Wiley how to_persuade_people_who_dont_want_to_be_persuaded[1]
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  • 1. H0# 10 P!R$dàB! PIOPL! WH0 B0N'I WàN1I0 B! P!R$dàB!B . '' # z '' t J0:L BA UQR & M ARK LQVY
  • 2. l1()A102E28t))l)E IIEIII'LEAI1()COJ'IA/JI 10SE2E28tAl)El) G ET W HAT You W ANT- EVERY T IME! p*.!1 JoelBauer & M ark Levy +W ILEY JO HN W ILEY & SO NS,INC.
  • 3. M orePraiseforH ow toPersuadePeople W ht?D on'tIAWJZ'toBePersuaded ''JoelBauerandMarkLev.srdraw backthecurtainand1etyousee,hear,touch, andtfscthemostmysteriousmechanismsofsuccess--ir-fïtfewccfpg.ilècrsuasion.lf you'rethinkinglightweightcunningorheavyweightsociologs forgetit.W e're talkingaboutanancientcraftourancestorsknew thatourgenerationforgot. Thisbookwillteachyouhow towieldyourbestideastoinfluenceotherswith themysticaldexterit.srofacavemanwhostrikesaflintytfstso- andcreatesfire.'' .- hlickCorcodilos,founderoftheNorthBridgeGroup,Inc. and authorofzlsk tlleH eadllunter ''J-J/tpttlPtrsuatk Pcc')!cTbtlDon'tWkg.tttll?cPtrsuatlc?isagem.ltsconceptsare clear/itsexamplesarepowerful/andthewritinginitprovidesreaderswiththe energ.srinherentinagreatpitch.lfyouwanttoelevateyourideasandgetthem receivedasiftheyweremannafrom heaven/youmustreadthisbook.'' - l-eslieYerkes,presidentofCatalystConsultingGroup,Inc.andauthor of301W flpstoHaveFunatW tvk Fun W tvks andBeansf f ''JoelBauerandMarkLe'orteachyouhow togetintothemindofthedecision akerandconvert'no'into'es'''m y . - leffreyGitomer,authorofTlw SalesBibleand TllePattersonPrinciplesofSelling ''l'vewatchedJoelBauerworkwithaudiencesfor12yearsandnow lunder- standwhy he'sbeentheundisputed leaderinpersuasion.ButHow ttlPcrsuatk Pcc')!cW'-l,tlDc'g.ïWffwtttll?cPcrsuatk?isn'tjustastonraboutJoel.lt'sanunselfish recipeforpersonalandprofessionaldevelopment.Thisbookisagift.'' .- M attHill,president,TheHillGroup ''JoelBauerandMarkLev.srelevatetheartofsalesmanshiptoalevelothersonly dream aboutandrevealpersuasionstrategiesfew professionalswould bewill- ingtoshare.Tl-uly/thisisabookonhow tobeasuccess.'' - l-arryBecker,formercreativepartnerofBecker-KanterAdvertising ''&1r.Bauerpossesses amazing insight/and offers inspired revelations into humanbehavior.Thisbookisdangerous.'' - W illiam Bakoyni,presidentandCEO ,VideoTechnologies ''N0hocus-pocushere.Thisbookwillawakenthenegotiatorwithinanden- ableyoutobemorepersuasivethatyoueverthoughtpossible.'' .- M axCohen,cofounderandCEO ,CashAdvance.com ''BauerandLev.srdon'tjustprovethepowerofpersuasionintheirnew book/they show youhow tobecomeanexpertatthiskeylifeskill- quicklyandeasily'' - peterEconomy,coauthorofM anagingforDummies
