''H alfwouldgo into my kids'collegefund,and halfwould go toward aEuropeanvacation.'' lturn to the nextperson atthe table and listen to herre- sponses.lfthey arecrispand authentic,lm oveon.lfnot,lques- tion herforaslong asittakesto gethertotellmewhatshetruly
  27. 27. 16 CI-IANGETI-IEM OM EN T hopesforherselfand theorganization.lwanttohearrealmoti- vations,inreallanguage. Bythetimeeveryonehasspoken,there'sanexcitementinthe room .W hy?Becauseofthehonesty.Co-workersare seeingco- workersasthey really are,maybeforthefirsttime.They under- stand oneanother'sassumptionsand aspirations. Theroom alsopulsesbecauseofthepelsonal,emotion-laden, word-pictureseachpersonispainting.Theplaceisfillingwithlife. Dryconceptshavebecomevivid.Deadscenesnow danceandsing. lcoaxlivelywordsandimageryfrom peoplein orderto acti- vatetheirim aginationsand hearts.lgetthem seeing in threedi- mensionsand speaking abouttheirthoughtsin waysthatshift perspective.lthen repeatback to them whatl'veheard,intheir ownlanguage,and ladd somelanguageofmy own to heighten themoment. lputeveryoneinto thefuture.laskthem toseetheirorgani- zation twoyearsfrom now.lt'sreacheditsgoaland istheleader in itsfield.M orepiping isbeing shipped.Clients are building stronger,saferstructureswithit.Eventhemediaisimpressed.Tor- tggehasdonean articleonthecompany,ashasTorbes. Because oftheprofit-sharing program,everyone'ssalary has increased.Theirmoney isgoing where they wantitto go:into collegefunds,savingsplans,buyinganew house,anew car,atrip toEurope. laskthepeopleto picturethemselvesatthecorporatecele- bration.lt'satarockclub.TheirCEO hasrentedouttheclubfor thenight,and abandisplayingeveryone'sfavoritesongs.Spread outacrosstables are fun foods:steaks,burritos,tacos,pizza.l havemy clientssmellthecheeseonthepizza,thecilantrosprin- kled onthetacos. TheCEO standsandaskseveryonetojoinhim inatoast:''To a11ofyouform akingthisorganizationdosomuch,sofast.''They clink glasses,drink down the champagne,and head outto the dance floor.O nly then doesthe organization'sscheduled plan- ningsessionbegin.W hy?
  28. 28. FJAZJSAZDPLJSJIGSSJIVJSJVJF KNOW S EIVIOTION TRUIVIPSLOGIC Becausetheparticipantsarenow in adifferentpsychological place.Theirm omenthaschanged.W heretheywereclosed,they are now open.W here they were hesitant,they arenow giving. W herethey wereproblem -focused,they are now goal-focused. - .r'/?:?ijjerenceintllefrrlfgkstrtggs/tgtesfgto(g?ijjerenceo-ft/gtg/ft.')rintllefr!)/(g.lï- niny.ltisaspirited,productivesession,onethey willremember. O newhosememorywillguidethem through therealwork that mustbedoneiftheirvisionistobecomeareality. THE J-JASJ/A#.D BLISINESSREW fV/KNO W S EM O TIO N TRUM PS LO GIC lfusingwordsto alterperspectiveseemstoo much likehypnosis foryou,1etmepointyouto theSeptember-october2000issue oftheJ-ftgrptgrkBusinessReview.lnan articleentitled''GettingtheAt- tention YouNeed/''authorsThomasDavenportandJohn Beck discussastudythey conductedwith 60executives. Theauthorsaskedeach executiveto m akenoteofhisorher interestlevelconcerning the messagesthey received in agiven week.Thosemessagescouldhavecometothem throughconver- sation,e-m ail,phonecalls,oravariety ofothermedia.The re- sult?D avenportandBeckwrote: Overall,thefactorsmosthighlyassociatedwithgettingrtheexec- utives'lattention,inrankorder,were:themessagewaspersonal- ized.,itevoked an emotionalresponse,itcame from atrustworthy orrespected sender,and.itwasconcise.The messagesthat170th evoked em otion and.were personalized were m ore than twice as likely tobeattendedtoasthemessageswithoutthoseattributes. 1'11repeatthatlastsentence,with my addedemphasis:''Them es- sagesthat170th evoke?twlotfo.lïand werebersonalize?weremorethan twiceaslikelytobeattendedtoasthemessageswithoutthoseat- tributes.'' To getattention,to beremembered,to changethemoment, you mustmake yourmessagespersonaland evoke emotion in
  29. 29. CHANGETH EM OM EN T yourlistener.ltdoesn'tmatterifyourlistenerisanautomechanic, orthe executive ofaconglomerate.You mustalterthingsfor them,inthem,ifyouwantto succeed. Y Backroom 'Ilpsto ChangetheM oment + Stobtlofzqgll/tglrfg. pyourfrlllorttggcetot/?efzqor/k.Supposeyoumanu- facturebricks.Yourproductcanbeusedtobuildanouthouse oracathedral,sowhy assumeit'11beused in theformerand notthelater? ln general,peoplearem odestabouttheirabilitiesandthe rolethattheirproductsandservicescanplayinsociety.W hy? Perhapsit'sbecausethey'reafraid to standout.Orthe/re scaredthatiftheyelevatetheirsights,they'llbedisappointed. W hateverthereason,beingoverlymodestdoesn'tservethem ortheworld. l'm nottellingyoutoboastorm akefalseclaims,butwhy wouldn'tyouwanttothinkandactasifyouandyourproduct can serveourcivilization'shighestideals,ifsuch elevation is possible?lfyou'reapublisher,youdon'tproducemerebooks, yougivepeoplethemeanstotranscendtheircurrentstation in life.Yougivethem knowledgethattheycan translateinto real-world achievements.Youprovidethem with restand sol- acewhen daily lifeprovestoo much.Youhelp readersfocus on hum ankind'shigherideals.Thesearewonderfulandgen- uinequalities.W hy notclaim them ? To changethemomentforothers,youmustfirstdoitfor yourself.Giveyourselfawider,deeperunderstandingofhow you and yourofferingsbenefitthe world.Push yourselfon this.Selectaclientbenefitthatyourworkbrings,andfurther ituntilyougetaclearpictureofhow ithelpstheworld. lfyou produce microchipsforan automobile m anufac- turer,youprotectthelivesofmillionsofpeoplewho count on yourwork to getthem to and from theirdestinationsin safety.
  30. 30. FJAZJSAZDPLJSJIGSSJIVJSJVJF KNOW S EIVIOTION TRUIVIPSLOGIC lfyoumanufacturedressshoes,you helppeoplefeelbet- terabouthow theylooksothattheycangothroughtheirday with moreconfidence. lfyouorganizeofficespace,youhelp businessesfunction more smoothly so theiremployeesarelessstressed and can spendm oretimem akingthecompanymoney. Thisisnotasnow job,snakeoil,orself-deception.lt'sa fulllookatwhyyoudowhatyoudo. + Use(gIlersogkjavore?imayery(gs(grletggsojc/gtgg-t/fg.pt/?erlorleat-for t/gtwl.Peoplespeakastheythink.Theirspoken languagemir- rorstheway they processconceptsin theirhead.So when you'respeakingwith som eone,pay attention to thetypesof metaphorsheuses,and to the specific languagethatexcites her.lfyoucanframeyourconceptsintheirtypesofmetaphor or by using their language,you increase your chance of changing themomentforthem andgettingthem to remem - berwhatyousay. For instance, someone m ay use lots of sound-based metaphorswhen talking:''lt'sasclearasabell''''lhearwhat ou'resaying/'''That'smusicto myears.''lfso you'd positiony , yourconceptinanauditorycontext:''M aybethiswillstrikea chordwithyou.'' Ofcourse,ifyoudon'tusethistechniquejudiciously,it can betransparent.Pick yourspotsforit.W hen you do it properly,thelistenerswillcarryyourideaswith them along tim e. + Asê(gquestiontlltgtsegksbeobleintotllefrp st,intotllefr-j-fïtfïre,orjlibs tllefrbetsbective.Although you can'tcontrolanother'sthoughts, youcaninfluencepeopletothinkinnew directions.Oneway to do thatisthrough theuseofquestions.Specifically,t/fïes- tfogstlltgtrtwlopetlltwl-j-rorltllefrcfïrreatsftfïtgtfog. O ne type ofquestion luse focuseson thepast.Forin- stance:
  31. 31. CHANGETH EIVIOIVIEN T ''Te11m eaboutatimeyouwerelostinbusiness.'' ''W hat'sthe mostsignificantbusinesslesson youke learned inthepasttwoyears?'' Notice that these questions are based upon emotion- ladenthemes.Thelisteneris''lost''and haslearned a''signifi- cant''workplacelesson.-.r'/?:rloreextranet/?esftfïtgtfogyourt/fïestfo.lï (gkkresses,t/?erlorelikely you'llclltgelget/?erlorleat-j-ortlltgtlistener(ggt:t obenfï!lt/?ecogperstgtfo.lïinfïgexllectet:tyetrltwlortgl'/eways. Llsingthesameideaofappealingtotheextrem es,youcan ask questionsthatalsoputpeopleinto thefuture: ''lfyou reached yourgoalthree monthsearly,whatwould youdowith thatextratime?'' ''W herewillyou bethistimenextyear,ifyou continue to holdthatassumption?'' And you can takepeopleoutoftheircurrentreality by get- tingthem to flipaperspectiveandcreateanew reality: ''W hatwouldhaveto happen foryourmostagonizingbusi- nessproblem tobesolvedtoday?'' ''lm agineyou had to runyourbusinesswith halfyourstaff. H ow wouldyoumakeitwork?'' Become a question junkie.Collectinteresting inquiries and trythem outin casualconversationwith businessassoci- ates.Seewhereyourquestionstakepeople.Thesequestions show youhow easy itistochangethemomentforothers. ln theend,influence isn'tso much azero-sum game of m anipulationtechniques,asitisawayoftransportingpeople to adifferentplace.lfyoukechosen thatplacecarefully,the peoplewillbem orereceptivetoyourideasandrequests. + Dosometbiny0gtojt/?egorpl.Changingthemomentisa11about givingpeopletheunexpected,whetheritbeanew ideaorthe framearoundwhichyoupresentthatidea. ln the next chapter,you'lllearn aboutTransform ation M echanism s,which are distinctive metaphorsyou perform
  32. 32. FJAZJSAZDPLJSJIGSSJIVJSJVJF KNOW S EIVIOTION TRUIVIPSLOGIC that enable you to communicate your ideas in mom ent- changingways.Theyattractattentionandcommunicatewith substance.Butdon'tfeelyouhavetoputon aperformanceto dosomethingoutofthenorm. lfyou're involved in anegotiation,you could overnight theotherparty aletterreiteratingasinglepointyoumadethe day before;thatpointwillstand outmorepowerfully than it did duringyourconversation. lfyouhaveguestsoverfordinner,you couldcook adish with aspecialingredientandusethisingredientasameansof changing people'sfocuson whatthe/reeating.lknow a womanwho broughtback aspicefrom hertrip to lndiaand useditin adish.Thisspiceinitiatednight-longconversations aboutlndia,theTajM ahal,worldtravel,foreignpolitics,and U.S.history.Quiteamoment-changerforafew pennies. + Cbanyet/gerlorlt':tJ/ectggseffstberl//?ttbinytot10.W henlspotacranky child on aflight,lsitnexttohim.Asafatherofthree,lknow whatit'slikefortheotherpassengelswhenachildisrestless. lreach into my pocket,removeasquareofpaper,white on oneside,blackon theother,and lstartfolding.Thechild watches.lturntohim andsay:''l'm makingajack-in-the-box. W henl'm finished,Jackwillbewearingatuxedo,ashirt,a tie,andgloves.W henyouliftthe1id ofhisbox,he'llpopup. A11from thisonesheetofpapen'' The child leans closerto watch.lgethim involved.l m akefoldsand1ethim pressdownthecreases.W henl'm fin- ished,lhaveabox,whichlopen,andoutspringsJack.lthen hand the origamisculpture to the child,as a gif-t.ltis a whimsym adeespecially forhim . lcan'tknow thisforsure,but1'11bethe'llremem berthat moment.H e'11recallthetimethemanon theairplanefolded ajack-in-the-boxforhim. W hatdid ldo?Did lm ake asix-figuresale?N o.W hatl didwasgiveachild amomentoffascination.Someentertain- ment.Somehappiness.