  • 4. ''NvhilereadingJoelBauer'sbook you'llgetanurgetorushoutandtestwhat you'velearned.W henyouseeyourfirst'victimkeyeslightupJyou'llrealizehis persuasiontechniquesreallywork.From thatmomentonJyou'rehooked.'' - scottGoodman,CEO ,SamsonTechnologies ''HowttlPcrsuatkPcc')!cTbtlDon'tWkg.tttll?cPtrsuatlctliscandid/insightful,educa- tional/and fun.Readitandputsomemagicintoyourbusinesslife.'' - leffreyJ.Fox,authorofHow toM akeBigAzftlse.yinYtlvrOwnSmall BusinessandHow toBecom eCEO ''DonaldTrump'sairlojt/Dcfp!andJoelBauer'sHowttlPtrsuatkPcc')!cTbtlDc'g.ï Wffwtttll?cPtrsuatlc?aretwoessentialsforthoselookingtosucceedinbusiness.'' .- llobBedbury,directorofBttsinessDevelopment,GumasAdvertising ''MasterJoelandMark'sinfluencestrategiesandyoucanbecomethebusiness world'snextpiedpipen'' - stewartLevine,authorofTlleBooktl/zlgrccvscvzf' and GettingtoResolution ''lfoundinfluenceprincipleslcouldimmediately apply tomy businessona1- m ostevenrpage.'' .- DavidGoldsmith,founder,M etaMatrixConsulting,Inc. ''JoelBauerissucharockstar.Hehasshownupwithhisownbrandofreal magicanditwillrockyourworld.Readevenrwordandreaditagain.'' - AngelicaJ.Holiday,'TV producer,entedainment/advertising/marketing &brandconsultant ''A mustreadandafunread forbusinesspeopleatany level.Thebook grabs youthemomentyoupickitupandisfu11ofundergroundpractices/whichwill haveyoupersuadinglikeaprofessionalpitchman.'' - -l-homasJ.W aletzki,president,EizoNanaoTechnologies 'How ttlPcrsuatkPcc')!cTbtlDc'g.ïWffwtttll?cPcrsuatk?willshakeyou outofyour comfortzone and/intheprocess,draw othersto yourideas.A wonderfully unorthodoxlookathow toinfluenceandgetattention.'' .- lohnIzzo authorofSecondInnocence:RediscoveringIoy & W tlsflc'randAwakeningtlleCorporateSoul
  • 5. l10A102E28gàpE IIEIIIII.EAI10l)0J'IAàJI 10SE2E28gàpEp
  • 6. l1()A102E28t))l)E IIEIII'LEAI1()COJ'IA/JI 10SE2E28tAl)El) G ET W HAT You W ANT- EVERY T IME! p*.!1 JoelBauer & M ark Levy +W ILEY JO HN W ILEY & SO NS,INC.
  • 7. Thisbookisprintedonacid.freepaper.@ Copyright@ 2004byJoelBauerandlvlarkLe'o,.A11rightsresenred. PublishedbyJohnW ileyscSons/lnc./Hoboken/Newlersey. PublishedsimultaneouslyinCanada. ThankstoAigfcmagazinepublisherStanAllenandeditor.in.chiefJohnlvloehringfor permissiontouseinterview materialthatwaspublishedinitsApril2003issue. Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced/storedinaretrievalsystem /ortransmitted inanyform orbyanymeans/electronic/mechanical/photocopying/recording/scanning/ orotherwise/exceptaspermittedunderSection 1O7and 108ofthe 1976UnitedStates CopyrightAct/withouteitherthepriorwrittenpermissionofthePublisher/orauthoriza. tionthroughpaymentoftheappropriatepencopyfeetotheCopyrightClearanceCen. ter/lnc./222lkosewoodDrive/Danvers/&lA 10923/(978)750.8400/fax(978)646.8600/ oronthewebatMmrwccopyright.com.lkequeststothePublisherforpermissionshouldbe addressedtothePermissionsDepartment/lohnW ileyscSons/lnc./111lkiverStreet/ Hoboken/NJ07030/(201)748.6011Jfax(201)748.6008. LimitofLiability/DisclaimerofW arranw:W hilethepublisherandauthorhaveused theirbesteffortsinpreparingthisbook/theymakenorepresentationsorwarranties withrespecttotheaccuracyorcompletenessofthecontentsofthisbookandspecifi. callydisclaim anyimpliedwarrantiesofmerchantabilityorfitnessforaparticularpur. pose.Nowarranw may becreatedorextendedbysalesrepresentativesorwrittensales