  33. 33. T H E T RAN SFO RM AT IO N M EC H A N ISM y favoriteway to changethemomentisthrough a Transformation M echanism.lowe a1otto mecha- nisms.Theykehelpedfeed and clothemyfamily,as wellaspayformyhomeandcals.They'reoneofthe mostpowerfultoolsyoucanusetopelsuadeinbusinessandinlife. W hatisaTransformationM echanism?lt'satrickwithapoint. A mechanism putspeoplein apleasurestate,andthat'swhereyou wantthem .O ffbusiness,on pleasure.ltsetsa receptive atmo- sphere.W hen you use amechanism,people are more likely to lowertheirdefensesandgiveyourideasanhonesthearing.Amec/?- (ggfsm fs(grlettgll/gorrltgtlebbysical,(gg;tt/ggsrltgtlerltwlortgl'/e(gg;tIlersgtgsfpe. M ETAPH O RSASA M EAN S O FM AKIN G SEN SE Everyoneknowsthepowerofm etaphors.Theyhelpusbetterun- derstandoneideaby relating itto anotheridea.H ere'san exam - ple.lfsomeonetold you thatshe had trouble sleeping because
  34. 34. IVIETAPH ORSASA IVIEAN SOFIVIAKING SENSE 23 hermattresswas''hardasarock/''wouldyouunderstandwhatshe meant?Ofcourse.You'dknow thatshecouldn'tsleepbecausethe m attresshad no giveto it.Themetaphoricalphrase''hard asa rock''helpsyouseeandfeelthem attress'sstiffness.lfyoukeever slepton ahard mattress,youmay even experienceabacktwinge justreadingthephrase.That'sthepowerofmetaphors. H ereisanotherexample.Amongyourincominge-m ailm es- sagesyouseeonewith thesubjectline''Upgrading YourCom- puterlsNow AsEasy AsTying YourShoes.''W hat'sthismean? Again,ano-brainer.Somecompanypromisestom akeyourcom - puter run better, and installing its product is simple. The metaphoricalphrase ''aseasy astying yourshoes''conveysthis thought.Afterall,wea11learned to tieourshoeswhen wewere fouryearsold,sowhatcouldbeeasier? M etaphorsareeverywhere.lfyoutookanhourtomonitora11 themetaphorsyoureadin booksanda11them etaphoricalim ages youseeontelevision,yourheadwouldswim (which,bytheway, isanothermetaphor). llook to my bookshelves,and on oneshelfalonethere are enough bookswith metaphoricaltitlesto keep me busy fora month:Pgrll/eCow)Hell'sAgle/s?T'/?efxecgtfoger'sSony)T'/?e'Ih?yerin.l T'ofzqg?kklfrtgdeivonyers)J//tg//tf'lg 0.lïAllèators)and Steeriny t/?eCrtg/. M etaphorsoneand a11:waysofmakingyouinterestedinonesub- jectbycloakingitinthewordsandimageryofanother.Youdon't actuallywalkonalligatorsin J//tg//tf'lg 0.lïAllèators,andSteerinyt/?e Crajtisabookaboutwriting. ln oneTV commercial,afinancialservicescompany isrepre- sented by abull.ln another,asportsutility vehicledrivesup a canyonwallatasupernaturalangle.Theseimagesdon'thaveadi- rect,one-to-onecorrespondencewithreality.The/remeantto convey an idea,afeeling.To createafeeling,commercialsoften go to extrem es. H ere's a soda commercial:A teenager is soaring through cloudsonaskateboard,andaflockofgeesefliesby.Theteenager whipsoutacan and sprayssodainto them outhsofthe thirsty
  35. 35. TI-IETp-/ttqsyolklklATlox M ECI-IAN ISM geese.Thegratefulbirdsbreaktheirtraditionalform ationanduse theirbodiesto form thesodacom pany'slogo.Thoseim agesare metaphorical.Teenagers and skateboards don'tfly,and geese don'tform logos.Youknow that,lknow that,thesodacompany knowsthat. W hatthecompany istryingtodoism akeusunderstandone thing(thetasteofthesoda),byexplainingitthroughtheimage ofsomething else(the skateboarding teenagerand thegeese). Thecompany wantsusto havecertain thoughtswhen wethink ofitssoda.ltwantsustothinkYouth,Freedom,andDaring.lfit cam e outand said,''O ursodafsYouth,Freedom,and Daring/'' we'd be skeptics.Butifthecommercialworksand we associate thosequalitieswiththatsoda,itworksbecauseofmetaphor.En- tertainingmetaphor. M AKIN G TH E SH IFT TO M ECH AN ISM S Formostpeople,perform ing aTransform ation M echanism re- quiresanew wayofthinking.The/renotusedtoinfluencing othersthrough metaphor,entertainment,humor,orfun. Tothem ,influenceseemsagrim game.Theyapproachpresen- tations,negotiations,andmeetingsasifthe/remarchingintoa firefight.Theyfigureiftheyhavetheirfactsstraightandtheirlogic issound,theiropinionsshould win out.And ifitlooksasifthey aren'twinning,theymightturntointimidationtogettheirway. l'm notknocking seriousness,determination,facts,logic,or even intimidation.Those thingshave theirplace.(l,forone, wouldn'twantmylawyerwritingjokesintoacontractthatcalls forairtightlegalreason.)W hatl'm sayingisthatabullrushtothe heartofthem atterisn'talwaysthebestpersuasiontactic. W earen'tm achines.W edon'tprocesslogiclinearly aswellas som emightthink.A criticalpointthat'sobviousto youm ay be invisibletome. A Transform ation M echanism highlightsyourcriticalpoint and presentsitto thelistenerin away impossibleto miss.The
  36. 36. THE M ECHAN ISIVIIN ACTION mechanism isalearning lesson doneup asan intriguing dem on- stration. THE M ECH AN ISM IN ACTIO N ln Chapter1,youreadabouthow lusedarubberbandtoclosea sale.The band wasamechanism .lthelped influence my client whenwordswerehavinglittleeffect. M yclientbelievedthatthetradeshow crowdslattractwould hurtherbusiness.Shereasonedthatwithamob ather1700th,her targetm arketwouldstay clear.lknew differently.From adecade ofexperience,lknew thatmy pitcheswould attractconvention attendeesofevery stripe- includingthepeoplefrom hermarket. Notonly would hermarketflock,butthey'd be impressed that hercompanywasattractingsuchheavytraffic. Thatrubberband transformedthem omentforher.ltturned hermind 180degrees.lttookherobjection and madeitintoa reasonforhiring me.H ad lnotused themetaphoroftherubber band,lwouldneverhavepersuadedhertosignmeon. Letmeshow youanotherexampleofamechanism l'veused, so youcanseetheconcept'sutility.Afterthat,1'11teachyouhow toconstructRnduseyourownmeclnanisms. W ith thismechanism,lwasn'teven in thesamepartofthe country astheperson lwastryingto influence.Theheadofsales atam anufacturerphoned,asking meto speak athercompany's annualtwo-day conference.Shewanted meto tellastory,do a demonstration,createexcitement.Fine,lcoulddothat.Theonly problem ?Shewanted ascript. ''Youmean anoutlineofmygeneralconcepts?''lasked. ''N o''shesaid ''lneedafullscript.lt'scompanypolicyforany speaker.W ewanttomakesureyourmessagesandoursjibe.'' ''ldon'tworkfrom ascript/''lsaid.''lhavespecificideaslwant togetacrosstotheaudience,andthen lusewhatevermeansnec- essarytogetthoseideasacross.'' ''l'm sorrythen.W ecan'tdobusiness.''