materials.Theadviceandstrategiescontainedhereinmaynotbesuitableforyoursit. uation.Thepublisherisnotengagedinrenderingprofessionalsenrices/andyou shouldconsultaprofessionalwhereappropriate.Neitherthepublishernortheauthor shallbeliableforanylossofprofitoranyothercommercialdamages/includingbut notlimitedtospecial/incidental/consequential/orotherdamages. ForgeneralinformationonourotherproductsandsenricespleasecontactourCus. tomerCareDepartmentwithintheUnitedStatesat(800)762.2974/outsidethe UnitedStatesat(317)572.3993orfax(317)572.4002. W ileyalsopublishesitsbooksinavarietyofelectronicformats.Somecontentthat appearsinprintmaynotbeavailableinelectronicbooks.Formoreinformationabout W ileyproducts/visitourwebsiteatw'vwcv/riley.com. I.ibraryojcongressCataloging-in-publicationData: Bauer/Joel1960- How topersuadepeoplewhodon'twanttobepersuaded:getwhatyouwant- everytimeL/Joe1Bauer/lvlarkI-e'o,. p.cm . lncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindex. ISBN 0-471-64797-7(hardcover) 1.Persuasion(Psycholomr)1.l-evy/lvlark/1962-ll.'Tltle. 81:637.1748322004 153.8'52.--(1(222 2003027633 8
  • 8. Formymother,Carol,whoneversaid,''ltcannotbe done/''andmywife,Cherie,whosaid,''lsthata11?'' - J.B. Formymother,Rhoda,who readmeT'retgsgreJs/tggk,and mywife,Stella,whocanpersuadewiththebestofthem .
  • 9. pe.1 C O N T EN TS ACKNOW LEDGMENTS Dluw Ix TI-IELlsvfExEk CI-IANGETI-IEM OMENT THETpakhlsyoltlvlzkTlox M ECI-IANISM THEBODYM ETAPI-IOR THEPAPERM ETAPI-IOR THEQulcltPITCHOPENING THEQulcltPITCHBODY THESLOGAN PITCI-I CotkvlxcEwl7'l-ISAMPLES THEPowEkoyFItEE 11 THEPowEkOFGIFTS 12 SOLID Pkooy 13 DYNAMIC CI-ARlTY BEDls-rlxc'r O vEkcolvlEREsls-r/txcE 16 THELOOK 17 THEPLATFOR&1PITCH 18 THEV ECHANISIVIEMERGENCYKIT INDEX ABO UTTHEAUTHOZS 1 13 22 40 53 66 78 90 1O1 112 125 133 15O 159 176 186 197 213
  • 10. p-..1 A C K N O W LED G M EN TS 'd like to thank my wife,Cherie,who knew lhad potential when itwaswellhidden;my am azing children,Chanelle, Briana,and Sterling,who everydayteachm ewhatlifeisre- ally about;my mother,CarolBauer,and my father,Stephen Shoyer;my adoringgrandfathers,AlbertandDuf-fy;andmyclos- estfriends,Bi11Bakoyni,LarryBecker,DavidBorys,GaryLamers, Eric M aurin,Dale Penn,Jason Randal,David Stahl,and Jon Stetson.W ithouttheirongoingsupport,thejourneytowardget- ting whatl'vealwayswantedwould havebeen lonely.l'd liketo thankmylifeteachers,JackChanin,PaulDiamond,JoeDeLjon, G ary Hunter,H idy Ochiai,Ron Praver,Benny Ray,and Gregg W ebb;theKeninCoin& Stamp Shop M agicDepartmentwhen l waseleven;thestaffofCarnivalCruiseLneswhenlwasthirteen; andmy publicist,PhilLobel,who hasworkedbrilliantlywiththe mediatogetthewordoutaboutme. l'd also liketothankmy co-author,M arkLevy,whoisawrit- ing god.W orkingwithM arkistheonly way my techniquesand philosophy could have everbeen transferred so expertly to the page.Heclim bedinsidemyworld,andbecameafriendaswell. L fe hasdealtmeagreathand,and thecardswillrem ain in play untilmylastbreath. - J.B.