  37. 37. TH ETRANSFORM ATION IVIECHAN ISIVI The nextday she received an overnightdelivery envelope from me.lnit,wasaletterthatsaidthefollowing: 1'm sorrywehaveyettocometoan agreem ent.lfyou don'tmind., though,1'd.likeyoutod.om eafavor.W illyouparticipateinaquick experiment?lfso,readon. Think ofanumberfrom onetoten. M ultiply yournumberby nine. lftheresultingnumberistwodigitslong(e.g.J15)Jactd.those digitstogether(e.g.J1+5=6). You now haveanew numberinyourhead..Subtractfivefrom it. Taketheresultrand.think oftheletterofthealphabetthatcorre- spond.swith it.SoJifyou'rethinking ofthenumberonerthecorre- sponding letter would be A. lf you're thinking of tw or the correspondingletterwouldbel).And.so forth. Think ofacountrywhosenamestartswith thatletter. Thentakethesecond letterinthatcountry'snamerand.thinkof ananim alwhosenamebeginswith thatletter. Think ofthatanimal'scomm oncolor. Finished?Please phone meon my cellphonerightnow.1don't carewhattimeoftheday ornightitis.1willanswer. W hen lanswered hercall,shewaslaughing.''Areyou going toreadmymind?''sheasked. ''lbelieve so/''lsaid.''Focuson the im agesdancing in your mind.Keep focusing.M y brain isreceiving apicturefrom your brain,butthepicture doesn'tm akesense.lt'sofsomething that doesn'texist. ''Afterall,therearenograyelephantsin Denmarkl'' The woman gasped.Based on my written instructions,she had been thinking ofgray elephantsin Denm ark.Apparently,l hadreadhermind. ''Thatisun-frigging-reall/''shesaid. lthendidsomethingunusual.lexplainedthestunt.
  38. 38. TI-IE M ECI-IAN ISM Ix Ac-rlox W eread backoverthesheet,and ldiscussed each step:how anynumberfrom 1to 10multipliedby 9musthave9asthesum ofitsdigits;how theresultingcalculationforcesthem tothinkof theletter?;how mostpeoplewillthinkofDenmark (withthe DominicanRepublicadistantsecond);how thesecondletterin Denmark,which ise,willalmostalwayslead toe/ell/gtggtandlrtgy. W henwewerefinished,shecoulddo thestuntaswellas1. ''N ow how doyoufeelaboutit?''lasked. ''N eat.Thanksforsharingit.'' ''Doyouseewhatjusthappened?'' ''Yourreaction wentfrom 'un-frigging-reall'to 'neat.'W hy? Because now you know how it's done.Knowing how certain thingsaredoneisaletdown. ''M oreto thepoint:Knowing how certain thingsaredoneis unnecessary. ''Youwantmeto openyourconferencewith abang,so that the5OOpeopleattendingwillbeexcitedaboutwhatthey'reabout tolearn.Youwantthem to seethepossibility andpowerthatlies ahead forthem .Youwantthem believingin themselves,andyou wanttheirmindsfully presentatthatconference,so they give youtheirbesteffortandtheirbestideas.Correct?'' o rrec . ''How lgetthose500peopletoexperiencepowerand possi- bility,then,isa11thatmatters.H ow lgetthem to thatstate is unimportant.You're notpaying m e formy wordsand actions. You'repayingmebecauseoftheenergyandfocuslhelpothersto jr JJcrea e. Shehad to discussthe matterwith som ehigher-ups,butin the end,l gotthe contract.The Transformation M echanism helpedm akeanabstractconceptvivid.ltsmessage- thatprocess isunimportant,aslong astheresultisstrong- hithomeforher. Themechanism didn'tclosethedealonitsown,butithelpedme readdressherconcernsin anew light.
  39. 39. TH ETRANSFORIV ATION IVIECHAN ISIVI TAKIN G AN EN TERTAIN M ENT INVENTO RY l'vecalled amechanism atrick,butitcan alsobeotherthings:a puzzle,ariddle,aconundrum ,apieceoforigami.Anything that entertains,ismemorable,flipsperspective,andgivesclarity qual- ifiesasamechanism. To getafeelforhow tousemechanism s,takeaninventoryof whatyou already know how to do.W hatskillsand interestsdo you havethatm ay laterhelp you proveapointmetaphorically? W ritedownyouranswers. J//lltgtttgsêsijo.'y.0gijokgrf'lg (gtvorlulay?Do you chairmeetings with scientists?Areyouexpertatreachingdecision m ak- ers?Canyoudraw amean Venn diagram ?Canyouwrite e-m ailthatalwaysgetanswered?Doyoukeep aflawless dailyorganizer? J//lltgtareyourbobbies? Do you collecttwentieth-century LI.S. stamps?Build colonialshipsin bottles? Read hard-boiled thrillers?Skidouble-blackdiamonds?Hitinabattingcage? J//lltgtskillst10youlltgpe?Can you bakeachocolate cake?Fish like apro?Sketch arealisticstilllife?Build asturdy bu- reau?Throw and catch aFrisbeelikeagradstudent? J//lltgttrfcês(ggt:tbuzzlest10youêgofz??Canyoujuggleknives?Find aselected card from ashuffled pack?Add rowsofthree- digitnumbersinyourhead?Startfirewithsticks?Dothe Sbgrb. ')r'Jlmescrosswordin50minutes? J//lltgtfst/?equirkiesttllf'lg youtzaof.p/90f,17to?o?Canyourubabottle againstawallso thebottlesticks?Createalobsteroutof asheetofpaper?Callthetossofacoin seven timesin a row?Fixasix-cylinderenginewith ahairpin?N ameeach partofamapleleaf? Ijyoutverein(gttg/t'lïtsllofz?,f.plltgtf.pogzyour(gctbe?Wouldyoudo impersonations? Recite apoem ? Drum on empty paint cans?H itabullk-eyewith an arrow at20paces?Beatthe baseofahumanpyramid? L steverythingthatcomesto mind,mundaneorextraordinary.
  40. 40. H OW DO YO U BUILD A IVIECHAN ISIVI? 29 H O W D O YO U BU ILD A M ECH ANISM ? Creatingyourownmechanism iseasy,onceyougetthehangof it.Let'screateonenow.Thinkofacurrentpersuasion problem .lt can be important,butnothing too heavy.Nothing thatm akes youcringe.Pickaproblem thatyoucanplaywith,soyoucanget afeelforthistechnique.Yourproblem couldbefrom theofficeor from yourpersonallife. O nceyouhavethatproblem ,extractthehigh conceptfrom it.lnotherwords,cutawaya11thedetailandthinkoftheproblem inonegeneralline.Forinstance: ''lwanttoconvincemy bossto1etmehandleaproject,but he'snotsurel'm ready.'' ''lwantthe media interested in my firm'sCD-RO M action gameattherolloutparty.'' ''lwantmy neighborto help me getoutword thatthelocal governmentischanging the zoning in ourarea,and it could hurthomeowners.'' ''lwantto convincemydaughtertobem oreresponsiblewith herallowancemoney.'' Getit?There'sdetailenough thatthesituation isrecogniz- able,butnotenough detailto tellacompletestory.Youwantthe headline.Thethumbnailsketch. Now takethatconceptandmatchituptoeachtaskyoudo,tal- entyouhave,andtrickyouknow,andseeifoneshedslightonthe other.Supposeyouhavetheproblem,''lwanttoconvincemyboss to1etmehandleaproject,buthe'snotsurel'm ready.''Suppose, too,thatyourinventory listcontainsthe entry,''Can throw and catch aFrisbeelikeagradstudent.''H ow mightthosetworelate? Let'ssee.Yourbossdoesn'tthinkyouhaveenoughexperience andexpertisetomaketheprojectwork.Andwhileyoumaybea world-classFrisbeeplayernow,therewasatimewhenyouhadno ideahow tothrow one. W hen you were nine yearsold,you'd watch the teenagels throw Frisbeesonthebeach.Youaskedifyoucouldtry.O neofthe
  41. 41. TI-IETp-/ttqsyolklklATlox M ECI-IAN ISM teenagerstossedyoutheFrisbeeandithityouintheface.Youtried tothrow itstraight,butyoumusthaveheldittoolong,anditwent widerightby 10yards.W iththeteenagels'guidance,though,you improvedquickly.A shorttimeafterthat,youweregreat. YoubelievetheFrisbeeexperienceandyourcurrentproject situation have adirectparallel.Atthispointyourbossmay be right:Youmightnothandletheprojectexpertly.Butyou'renot goingtogetbetterbyhangingback.Youneedtolearnbydoing. That'show you became world class atthrowing aFrisbee,and that'show you'llgetgoodonprojects.Sure,theprojectismore importantand difficultthan learning tothrow aFrisbee,butthe waytoexcelatitisthesame.By doing. H ow couldyouusethisparallel?lnanumberofways: You could meetwith theboss,takeoutaFrisbee,spin iton yourfinger,ask him ifhe'severplayed before,tellhim yourstory,andrelateitto theprojectsituation.ln that scenario,theFrisbeeinitiallyactsasan attention-grabber, and thenyouuseittom akeametaphoricalpoint. O r,youcould discusstheproblem firstand bringtheFrisbee outofyourbriefcaselater,asameansofintensifyinghis interestonthepointyou'reaboutto make. O r,you and aco-workercould play Frisbee on the lawn in frontofyouroffice building,and whenyourbosscom es out,youm akesureheseesyoudoingtricks.O utthere,or laterinhisoffice,youpointouttheparallels. Noticethatineachcase,thephysicalobject- acolorfulFris- bee- servesasaway to transform themoment.You'renotjust tellingastory aboutlearning tothrow aFrisbee,you'rebringing yourbossbacktothatpointintimewhenyouwereanovice,and thenyou'redemonstratingyourskillnow.You'regivinghim avis- ceralexperience. A mechanism worksbestwhen it'stangible.W hen there'sa demonstration.W hen theperson you'retryingto persuade gets
  42. 42. H OW DO YO U BUILD A IVIECHAN ISIVI? involved in the situation m entally,emotionally,and physically. Thereasons? Situationslikethatareunusualduring thecourseofanormal day.Butwhenyouputaperson into asafe,intriguing,entertain- ment-based,out-of-the-ordinarysituation,shecan'tuseherstan- dard defenses to shield herselffrom you.She can'tgo to her defaultthinkingstrategiesasameansofmentally dismissingyour argument.Shehasto reactdifferently,becausetheexternalstim - u1iaredifferent.She'smoreopentowhatyouhavetosay because youkeforcedherinto beingopen. Twomorequickexamplesofusingwhatyou alreadyknow as amechanism : J'ogr!)r0J?/tpl:''lwantmy neighborto help me getoutword abouthow thelocalgovernm entischanging the zoning inourarea,and how itcouldhurthomeowners.'' A liney'rorlyourfgpeatory:''lcollecttwentieth-century U.S. jr JJsam ps. rlec/gtggfsrl: You meet with your neighbor and pull a Theodore Roosevelt stamp from yourwallet.You talk aboutyourhobby and thestamp'svalue.You also draw a parallelbetweenRooseveltandyourproblem:''Today,we know Teddywasagreatpresident,an inspiring historical figure.Butbackwhenhewasinoffice,peopledidn'tjust rolloverforhim and do whathe said.He foughtsome powerfulenemies.ln particular,he busted up illegalbig business- thetrusts.Now,l'm notcom paringourzoning problem with trusts,butdamnit,Teddy didn't1etpeople havetheirwayjustbecausetheyhadmoney.W rongwas wrong.Asfarasl'm concerned,that'sthekind ofbattle we'reinnom ''Thestamp actsasamechanism and givesa historicalbackdrop toyourargum ent. J'ogrIlrolp/erl:''lwantthe mediainterested in my firm's CD - RO M action gameattherolloutparty.''