  • 11. ACKNOW LEDGM ENTS 'd liketo thank mywife,Stella,whose loveand supporthas keptmegoing;my mom ,Rhoda;my brother,Paul;mysister, Joyce;and,a11myotheramazingrelatives,likeGi1,lrwin,and Joan.lthankmyfriendswhosewisdom helpedJoeland me write this book:Dick ''The Guru''Axelrod,Renee Babiewich, LarryBecker(forintroducingmetoJoel),Steve''There'sapeculi- arityinmy shoe''Cohen,PattiDanos,Kevin Daum (foratwo- hourconversationthatmadeita11clear),ChristopherDiltsand his hair,Jack Foster,Bob 'The Happy Skeptic''Friedhoffer, M ichael''Leonardo''Gelb,N athan Gold,David ''FerrisBuehler'' Goldsmith,M ichelle Herman,PaulH arris,Robert''ShortSen- tences''Jacobs,M ac ''Vegas,babyl''L ng,PaulLemberg,Steve ''How did itwalk?''Sanderson,RichSchefren,Adam Snukal,Ken Swezey (whowasexcited by ourbook conceptbeforeanyone else, whose the ''Pitchh/lind''rocketa liftand enthusiasm gave into orbit),and KarlWeber.Also,thankstoourliterary agent, M urielNellis,and herassistant,Jane Roberts,to everyone at W iley,with a big shoutoutto M att''The N urturer''Holtand Tamara''The Transylvanian''H ummel,and to Claire Huism ann andthekillerstaffatlmpressionsBookandJournalServices.Also also,l'd liketothankmypets.W henyou'rewritingelevenhours adaywithnohum ansinsight,abark,ameow,oratweetcanbe awfully comforting.Blessyou Kuma,Jofu (''Fuzio''),Xger,and Betsy. Finally,lwouldliketothankthemanhimself,JoelBauer.Joel isamasterfulbusinessperson,performer,and friend.lfyou ever getthechanceto seehim in action,takeit! M
  • 12. p-..1 1 D RAW IN T H E LISTEN ER hatyou'reabouttoreadisabitfrightening.Some- timesseminarattendeeswalkouton me aslde- liverthismaterialbecausethe/re disturbed by whatthey hear.These are sm artpeoplewalking out.ldon'tblamethem forleaving.Thisisthestuffofnightmares. Asyoucontinuereading,you'regoingtolearntopersuadein awayyouneverim aginedpossible.Notin aDaleCarnegieway. Notby smiling and tossing in people'sfirstnamesasyouspeak with them.Thisis aboutgetting people to do whatyouwant. Particularly strangers.(W hena J//fre;treportersaw hundredsof strangersfollow mycomm andsinunison,hecalledthedisplay''a featofmassobediencethatmustbeseentobebelieved.'') M y persuasionm odelisunusual,butdeadlyeffective.ldidn't readaboutitinamagazineordevelopitwith ateam ofuniversity scholars.lnstead,itcomesfrom my 37years'experiencein front ofaudiencesand from my study ofthose true mastersofinflu- ence,show folk;mostlyshow folkinthe''darkarts.'' Yes,a11lknow aboutpersuasion l've learned from carnies, fakirs,hypnotists,magicians,mentalists,spiritualists,and,partic-
  • 13. a Dlt/tw Ix TI-IE Lls-fExElt ularly,pitchmen.N aturally,l'm taking libertieshere with who l callshow folk,butlet'snotsplithairs.Theirmethodsaretheim - portantthing,notthetaxonomy. Thesementorsofmine,whom you'lllearn aboutthroughout thebook,shareseveraltraits:lfthey don'tpersuade,they starve; theirstrategiesmayinvolveoutrightdeception;andthey use,for themostpart,entertainmentasameansofchanging minds.For wantofabetterterm ,let'scalltheirways''theatrical/''and my modelthe''TheatricalPersuasion M odel.''(Thingsalwaysseem morerealwhenyounamethem;there'syourfirstlesson.) So ifyou'reready foranundergroundeducation ininfluence, read on.lfyou're anxiousto learn whatmagiciansdub ''the real work/''thisisthe only place to find it.lt'sa11very doable,and you'llbe abletousethemodelno matterwhatyoursituation- thatis,ifyoudon't1etyourfearsgetthebestofyou. Reader,ljusthityouwithaninfluencetechnique:theFright Challenge.Lkenittothecarnivalbarker'sballyhoousedtosnare peoplestrollingthemidway:''Ladiesandgentlem en,canyoubear it?Sho-cking!H orr-i-fy-ing!A living,breathing nightmare!The mostintelligentamongyouwillwanttokeepwalkingl''Themore thecarnyprotests,thelargerthecrowd grows. lflwassuccessfulwith my pitch,you didn'tnoticeyouwere beinginfluenced.Or,ifyourealizedit,youwereatleastintrigued enoughtoreadthisfar.W hateveryourreaction,lnow haveyour attention,andlintend to keepit. You can rely upon theFrightChallengewhateveryouraudi- ence'ssizeandintellectualmakeup.Everyone- andlmeanevery- one- respondstothissimpletactic. lusedalengthychallengetoopenthischapterbecauseyoucan build slowly onpaper.Readersliketofeelthetimbreofawriter's voiceandseehow heorshegoesaboutdevelopinganargument.ln person,though,it'sadifferentstory;ifyoutaketoolongsettingthe challenge,youcrossthelinefrom provocateurtomenace. W hen thepeoplel'm trying to influence are standing before meandwanttoknow how learnaliving,myFrightChallengeisto
  • 14. ovEltv lEw thepoint:''Areyousureyouwanttoknow?lt'salittlefrightening. M ostpeoplecan'thandleit.''W hen theysayyes,andthey always do,lconspiratorially add:''M ovein closer.ldon'twanteveryone hearing this.''Suddenly,lhavetheirattentionin away thatmakes them hungryformywords.The/remineforthemoment. Reading J-foa?toPersgtgkePeobleJ///?0D0g1J//tggttoBePersgtgtle;t willbeanexperienceforyou.M uch ofwhatyou'reabouttolearn isavailablenowhereelse. Ladiesandgentlemen,canyoubearit?lt'soverview time! O VERV IEW W ho Should Read ThisBook? lwroteitpredominantly forbusinesspeople.M y techniqueswill helpexecutives,m anagers,entrepreneurs,salespeople,m arketers, advertising staff,human resources personnel,presenters,job seekers,andjustaboutanybodylookingforawaytomakepeople receptiveto suggestions. O fcourse,youdon'thavetobeinbusinesstoprofitfrom this book.Anyonewhowantstoinfluenceotherstohisorherwayof thinking willwantto read it.Thataudience includesactivists, counselors,negotiators,performers,physicians,politicians,pub- 1icspeakers,andteachers. Anaudiencethatdeservesspecialmentionissingles.M yper- suasionstrategiesarenaturalswhen itcomestom eeting and im - pressingpeople.lfyou'reaCasanova-orvamp-in-training,youke cometotherightplace. W hatIsthe Book'sH igh Concept? Beforelanswer,1etmeexplainwhatahighconceptis.Theprin- cipleiscriticalifyouwanttobeapowerfulpersuader.Theterm bèbcogcel)tismostoftenusedintheTV andfilm industries,par- ticularly during pitch meetings,in which writers throw con- densed ideasatastudio executive,hopingthattheexecutivewill buyoneofthem and turnitinto aseriesoramovie.
  • 15. Dlu w Ix TI-IE LISTENEP- Thosecondensedideasarehigh concepts.They takeacom - plexplotandreduceittoitsmostcompellingpoint.Theresulting sentenceorphraseiswhatthewriterfiresattheexecutive. W hat'sthemostfamoushigh concepteverpitched?Accord- ing to ''PerfectPitch/''aTV documentary,itwas delivered by Aaron Spelling to sellhisproposed seriesAlbtinyales.Spelling pitchedtheseriesas''nursesinwett-shirts.''Thestudio boughtit immediately. SoW hatIsThisBook'sHigh Concept? Jtsllofz?syou/90f,17tobersuaijebygsf'lgt/?etecllgftyesojbrojessionalIlftcllmea. Thatconceptmay notbe assexy asSpellingk,butit'saccurate. Thisbook bringsthe secretsofshow folk to theboardroom.lt teachesyouhow touseentertainm enttoinfluence. Thinkthesepremisessound odd?Then lsuggestyouswitch on yourtelevision.lfthesuccessoftelevision hastaughtusany- thing,it'sthis:Peoplewillopen themselvesup to acommercial m essagef-fyouentertainthem.Takeawaytheentertainment,and theviewersurfsofftoanotherstationwhilethesponsor'smessage goesunheard. Productsalesriseandfallbasedupontheentertainmentvalue oftheirmessages.A messagethatticklesthepubliccan beworth billions.Attimes,anentertainingmessagem ay betheonlything separatingoneproductfrom another. Bottledwaterisagoodexample.lt'sa$35billionayearin- dustry.That's$35billionforaproductnotsubstantiallydifferent from whatyoucangetoutofyourfaucet. O bviously,thepeopleinthatindustryarebright.Theynotonly created amarket,butthey work hard atm akingeach brand seem differentfrom itscompetitor.O newaterisfrom astream .O neis from themountains.Oneisfrom France.Onehasaddedvitamins. O necomesinasquirtbottleforpeopleonthego.Thelistgoeson. lwould argue thatvery little separatesonewaterfrom the other.lfyou were to conductataste testam ong the top three brands,ldon'tthinkyou'dfindanobviouswinner.