  43. 43. TI-IETp-/ttqsyolklklATlox M ECI-IAN ISM A /fge-frorlyourfgpeatory:''lcanjuggleknives.'' A rlec/gtggfsrl:Attherolloutparty,startjugglingknivesasanat- tention getter.Telltheattendingmediathatwhileknives may bedangerous,you canjugglesomething farmore deadly.Putdown theknivesandjugglecopiesofyour CD -RO M action game.Tellthe people,''Actually,the dangerhereisnotinjugglingthesegames.lt'sinplaying them.''Displaythegam esonascreen,andshow how your company hascreated aCD-ROM with moreblood and gutsthan any gameevermade.Yourproductisgiving its targetm arketexactly whatitwants.Theknivesgraphi- cally setacontextforscreeningthegame. W H AT IFYO U DO N 'T HAVE A SKILL O R D O N 'T KN O W O FA PU ZZLE YO U CAN USE? Fearnotifyouhavenoskillorpuzzletouse:J-foa?toPersgtgkePeoble J///?0Dog'tJ//tggttoBePersgtgtle;ttotherescue!lconsidertheTrans- formation M echanism to be such apowerfulpersuaderthatl've loadedthisbookwith 20 ofmyfavorites.Thereisnoguesswork here.lhaveused each and can attesttoitspower.Youhaveonly tolearn andpracticethem . lnfact,it'sagoodideatotrythesemechanism sbeforeyoure- ally need them .Thatway yougetcomfortable attracting atten- tion andbeing bold.Trythem atlunchesandinform almeetings, and asicebreakerswith seatm atesaboard planes.The ideaisto havefun andtokeepyoureyesopen fortim eswhenyoucan use them as metaphoricalpersuadersin key situations.lfyou get good atperforming them now,they willpay dividendsforyou whenyouneedthem most. ln therestofthisbook,lincludeamechanism attheend of eachchapter,inthehopethatiflspoonthem outinsm alldoses,
  44. 44. w HAT IFYOLlD ON'T HAVEA SKILL? you'lltry each mechanism then and there.Atthebook'sconclu- sion,lofferyouan additionalfourmechanismstodraw upon. lalso describeeachmechanism aspartofanimaginarysitua- tion in which you are the m ain character.Presented thatway, thesesituationswillgiveyou additionalideasabouthow to use thesemechanismsinyourownlife. Y Backroom ''llpsIorPerlormingTranslormation M echanism s + lfyouwantpracticedrawingconnectionsbetween unrelated ideasandobjects- askillthat'sattheheartofcreatingpotent mechanisms- here'sagametoplay. Slip offoneofyourshoesandstudy it.H ow isthatshoelike yourthorniestbusinessproblem?(lfyou'rehavingtrouble finding aparallel,break yourshoedown into itscom po- nents.How does the stitching relate to yourproblem? Thelaces?Theheel?Soundscrazy,lknow,butitcondi- tionsyoutothinkflexibly.) Look atthe ground you're standing on.How isitlike your life? L stentothesoundsaroundyouandpickone.How isitlikea businessgoal? Takeanitem from yourwallet.H ow isitlikethesunrise? Examineyourcomputer'skeyboard.How isitliketomorrow? W hen youke answered these questions,make up your own.Duringyourdrivehome,forinstance,picktwoitems(a green light and a hydrant,a crosswalk and a billboard,a rearview mirrorandasongontheradio)andaskyourselfhow they arerelated.
  45. 45. TH ETRANSFORIVIATION IVIECHAN ISIVI A TransformationM echanism:TheM agazineTest Thestene You/rethedirectorofa marketingfirm,seated infirstclassonacross- countryflight.Nexttoyousitsaprosperous-lookingwoman,clearly anexecutivefype,thumbingthroughamagazine.Youexchangewel- coming nods. A few minutesintothetrip,youstrike upaconversationabout thedestination,theweather,herprofession.Shegivesbrief,politean- swersaboutherdatabasecompany andasksaboutyourIivelihood. Yousmile,Ieanin,andwhisper:zzDoyoureallywanttoknow? It'sa Iittlefrightening.Somepeoplecan'thandleit.'' Youroddanswermomentarilystartlesher.She'susedtohaving herquestionsansweredwithoutpreambleorartifice.Yetsheisin- trigued.Becauseyoudon'tappeardangerous- seated infirstclass, elegantlydressed- shedecidestogo alongandpressesyouformore information. ''Icreatefeelingsonagrandscale''yousay.zzMaiorcorpora- tions,IikeAppleand Dell,hire metocreateaspecifictypeoffeeling intheirclients.'' Shewondershow youdothat. zzLetmegiveyoua demonstration.'' Asyouconspicuouslyturnaway,youaskthewomantopickup hermagazine.zzFagethroughit,''yousay,zzfloodyourmindwithin- formation.Thatmagazinehasfwohundred orso pages,withhun- dredsofpicturesandthousandsofwords.Keepflipping backand forth.LetaIIthatinformationwhiparound insideyourhead. zzNow geta random numberinmind ...andturntothatpage. Scanthepage,noticethewords,Iotsofwords,gotothetopIine. LookattheIongestwordonthatIine.Imagine itpulsing.Seeitflash- ing.Seethatwordflashingasifit'sonawebsitescreen.M akethat word bright.Turnupthecontrast.Brighter.Brighter.Brighterstill.Shut the magazinel'' (continoed)
  46. 46. W HAT IFYOU D ON'T HAVEA SKILL? (Continoed) Turningback,youreachintoyouriacketpocket,extractabusi- nesscard,scribblesomething acrossitsbackand hand itfacedown to thewoman.''W hatwordareyouthinkingof?''youask. Shesays ''E e Iasses.'', y g Youtellherto turnoverthecard.There,to herastonishment,is yourdrawingofa pairofeyeglasses. ''W ouldyouIiketoknow how Ididthatk'' Shewouldl ''Ithoughtso,''yousay,''andthatfeelingyou/reexperiencing rightnow is,inasense,whatIdofora Iiving.Ihead amarketing company,and,asIsaid,maiorcorporationshireustofashioncam- paignsthatcreatecertainfeelingsintheirclients.Inthiscase,Iwas tryingto makeyoufeelwonder,and ...''Bythetimetheflight Iands,you'repracticallyoId friends,andyouhaveanappointmentto meetwithherandhercompany'sprincipalsto see how youmight bestrepresentherfirm. Behlnd the Stene Inventedintheearly 1960sbypreacherDavidHoy,thiseasy-to-do mechanism canconvincepeoplethatyouhavepsychicabilities.Here youwilluseitasapieceofwhimsicalstagecraftthatb0thattractsatten- tionandenablesyouto presentyourofferinginitsmetaphoricalwake. Toperform themechanism,clandestinelyobtainfwo piecesofin- formation:a pagenumberfrom themiddleofa magazine,and the IongestwordonthetopIineofthatpage. Thatinformationwould havebeensimpletoacquireintheairplane scenario.Forinstance,youcould havespottedapageandaword whenyouwerefirstseated,asyoucasuallyglancedoveratthewoman. Or,youcould havenotedwhatshewasreading,pulledaduplicate from thein-flightmagazinerack,turnedtoanappropriatepageand word,andslidthepublicationbackinplace.W hateveryourmodus operandi,youhavetheinformationinmind,andnooneisthewiser. (continoed)