  • 16. ovEltv lEw Thethingthatreally separatestheseproductsistheircom pa- nies'positioning strategies and the entertainment principles eachusesinitsmarketingmessage.l'veseenbrandsadvertisedby modelsinflowingrobes,by glamorousmoviestars,andby beau- tiful,sweating athletes. M odels,moviestars,and athleteshavelittleto dowithwater. Theyhavea1ottodowithtellinganattention-grabbingdramatic story,fast.lnotherwords,they'retheretoentertainyou.Forno otherreason. Perhapstheentertainmentcomponentinbottledwaterissub- tle.Aftera11,mostcompaniesintheindustry takeadignified ap- proachto pitchingtheirproduct.lt'snotsowith beer. The beerindustry is a11aboutassociating its productwith goodtim esandwildentertainment.To pushtheirproduct,brew - ershaveusedawidevariety ofentertainingmeans:Theykeflown blimpsover sporting events;run contestswith a billion-dollar prize;andairedcommercialsfeaturingwomenwrestlinginmud,a dog with human girlfriends,frogscroaking abeer'sname,and a footballgam eplayedbetweenrivalbottlesofbeer. W ith exaggerated vehicleslikethose,it'seasy to dismissthe brillianceofthebeerindustry.Thatis,untilyourealizeonething: ln 2002,beersalestotaled $74.4billion.Saywhatyoulike.En- tertainm entsells. W illM yTechniquesRequireYou to Becomean Entertainer? You willnothave to sing,dance,act,recite,getup in frontof crowds,orwrestleinm ud,unlessyouwantto.W henltalkabout entertainmentasapersuader,lmeanthatyouwillusecompelling, often whimsicalstrategiesdesigned to putpeoplein areceptive mood forwhatyouhavetooffer. And keep in m ind, entertainment isn't necessarily light- hearted.A dramaisentertaining.Soisahorrorfilm .ln thework we'llbedoing together,you'llbeusing thefullrangeofhuman em otiontomakeyourpointforcefully.