  47. 47. TH ETRANSFORIVIATION IVIECHAN ISIVI (Continoed) Atyourseat,youtooarethumbingthroughyourow nmagazine, whichisdifferentfrom theexecutive's.Atsomepoint,youstrikeupa conversationand startyourpitch.W henyougettothedemonstration part,turnawayandtalkabouthermagazineasaglutofwordsand images,whilesheflipspages.Now fortheprofoundlysneaky part. You'reaboutto dowhatmagicianscalla''force'';thatis,you're going tocoax hertoopentoyourmemorizedpageandguide herto ourmemorized word.Here'show.Y Tellherthatyou'd Iikeherto zzgeta random numberinmind.''As yousaythat,turnbackto herand holdyourmagazineso thatits backcoverfacesher. W ithyourIefthand holding themagazine'sIowerIeftspine,use yourrightforefingertoslowlyriffletheupperrightcornerofthemag- azine'spages(Figure3.1).Askthewomantocall''stop.'' W henshedoes,holdyourforefingeratthespotcalledfor,and openthemagazinesothatitsfrontand backcoversfaceher.Your spectatorseesonlycovers,nopages. Lookatthepage,ca//ootyoormemorizedpagerlumber,close the magazine,anddrop itintoyourIap.She now has''a random numberinmind//- the numberyouwanted hertopickaIIalong. Turnawayagain,andaskhertoturnto thepagenumbershese- Iected.ThenaskhertoIookatthetopIine,pickouttheIongestword, andclosehermagazine. The restisacting and presentation. Backroom 'IlpsIortheM agazineTest + Ihave performed thismechanism beforetrade-show crowdsand forindividualsinintimatesettings,anditneverfailstowow.Isay thisbecauseIsuspectthatsomereadersmay believe ittoo boldto fool.Thosereaderswould bewrong. (continoed)
  48. 48. W HAT IFYO t1DO N'T HAVEA SKILL? E ; '> < blb'k f- q .R ! ''u:a. jr.FIII.,. x. ::,'. ' , . k.. tr uj4g;jj,;,I, Figure3.1 Riffletheuppercorners. (Continved) W henyouperform theforce youclre cltthesclmetime exe. cutingwhcltmentclliststerm cl''miscclll.''It'sclstclndclrdmincl.reclcl. ing technique.You Iook cltthe informcltion on clpclge on cl plclyingcclrd oronclslipofpclper,clnclyoucclllthcltinformqtion byclnothernclme.AreyouIying?Perhqps butitisclthecltriccllIie. You/reIying inthesclmewclyLclurenceOlivierIiesinHumletclncl MclrlonBrclndo IiesinIhe Goc/rcflllef'.Ifyouneedprqcticewith thistechnique Icokcltyourclcxgclnclcclllitclcclt.Lcokcltyourcclt clnclcclllitcltree.Lookcltcltreeclnclcclllitclcclr.You/llsoonget thehclngofit. /continved)
  49. 49. TH ETRANSFORIVIATION IVIECHAN ISIVI (Continoed) # Frealtbeforceasinconseqoential:Youwantyourspectatorto thinkofa random number,sowhatbetterway ofgettingsucha numberthanIetting chancedecide?Likea mixing machineblow- ingIotteryballs,you/reriffling throughyourmagazineasa meansofshufflingnumbers.AsIongasyouplayitnatura1,few peoplewillevenrememberthatyoueverhelda magazine. # A trooblesbooting point:Attimes,you may riffle through aIIthe pagesinyourmagazinewithoutthespectator'scallingstop.Nota bigdeal.Say''Let'sstartover,''and repeat. # Naturally,you can also perform thismechanism with books.If youraregoingto pitchina houseoroffice,find awaytosecretly peekintooneoftheowner'sbookssoyoucanmemorizea page numberandword.8utthebookbackwhereyoufound it. W henyou're readyto perform,grab severalvolumesfrom the bookshelves,includingtheforcebook.Brieflystudytheircovers,asif you'reweighingthemeritsofeach,handtheforcebooktoyourspec- tator,keeponeforyourself,anddiscardtherest.Now you'reset. # Intheairplanescenario,Imadeitseem thatyouweregoing tore- vealthismechanism'ssecret,butthatwasaninterest-holdingtech- niqueonly.Neverrevealthesecret.W hy? Lookatitfromthespectator'spointofview.Youhaveiustread hermind.ThinkofthatlYouhaveapparentlyiourneyedintoher thoughts,into theplacewhereshekeepsherIovesand ambitions, herfearsand failures,and you/ve broughtbackevidenceofthat trip.Even ifthe spectatordoesn'tfully believe yourclaim,she's damnedsureyoudid something brilliant.So ifyouspillthebeans, she'sgoingtobedisappointed:Youdidn'tread hermind,nordid youdoanything particularly brilliant. Ofcourse,eventhoughI'vewarnedyounottogiveawaythe secret,Isuspectthatyouwill...once.Butafterthatone time,I know youwon'tdo itagain.It'sdisturbing to seethe Iookofad- mirationdrainfrom a face. (continoed)
  50. 50. W HAT IFYOU D ON'T HAVEA SKILL? 39 (Continoed) + TheioboftheTransformationMechanismistomoveconversations to a differentIevelofthought.Intheairplanescenario,Ihad you use the mechanism asa way ofgetting theexecutive to experi- encewonder,which iswhatyourmarketing program purportsto do.Soshefeltwonder,whileyoutalkedaboutdeliveringwonder. W hatothermessagescould thismechanism represent?Itcan symbolizeyouruncannyabilityto understandyourclient'sneeds, show how you'reb0thonthesamewavelength,demonstrateyour knowledge ofthe marketplace,and dramatizethe powerofthe media (vibrantimagespractically Ieap outofthe spectator's headl),amongotherthings. W hateveryourmessage,experimentwithwaysofusing this mechanism to bring itto Iife.
  51. 51. T H E BO D Y M ETA PH O R he Transform ation M echanism has two subsets:the Body M etaphorand thePaperM etaphor.Lkemecha- nisms,these subsetsalso useanalogy to coaxpeople's mindsintofreshperspective.Thedifferenceam ongthe three?Theprop each usestogetresults. lnaTransformationM echanism,thepropisanoddobject(an origamilobster),aconventionalobjectinanoddcontext(akite in aboardroom),oraconventionalobjectwith which you do somethingodd(arockthatvanisheswhenyoutossitintheair). ln aBodyM etaphor,theprop isyourbody,orthebodiesof thepeopleyou'reinfluencing. ln aPaperM etaphor,theprop isadiagram orcartoon you draw infrontofthepeopleyou'reinfluencing. Youke learned aboutm echanisms.Now you'lllearn how to perform BodyM etaphors,andin thenextchapter,you'lldiscover theinsand outsofPaperM etaphors.
  52. 52. W HAT A BODY IVIETAPH OR LO O KSLIKE W H AT A BO D Y M ETAPH O R LO O KS LIKE Aslsaid,theprim ary prop in aBody M etaphoristhe human body.Yougetothersto experienceanideaby makingyourbody and theirsanallegoricalexpression ofthatidea. Sayyou'reaconsultantandyou'resellingacompanyonyour software-based knowledge-sharing process.ln frontofyou sits the head ofeach department.Youkedoneeverything youwere supposed to do.Youopenedyourpresentation with azing,un- covered and intensified the problem,offered yourproductasa solution,segued into itsfactsand benefits,and dem onstrated it. Beforeheadinginto aclose,youkeaskedforquestions. The departmentheadslikewhatyou said,buteach one of theirquestionsseemsto takeyoufurtherfrom finishing thedeal. You'relosingthem .M ostofthem aretechnocrats,andtheyseem to bemired in analyzing theindividualfeaturesofyourproduct ratherthantheoverallresultitwillproduce.Tobreakthisdown- wardpresentationalspiral,youdecideto useaBody M etaphor. ''Thequestionsyou'reasking areimportant/''yousay.''Butas we'retalking aboutsomeofmy product'sfeatures,lwantyou to keeponethinginmind.lnfact,lwantyouto/lwhatl'm about tosay.Everyonepleasestand. ''Putyourfeettogether,yourhandstogether,intermesh your fingers,stiffenyourlegs,stiffer,squeezeyourjowls,yourneck, yourspinalcolumn. ''X ghtenyourbody like aknot,like atight,tightknot.Grit yourteeth.Gritthem .Gritthem.H oldit.H oldthetension.And now ...release. ''Feelthetension leaveyourbody? Do youfeelthepressure releasing? ''Thatreleaseiswhatmyprocessdoesforyoursystem . ''lt takes bottlenecked inform ation and allows it to flow throughouttheorganization,whereitcanbeturnedintoservices, products,andcapital.
  53. 53. TI-IEBODY M ETAPI-IOP- ''See,yourdetailquestionsareimportant,butlet'sneverforget thatmy processand productare aboutcreating acompany that can produceindozensofdifferentdirectionsatonce. ''M y process is about liberation.lt's aboutinnovation.lt's abouthelpingyourcompanydowhatitwasmeanttodowhenit erformsatitsbest.''17 DoesyourBodyM etaphorturn thesituationaround?M aybe. W hatitdoesdoisbreakthedepartmentheadsoftheirpreoccu- pationwithminutiaeandgetthem backontrack,soyoucanper- suadethem onthebenefitsofthebigpicture. This example used squeezing and releasing as a means demonstratingwhathappenswhenyouremoveapluginthesys- tem .H ow m ighta similardemonstration be used to influence othersinyourownlife? BO D Y M ETAPH O RSAND YO U Perhapsan employeeofyoursisafraid ofm aking amistake and hercautionisgettingin theway ofherduties.Youwantto break herofherperfectionism,so you invite herinto youroffice and discussthesituation.Duringyourtalk,youleadherthroughthe squeezing and releasing,demonstrating how when you'retense, it'shard to focuson anything otherthan thetension.H owever, whenyoureleasethetension,it'seasiertofocuson everythingin frontofyou. You could also flip the rationale behind the squeezing-and- releasingexercise,andbringupthepositiveaspectoftension. Forinstance,you ask a slack employee to tense up,and draw attention to the pronounced muscles in his forearm s. Thenyou askhim to relax,andshow how thosemusclesdisap- pear.Yourpoint:W henweoperateatfullcapacity,wedowhat weweremeantto do.O urbodiesgetstronger,ourabilitiesin- crease. You could also usethesqueezing and releasing asameansof showingharmonyandbalance.Tensionwithoutrelaxationcauses
  54. 54. BO DY M ETAPI-IOP.SAxo Yo u 43 burnout;relaxationwithouttension resultsinalifewithoutdirec- tion.A yin-yangdemonstration. Ofcourse,squeezingandreleasingisjustoneBodyMetaphor. W ithsomethought,youcan com eupwith otherstoproveyour points. O nepublicspeakerinvitesan audiencememberto facehim, grab hisrighthand,and intertwinerightlegs.Then thespeaker and hisvolunteerleanback asfarasthey can.Each alonewould fall.Butbecausethe/relockedtogetherbyhandshakeandlegs, they rem ain upright.The speakerdrawsaparallelbetween the exerciseandworkingtogetherproductively. AnotherpopularBodyM etaphorisusedbyspeakerstofireup theircrowds.The speaker asksher audience to stand,extend theirrightarmsand forefingers,and swivelasfararound asthey can,withoutm oving theirfeet.Afterthecrowdhasdonetheex- erciseonce,thespeakerwalksthem through aninspiringvisuali- zation abouttheircapacity to do morethan they everthought possible.Then she asksthem to repeatthe exercise,only this timethey'retotryswivelingmuchfartherthanbefore. O n thesecond try,mostpeoplecan im proveon theirinitial perform ancesdram atically.Someactuallydoublethedistanceon the second go-round.Thespeakerdrawsaparallelbetween the exerciseandthepowerofourminds.(Bytheway,ifyouwantto trythisexerciseordoittoothers,m akesurenooneinvolvedhas abadback.Donewrong,itcanbepainful.) Themetaphorsl'vejustdescribedputthebodythroughphys- icaltension.Butyoucan dom etaphorswithouttaxingthebody ata11. RobertM iddleton,amarketing consultant,usesan engaging metaphorto help audiencesre-see a conventionalrule ofsales and marketing.SaysM iddleton:''lwanteveryone to hold their penson topoftheirheads,likeyourpenisanantenna.''Hewaits afew secondssoeveryonecanlookandlaugh,andcontinues:''A11 yourcustomershavearadioantennaontheirhead,andtheyonly tuneinto one frequency,W IIFM ,which standsfor'W hat'sin lt
  55. 55. 44 TI-IEBODY M ETAPI-IOP- forM e'?lfyouwantyoursalesmessageto getthrough to them, you haveto m akesureyou'retalking aboutwhattheywant,not whatyouwant.'' M iddleton takesthe standard W IIFM conceptand givesit new life.Hisaudienceisnotjustentertained;theyalsogivemore seriousthoughtto aconceptthey m ay already haveunderstood, butneverapplied to theirbusinesses. Some Body M etaphorsmake theirpointsthrough mystery. M ore than 1OO years ago,a teenager named Lulu Hurstcon- vinced the world thatshepossessed aphysicalmagnetism that robbedstrongmenoftheirstrengthandcausedatleastoneearth- quake.Asbizarre as herclaimsseem ,she was a headline per- former and was studied by leading scientists as someone possessingsupernaturalpowers. During herlifetime,H urst's methodswere never exposed. H owever,she revealed some ofhersecrets late in life,in the pagesofhermemoir.M ostofthem had todowith leverage,and m anycanbemadeintopotentBodyM etaphors. Anexample:Hurstwouldstandtwofeetfrom awallandhold herhandsflush againstit,asifdoing astanding push-up.Then she'd have one man stand behind herand puthishandson her shoulderblades.Behindhim,adozenmenwouldthen taketheir places,oneatatime,eachwithhishandsontheshouldersofthe m an in frontofhim .On thecountofthree,each would steadily pushwith a11hism ight.W hathappenedto Hurst? Nothing. Ashard asthemenpushed,H urstremained uprightandsmil- ing.W ashersecretbased on metaphysics?No,itwasbased on plain,o1dschoolbookphysics. Forthe stuntto work,H ursthad to be able to handle the strength ofthem an directly behind her;that'sit.Theothermen on theline werewindow dressing.The effortofeach wasab- sorbedby themanin frontofhim .Hurstcouldhavehad athou- sandhe-men on theline,and aslong asthem an directlybehind herwasam ouse,shehadnoproblems.
  56. 56. APPLYING TI-IEBODY M ETAPI-IOP- Can you seehow herdemonstration could be turned into a rem arkableBodyM etaphorforyou?lm aginethatyou'retryingto proveapoint.Perhapsyou'reamemberofacharitableorganiza- tion,and theothermem bersaredown onyourgroup'sability to effectchange. Youkegiventhem yourbestarguments,butthe/restillhang- ing theirheads.They think yourcommunity'sproblems are too big.Noonegroupcanmakeadifference.Youoffertogivethem a demonstrationofjusthow powerfulonepelson,oneorganization, canbe.Youstandfacingawallandlineupagroupofyourmostro- bustcolleaguesbehindyou.Theygetred-faced from pushing,but stillyoudon'tbudge.W hen you'refinished,yougo back toyour mainideas,now seenthroughthelensofyourdemonstration. Doyouthinkyou'dhaveeveryone'sattention?Youbet!You'd notonly havetheirattention,butthey'd beweighingyourcon- ceptsmoreheavily.Youjustputapictureintheirminds,afeeling intheirbodies,thattheywon'tsoonforget. A PPLYIN G THE BO DY M ETAPH O R Forstarters,thinkofapersuasionsituation thatcomesuprepeat- edly.W hatdoyounorm allysayduringit?W hatdoyounormally do?W henyoufindacompellingpointthatyoufeelmightneed strengthening,extracttheconceptfrom it. Perhapsyou'rean architectwho specializesin building sky- scrapers.W hen you presentto prospects,youhave alaptopfull oftablesand charts,showing how much stressa structure can take.They seem to appreciateyourfactsand figures,butyou wishtherewasawaytheycouldexperienceit. Yourconcept:You wantan allegory thatdemonstratesthat you know whatyou'retalking aboutwhen itcomesto structural strength. W hatwouldfitthat? YoucouldusethatH urstpushingdemonstration.You'd make yourpointwith factsand figures,butyou'd also usethedem on-
  57. 57. TH EBODY M ETAPH OR stration to show thatthere are tricksto making structureshold, andyouknow thosetricks. O r,youcouldmakeupyourownmetaphor. Perhapsyoucouldstand onyourchairandindicatetheweak pointsinyourimpromptustructure.You'dsay: ''W here thechairlegstouch theground isaweakpoint,be- causethechaircouldmove.W herethechairseatisboltedtothe legsisaweakpoint,becausetheboltscouldloosenanddropout. W heremy feetcontactthechairisaweakpoint,becauselcould slip.Tallbuildingshaveweakpoints,too.Butjustastheweak points between me and the chairare apparent,so too are the weakpointsin abuilding.Letmeshow youwhatlmeanthrough thissimulationon my com puter.'' UsingthatBody M etaphor,doyouthinkthepeoplelistening toyouwouldhaveabetterunderstandingofwhatyou'reaboutto show them onyourcomputer? Coming up with yourown metaphorrequiressomeim agina- tion,butit'snotrocketscience.Youtakeyourhigh conceptand you makehuman bodiesparallelthatconceptin away thati11u- m inatesit. Y Backroom ''llpsIorCreatingaBodyM etaphor + N ames like T'rtggs-forpltgtfogkklec/gtggfsm and Boijy kklettgll/gorare metaphorsin and ofthemselves.They're attemptsto make new ideascom prehendiblethrough ideasyou already know. Don'tgethunguponthecategoriesandwhetheryou'reusing onetechniqueortheother. lm entioned M iddleton's pen-on-the-head exercise to a colleague.H esaid,''W ouldn'tthatbeaTransform ationM ech- anism,ratherthan aBody M etaphor?Afterall,apen isin- lved''vo . H isfeedbackwaswellmeaning,butunnecessary.Chang- ing the momentand influencing the otherperson are key. H ow yougetthereisimmaterial.Foryousticklers,substitute