  • 17. DPAW IN TH E LISTENER W hatAreSomeoltheTechniques? Youke already experienced atleasttwo techniques.The Fright Challengewasone,and contained within itwasasecond tech- nique:stgrlll/fg-f?.lfyou wantto persuade people,you're going to haveto figureoutwaysofletting them sampleyoursuggestion, idea,service,orproduct.Otherwise,they'lldoubtyou,and that doubtm ay keepthem from actingonyourwishes. lopened with theFrightChallengebecauseit'san attention- grabber(gg;titacted asasampleofwhatyou'regoing tolearn.lf youthoughtthechallengeflim flam ,thenyouinstantly knew this bookisn'tforyou.Conversely,ifyou thoughtthechallengein- triguing,thenyou'reno doubteagerto tearthrough therestof thisbookand makeitsstrategiesyourstrategies. Sampling helps people draw conclusionsquickly and hon- estly.lt'san ethicalway to win them overto yourside.Later, you'lllearn the bestwaysto offersamplesin situationsprofes- sionaland personal. Besidesthe FrightChallenge and sampling,you'llalso learn how topersuadeusingdozensofothertactics.Amongthem :the BodyMetaphor,thePaperMetaphor,theQuickPitch,andthe Platform Pitch.A11are entertaining.A11are effective.You and thepeopleyou'repersuadingwillhavefunwhileyougetyourway. O fcourse,notevery techniquein thisbookfunctionssolely to entertain.Yourofferings should be flavored with entertain- mentprinciples,notdrowningin them .W hileyou'relearningto entertain,you'llalso be learning good,solid businessand influ- encepractices. ldon'twantto leavethisintroductory chapterwithoutput- ting thespotlighton an influencetechniqueparticularly dearto me:theTransformationM echanism . W hatIsaTranslormationM echanism ? ltisademonstrationthatgainsyouraudience'sattention,lowers theirdefenses,and servesasametaphorforyourmessage.Jtk(g trfcêt/gtgtrltg/tes(gIlofgt.A majorpoint.Onethatmightspellthedif-
  • 18. ovEltv lEw 7 ferencebetween someone'stakingyoursuggestion ordismissing it.Letmegiveyou an exampleofaTransformation M echanism l usedtomakea$45,000sale.ltinvolvedarubberband. M yprospectwastheheadofm arketingforaW estCoastsoft- warefirm.Hercompanywasrentingmajor1700thspaceatanup- comingconvention,and shehadcontacted measapossiblehire fortheshow.M yjob?To actasthe company'spitchman and draw peopletoher1700th. Becauseitwasshewhohadcalledthemeeting,lthoughtthe salewouldbeeasy.W asleverwrong.W henlaskedherabouther company'sgoalsfortheshow,shewasvague.W hen lshowedher client testimonials and photographs of me drawing overflow crowdsatpreviousshows,sheglanced atthem asiflhad handed heryesterday'snewspaper. Shethankedmeforcomingandsaidshe'dgetbacktome.But lwasn'tleaving.Themeeting had costm etimeand money,and herget-back-to-m espeechwasn'tgivingmefalsehope.lflleft,l would neverhearfrom heragain. lrosefrom my chairandpretendedto pack up.Aslshutmy laptop andrepositioned im aginary itemsinmy briefcase,lasked herthesamequestionslhadjustaskedher,onlylsoftenedthem. Forinstance,ratherthanaskingabouthercompany'sgoalsforthe upcoming show,lasked aboutherbestm omentsfrom previous shows,and how she planned on duplicating them.Afterafew moments,lsmokedoutherobjectiontomyservices. H er company had always relied on winning over early adopterswhowouldgettheword outaboutthenew softwareto theirfellow hard-core users.Thisstrategy had served herfirm well.lthaddoubledinsizeoverthelastthreeyearsbycateringto early adopters. M y servicedidn'tfitthatearly-adoptermodelatall- atleast notinhermind.W hatl'm a11aboutisdrawingthelargesttrade- show crowds possible, and that's not what she thought she needed.''The massesaren'tgoing to buy ourproduct/''shesaid, '' so lseeno reason to attractand entertain them .''Sheconfessed
  • 19. Dlu w Ix TI-IE LISTENEP- thattheonly reason lhad been called inwasbecauseherfirm's CEO had seen me draw crowdsfora rival,and he thoughtit mightbeagoodideato hearwhatlhadtosay. ''Letmemakesurelunderstand/''lsaid.''Youbelievethatlcan draw amob toyour1700th,butyou think that'soverkill.Yoube- lievethatthousandsofundifferentiatedonlookersareawastedex- pense,a distraction.They m ay even keep away the folksyou reallywant:theearly adopters.''Sheagreed,thatwasherdilemma. lknew whatlhadto do.lhad to transform themomentfor her.lhad to takeherfrom whereshewasand moveherto adif- ferentvantage point.W ords alone weren'tgoing to do it.Sbe geer/e;tt/?eexberienceojseeiny/?ertlf/twlrltg(ggefz?. lnoticed arubberband encirclingherwristand asked herto rem ove it. ''lmaginethatyoursm allrubberband isyoursmallgroup of early adopters/''lsaid.'Those arethepeopleyoureally wantat theshow.Theyspellthedifferencebetweenyourcompany'ssuc- cessand failure.Agreed?'' gree . ''Holdoneendofthatrubberband atyourleftfingertips,the otherendatyourrightfingertips,andpressthebandagainstyour upper1ip.''Thewom an looked atme asiflwerefresh from the asylum . ''Don'tworlx ''lsaid ''you know lm akemy living asashow - m an.lwanttodrivehomeapoint,butlwanttodoitin aspecial way.Pleaseputthebandagainstyour1ip.''Shecomplied. ''Doesthebandfeelhotorcold?''lasked. O ltl. ''Good.Now im aginethatbesidesthatsm allbandofadopters, hundredsofotherpeoplecomealong and expand thecrowd.To getavivid image ofwhatl'm talking about,expand the band. Stretchitbetweenyourfingersuntilitnearlysnaps.''Shedid. ''Yourlargerubberbandnow symbolizesthemobsurrounding your1700th iflwaspitching.Keepthebandtaut,andputitupto yourlipsagain.W hatdoyoufeel?''