  58. 58. APPLYING TI-IEBODY M ETAPI-IOP- yourindex fingerforthepen,andyou haveyourselfapure Body M etaphor. + A Leytot/?eJ-fgrststggt:Theperson behindyoumustpush evenly (gg;tstea?ily with palmsagainstyourshoulders.lfthe person pushesin stopsand starts,yourbalance may bethrown off andyoumay beknockeddown. H ow doyougetthepersonpushingevenlyand steadily? Ask.Remember,the person doesn't know how the stunt works.Askingto push evenly and steadily soundslikeanatu- ra1condition forthe test.The person willacceptitatface value. lfthepersondoespush instopsandstarts,reestablishthe condition youke set.Say that this is a demonstration of strength,notbalance. A TransformationMechanism: TheFressure FointLeg Lock TheStene The headengineerofyourcompany'scommercialdivisionisreadyto endthemeeting.It'sbeengoingforanhour,andyou/renocloserto a resolutionthanwhenyoubegan. Heand theengineersseatedaround him wantyouto fireyour assistantbecauseshefumbled asensitiveinformationhand-offbe- fweenyourdepartmentand theirs.That'show theyseeit,anyway. You/renotsosure. Theevidenceagainstherappearsflimsy,yettheseengineers won'tbudge.They/reclose-minded and unwilling toexploretheinci- dentinanydepth./f/cou/diostopenupsomeJoubfintbeirminds, youthink,tbenmaybetbey'dgivetbesitoationafairerbearing.You decideto Iauncha mechanism. (continoed)
  59. 59. TH EBODY IVIETAPH OR (Continoed) The headengineerIooksexhausted,soyouapproachhim and say,zzIcanusepressurepointstoraiseyourenergy inaflash.''He eyesyoususpiciously.Youcontinue:zzThephilosophybehind pressure pointsisthesameasthe philosophy behind acupuncture.Youapply pressureto onepartofthe body,and itaffectssomeotherpart.Vigor originatesintheIegs.Don'taskmewhy,itiustdoes.Ifyouhitthe properpoint,thewholebodygetsiuiced.Thewrongpointshutsyou down.Letmedemonstrate.'' YouasktheengineertostandwithhisIegsslightlyapart.You thenIeanacrosshisbodyand,usingonefinger,pressaspotfwo inchesabove hisIeftkneecap.zzl'm blockingyourenergyflow,''you say.zzTryIiftingyourIeftIeg.'' Toeveryone'sastonishment,theengineercannotIifthisIeg.zzAre outryingk''youask.Y Heassuresyouthathe'snotonlytrying,buthe'sstrugglingto Iift it.Afterafew secondsofeffort,theconfused and impressed engineer burstsoutinnervousIaughter.Youreleasethepressure,andaskhim to IifthisIeg now.Instantly,itgoesup. Thewholeroom iscrowding aroundyou.Theywantto know if the pressure pointtechniquewillworkonthem.Canitrestoreen- ergy?Cureheadaches?Alleviatea bad back? zzI'IIshow everyonehow to do it,''youassurethem,''butfirstI mustmakea confession.W hatIdidhad nothingtodowithpressure points.Itwasa humbug.A humbugwitha message. zzYouwereaIIfocused onmyfingertip.That,though,wasthe trick'smisdirection.Ithad nothingto dowithitsfunctionalmechan- ics.''So saying,youshow thegrouphow,asyouIeanedacrossthe engineer'sbodyto touchhisknee,youpressedyourIeftfoottohis rightfoot,and IeanedyourIeftshoulderinto hismidsection.These innocent-looking actions,whichtheengineerdidn'tevennotice,pre- ventedhim from shifting hisweight.Theresult:HisIegwasIocked in Iace.P (continoed)
  60. 60. APPLYING THEBODY IVIETAPH OR 49 (Continoed) ''Idid thisstunttoshow thatyoucanfeelsureaboutaneffect's causeandstillbewrong. ''Now I'm notsaying thatyou/rewrongaboutmyassistant,butI don'tthinkwe/veused anyrigorinsearching forotherpossible rea- sonsforthefoul-up.SincehercareerisontheIinehere,Iiustwantus to becertainofourfacts.'' The roomfulofengineersIooksatoneanother.They/restillcon- vinced ofyourassistant'sguilt,buttheygrudginglydecideto reexam- inethesituation.Theexperiencehasopeneda crackofdoubtintheir minds. Behlnd the Stene ThispotentTransformationM echanism isbased uponanoId stuntthat appearsinbeginner'smagicand sciencebooks.Inthosebooks,you perform itwithoutwindow dressing,onyourself.Ifyoutrythatstunt now,you/llhaveabetterunderstandingofhow toperform itasa mechanism,onothers. StandwitheitheryourrightorIeftsideagainsta wall.Now try IiftingyouroppositeIeg(theonenotcontactingthewall).Youcan't do it.AsIong asyoukeeponesideofyourbodyflushtothewall, youroppositeIegwillstaystucktotheground. The reason?Youcanonly Iiftthatopposite Ieg ifyourbodyad- iustsitsweighttohelpyou,andbecausethewallisactingasa brace,movementisimpossible. TheTransformationMechanism versionofthistrickisbased upon refinementsmadebytheAmazingKreskin,withfurthertouchesby MarkLevy.Itdisguisesthemethodthroughtheuseofmisdirection- theartofgettingtheaudienceto IookwhereyouwantittoIook. Toperform theFressureFointLeg Lock,havetheparticipantface theaudience.Youdothesame,butstandcloseenoughto him that theIeftsideofyourbodyisalmosttouchinghisrightside(forexpla- nationpurposes,I'massumingyou/reonhisright). (continoed)
  61. 61. TH EBODY IVIETAPH OR (Continoed) Asyoudiscusspressurepoints,reachacrosshisbodywithyour righthand,andbendfolw ard totouch hisIeftknee.Inthatposition, it'saneasymattertoslideyourIeftfootagainstthesideofhisright footand forceyourIeftshoulderagainstthesideofhismidsection. Basically,you/rethewall.He'IIfind itimpossibletoIifthisIeftIeg be- causeyourbody iskeeping hisbodyata mechanicaldisadvantage. Backroom 'IlpsIorthePressurePointLeg Lock + You needn'ttackle the spectatorto getthismechanism to work. Firm yetsubtlepressureisaIIthat'sneeded. + IfyoufindthatyoursubiectcanIifthisIeg,itprobablymeansthat you're notsufficientlycontacting hisupperbodywithyourshoul- derandtorso.Leanin. + print,these bracing movements appearartificial.In perfor- mance,theyare not.Ifyoupractice the mechanism ona friend, you'llsee how naturalitisforyourbody to contactyourfriend's bodyasyoureachacross. + Youmaywonderifthe secretistransparentto the personwhose Ieg you're Iocking.Notusually.Ifhe realizesyou/re Ieaning in, he'llassumeit'sincidentaland won'tIikelymake anyconnection befweenyourheftand hisownIeg-lifting inability.Ifthegenuine method dawnson him,don'tworry;thismechanism isstilla re- markable thing to experience- and you were going to explain how todo itanyway. + Ifthe idea oftemporarily fooling people unnel-ves you,use the science-bookversion instead.Askpeople to stand with theirsides againstawall,and show them how itmakesmovementimpossible. Thendraw a metaphoricalparallelbetweenthewallanda problem theorganizationfaces. (continoed)
  62. 62. APPLYING THEBODY IVIETAPH OR (Continoed) + W hy give away thesecretto thismechanism?AsImentioned, thisstunthasbeendescribed inbooksavailableto thepublicfor decades.Still,ithas an astounding effecton those notin the know. + Mechanisms Iike thisone,inwhichyou use the body's natural physiology againstitself,are particularly valuable because they canbeperformedalmostanywhere,infrontofanysizegroup.AII youneeddo isdraw a metaphoricalparallelbetweenthemecha- nism andthepointyou/remaking.Someothermechanismsfeatur- ingthebody: Asksomeone seated ata deskto continooosly trace a small circleonthefloor,using the toesofeitherfoot.Asshe keepsher footmotiongoing,hand herpenand paperand askherto sign hername inscript.Asodd asitsounds,shewillbeunabletoac- complishthetask. Asksomeone else to sitwith hisfeetplanted on the ground andhisarmsfoldedoverhischest.Thenpressyourindexfingerto the middle ofhisforehead,and ask him to stand.He can/t.As Iongashekeepshisfeetflatand hisarmsfolded,hewillneverget sufficientbalancetorise. Haveanotherunsuspecting soulshuthereyelidsandturnher eyeballsupward,asifshewereIooking throughawindow inthe topofherskull.Ifshe keepshereyesinthisposition,she/llbe un- able to open herIids.In the medicalfield,thisphenomenon is known as Bell's Reflex,and isthoughtto have evolved as the body'sway ofprotecting the eyesfrom trauma.The technique is usedinphonydemonstrationsofhypnosis(zzcloseyoureyesand imagine a Iarge hole inthetop ofyourhead.Through thathole streamssunshine.Isn'tthatsunshine warm and calming? Keep Iookingatitsglow,feeling itswarmth.Asyoucontinuestaring up atthatwonderfulglow,try opening youreyes.Youtry opening (continoed)
  63. 63. TH EBODY IVIETAPH OR (Continoed) them,butyoucan't.TheIidsarestucktightlytogether....'').If youdiscoversomeonewho canopenhereyes,itmeansthatshe momentarily Iooked down,perhapswithoutrealizing it.Don'tbe critical.Instead,congratulate heron herunusualability and at- temptthe mechanism withanotherperson.
  64. 64. T H E PA PER M ETA PH O R he problem many people face when learning how to persuadeisthatthey study tacticsthey can'tpossibly use.M ostinfluencetacticsarewin/loseaffairs.Theygo againstthewaywethink and behave.Theydon'ttake into accountwhoweareandwhatwewanttooffertheworld. lfyoukeevertriedto adoptsuch atacticandfeltsoiled,lap- plaudyou. Believeme,l'm a11forgettingwhatlwantoutoflife.Butget- tingwhatlwantincludesdoing rightalongtheway.That'swhy you'llseethatmy strategiesarebasedm oreon makingmy posi- tion clearandentertainingthan onbackingpeopleinto acorner. ThePaperM etaphorisaperfectexampleofwhatlm ean:lt's a principled,often lighthearted,persuasion technique.lfwhat you'reoffering isofmutualbenefitto 170th parties,thatbenefit becomesapparentthrough themetaphor.lfwhatyou'reoffering works,the otherparty can'thelp butsee and agree with the beautyofitslogic.
  65. 65. TH EPAPER IVIETAPH O R W H AT ISA PAPER M ETAPH O R? A PaperM etaphorisadiagram ,sketch,orcartoon thatbrings yourmain ideatolife.Youdraw itinfrontofyouraudience:ona whiteboard;on thebackofanapkin;insideam atchbookcover. Yoursketch may seem impromptu,butit'snot.Rather,it'sthe productofa1otofthinkingyoukedonebeforehand. PartofaPaperM etaphor'scharm andpoweristheroughnessof yoursketch.lt'snotaboutartisticskill.You'renotM ichelangelo. W hatyoudraw isa11aboutthe strength ofyouridea.J'og're Jfpflg your(ggkfeace(gclltggcetoexteriencef.plltgtyouketllfgêf'lg byyettiny tlltwltouse(g.lïextrasense:sr/llt.'rbeykeseef'lg intoyourrlfgtl.You'realso telling them- through actions,notwords- thattheideayou're drawingisparticularly important,sothey'dbetterleanin because they don'twanttomissit. Letmeshow youhow luseaPaperM etaphor;then 1'11teach yoLl13OW toConstrtlctyotlrOWn. Suppose lam having dinnerwith Don,the head oftrade- show developmentforalargecorporation.Donwantstohireme, butbeforehedoes,hewantsto learnm oreparticulars. Duringourcrabcocktails,lgrabthreepapernapkinsfrom the barand usethosenapkinsasamemorablestructureforwhatl'm going to say. ltellDon thatlcallmy trade-show procedure '''The Build, H old,M oveProcess.'Thatis,lbuildthecrowd,holdthecrowd, and movethecrowdto action.'' ltakeanapkin,m arkitwith abold ''1,''and sketch ahammer on it.'T hishammerrepresentstheBuild Step/''lsay.''Beforeany- one attheshow understandshow remarkableyourproductsare, theyhavetobepresentinyour1700th.Youmustbuildthecrowd.'' lturnthenapkintowardhim anddropitonthetablebetween us.lstarttotalkabouthow lcreatecrowds.LverytfrleJttg//t(gllogt builijin.qt/?ecrofz'rtJta3t/?egtgll/tfg-fortwllllltgsfs.lalsorefertotheimage on thenapkin:''Noticel'vedrawn ahamm er.That'stosymbolize thatthisisthe Build Step.Butwhatare thecharacteristicsofa
  66. 66. W HAT ISA PAPER IVIETAPH OR? hammer?ltworksthroughforceandm akesaheckofanoise.The characteristicsofahammeraremycharacteristics,too.Tobuilda crowdatamajortradeshow,youcannotbesubtle.Youmust...'' W hen l'm finisheddiscussing theBuild Step,lm ark thesec- ond napkin ''2''and draw afistwithstickfiguresextendingoutof itstopandbottom .lthenslidethisnapkinbetweenus,andlcon- tinue:''Step 2istheH oldStep.Onceyoukebuiltthecrowd,you musthold them .lfnot,a11yourwork isfornaught.Thisisthe step whereyou give them yourproduct'sfeaturesand benefits, butyoumustdosoinaway thatmakeswhat'shappeningatyour 1700th more importantthanwhat'shappening anywhereelse on thefloor....'' W hen l'm finishedwith theHold Step,lmarkthethirdnap- kin ''3,''and ldraw arunning man,complete with motion lines trailingbehindhim.ldrop thisnapkinnexttotheothers. ''The third step isthe M ove Step.W ithoutthispartofthe process,youkewastedyourmoney.Afterall,youkerentedcon- vention floorspace,constructed a1700th,paid dozensofstaffto workit,and hired aperformerto build acrowd.Butunlessthat crowd watchesyourproductdemosand leavestheircontactin- formation,youkefailed.A11youkedoneispaytoentertainthou- sandsofpeople,with nothing to show foryourmoney.That's why in thisstep it'sim portantto getthe crowd to move,and moverapidly....'' DomycartoonspersuadeDontobuy?lfl'vedoneeverything else correctly,yes.A PaperM etaphorcan'tclose adealon its own.ltworksin tandem witheverythingelseyou'redoing. The exampleyoujustread centered around my three-step trade-show process.Butitcouldjustaseasilyhavefocusedona singlefeaturewithinastep.How wouldthatlook? W e're back in the restaurant,and Don hasquestioned me abouttheM oveStep.Hewantstoknow exactlyhow lgetpeople tomoveintothe1700thsothe/llleavetheircontactinformation. l answer him on anothernapkin.O n it,ldraw an overhead schem aticofhiscompany's1700th.Asldo,lgetDoninvolved in
  67. 67. 56 TI--IEPAPEP-M ETAPI-IO P- the sketch,asking him aboutthe booth'slayoutand wherethe staffwillbepositioned. ''lwillstandhere/''lsay,drawinganX atthebooth'sbackwall. ''W ithinforty minutes,two hundred fiftypeoplewillbesurround- ingmeinaparabolicarc.''ldraw that,too.''W henlfeelthecrowd's interestisatitsheight,lwillgetthem to lineuphere.''lcirclethe spot.''lwilldothatbyofferingasampleofyourproduct....'' W henl'm finished,thenapkinlookslikeafootballplay.O ra battleplan.ThepaperiscoveredwithX's,O 's,anddirectionalar- rows.lt'samess,butitm akessense.lt'saschem aticofwhatwill happen. lhand Donthenapkin.ltellhim tobringitbacktohisoffice and shareitwithhistrade-show staff.Thatway,everyonewillbe onthesamepage.W henl'm attheshow,there'llbenoconfusion. Thenapkin actsasadditionalproofthatlknow my business and willstand behind it.lt'sagraphic depiction ofmy claims. H aving itreassuresDon,and makeshim morelikely to go for- wardinhiringme. PaperM etaphorscan beusedto illustrateeven the mostab- stractofconcepts.RobertM iddleton,themarketerwemetlast chapter,usesaPaperM etaphorto substantiatewhathecallshis ''Law ofL mitedldeas.'' O n a flip chart,M iddleton draws a man,and around that m an'shead hesketchesshapes:stars,squiggles,circles,squares. ''These shapesrepresentthisman'sideas/''saysM iddleton.''Let's counthisideas.Hehasone,two,three,four...tenideas.H e'sa 1otlikea11ofus.W eonlyhaveafixednumberofideas,that'swhy wetendtothinkthesamethoughtsoverandover. ''Suppose,though,them angivesaway oneofhisideastothe world,through abookhewritesorabusinesshestarts.''To illus- tratetheconcept,M iddletondrawsanarrow pointingawayfrom oneoftheshapescirclingtheman'shead. ''You'dthinkhe'd only havenineideasnow,right?Butlfind thatwhen you give away an idea,theworld alwaysgivesyou a
  68. 68. K'I-IAT IsA PAPEP-M ETAPI-IOP.? 57 new ideato takeitsplace.''AsM iddletonsaysthis,hedrawsina new shape to replace the o1d one.''The m an stillonly hasten ideas,butifhestartsgivingthem away,the/realwaysreplaced byfresh ones.'' O fcourse,M iddleton'sm odeliswhimsical,and heknowsit. O urgoodthoughtsm ay notbefixed in number,butwedotend to recycle ourfavorites.M iddleton'ssketch humorously tellsus thatifwewanttoexpandourhorizons,wemustcontributetothe world.H ad M iddletonputhislessonintowordsalone,hem ight have seemed to be lecturing his audience.ln cartoon form, though,histheoryisengaging. The properPaperM etaphorcan stickwith youraudiencea long,long tim e.Rob Kaplan,a writer and form er publishing house editor in chief,told me the story of a metaphorthat's stayedwithhim for20years. ln the early 198Os,Kaplan wasattending abusinessconfer- encewherehemetShep Pollack,who atthetimewaspresident ofPhilip M orris.The men started talking,and eventually their conversationturned to theconceptofpower. Kaplansaid,''lnmycompany,l'm amiddlemanager,soldon't havemuch power.lnyourcompany,you'reatthetopoftheorga- nizationalpyramid,soyouhavetheultimatepowen'' Pollacklaughed,grabbedapieceofscratch paper,anddrew a pyramid.''Rob,you're here?''he asked,pointing halfway down thepyramid.Kaplan agreed. ''And youthinkl'm hereatthetop?''asked Pollack,pointing tothepyramid'sapex.Again,Kaplan agreed. Pollack then did something so simple and powerful that Kaplan sm iles as he relates it today:the president of Philip M orristurned thepieceofpaperendforend,so hisdrawingwas now upsidedown. ''lnreality/''hesaid,''l'm hereatthebasewiththeresponsibil- ityforthewholeorganization onmy shoulders.ldon'thavethe ultimatepower.lhaveto answerto everyone.''
  69. 69. TH EPAPER IVIETAPH O R H O W TO CREATE YO U R O W N PAPER M ETAPH O R Creating aPaperM etaphorisno differentthancreating aTrans- formationM echanism oraBodyM etaphor.Youthinkaboutyour m ain persuasion pointsand come up with waysto depictthem through diagram ,sketch,and analogy. O fcourse,you don'twantto draw fordrawing'ssake.You wantyoursketchtoilluminate,notclutter.W iththatinmind,ask yourself: W hataremy mostim portantpoints? H ow do lexplaineachpointnow? H ow doesmyexplanationforeachgo over? W hichpointismostcompelling? H ow mightluseaPaperM etaphortomakeitmorecompelling? W hichismy leastcompellingpoint? H ow mightluse aPaperM etaphorto makeitmore com - pelling? W hatisthemostcommonobjectionlhear? How canluseaPaperM etaphortoovercomethatobjection? From youranswers,youshouldcom eupwith adozenpossible metaphols.W i11a11ofthem beequallygood?Ofcoursenot.Some willbeweak.Somewillbestrong.M ostlikely,you'llhavetoforce them into conversations,atfirst,tounderstandwhichiswhich. ThePaperM etaphorisalow-stresswayforyoutochangethe momentforthepeopleyou'repitching.ltonlyrequiresapen and apieceofcrum pled paperpicked up from the floor.W hen you findtherightmetaphor,though,itsvalueisoutofa11proportion toyourefforts.Themetaphorconvertsasitentertains. Y Backroom ''llpsIorPaperM etaphors + lfyou'rehavingtroublefindinganalogiesforyourpersuasion points,keep thiswordin mind:like.Askyourself:W hatismy

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