  • 20. OVERV IEW 9 ''O hmygodl''shesaid ''that'sremarkable.Theband ishot.'' ''That'sright/''lsaid ''lt'shot notbecauseofmagic,butbe- causeofphysics.W hen youstretchedtherubber,youexcited its electronsandheateduptheband. ''Thesam ekind ofexcitement-and-heatreactioniswhathap- penswhenyouexpandyourtrade-show audiences,too. ''W henyouhaveabigcrowd,passersbyrealizesomethingbig ishappening in the 1700th.The crowd'ssizecreatesan expecta- tion,an excitement,aheat.Thepeoplesauntering paststop and wonder,'W hatare a11these people looking at? W hatdo they know thatldon't'?'Then theyruntojointhecrowd,makingit bigger. ''Now,someofthesepeoplerunningtojointhecrowdwillbe early adopters.Early adoptersalwayswanttobeon theinside.lf they spota crowd and they don'tknow whatit'sabout,they'll practicallyshovetheirwaytothefront.l'veseenthishappenover and overthroughtheyears. ''M y crowdswillpullin moreearly adoptersthanyoukeever had,preciselybecausemy crowdsaresobig,soexcited,sofullof energy.A crowddrawsalargercrowdl'' She satsilently forafew seconds,playing with the rubber band.Thensheasked mequestions:aboutmy fees,my methods, the logisticsofmy perform ances.W hen lleftheroffice,itwas with asigned contract. Transformation M echanismshelp you make yourpointin a waymoreeffectivethanstraightforwardlogic.Theyworkforthe samereasonDetgt/gojaStg/esrltggforcesustoreexamineourvalues and Jtk(gJ//ogtler-fg/Lih letsusre-seeourplaceintheworld.Their lessonscometousinaTrojanhorse.Theyappealtousbecauseof story,color,andentertainment.Theytouchusin awaythatbald inform ationmisses. M orethan one-thirdofthisbookisdevoted totheTransfor- m ation M echanism.Youcan usethesemechanismsin any situa- tion youcanimagine:to rouseaworkforce,to closeasale,orto getchildrentocleantheirroom .
  • 21. DPAW IN TH E LISTENER W ho Am Ito Teach You TheseM ethods? lam JoelBauer,professionaltradeshow pitchman.lpersuadefor aliving.Fortune5OO companieshiremetostandatop a26-inch- highriserinfrontoftheirboothsandpitch theirproducts. W hatdo these companieshave invested in a typicaltrade show?Theykespentuptotenm illiondollarson 1700thconstruc- tion,fivehundred thousand dollarsto rentfloorspace,and hun- dreds of thousands m ore on union fees, drayage charges, personnelcosts,and travelexpenses.Butthose dollarsare the leastoftheirconcerns. O ften,thefutureoftheirorganizationsrestsupon how well they do atthe show.lfthey have a new productrollout,they wantthe pressto see it,the TV camerasto shootit,and their prospects to buzz aboutit.A bad show m eans a bad product launch,and thatcansinkacompany.W henpeoplehireme,they havehigh expectations. W hatisthetrade-show environment?W henyou'reatatrade show,you're in an environmentthatcan be impersonaland at timesbrutal.Thecompetition surroundsyou,and they wantto seeyoufailbadly.Andthepeopleyou'retryingtopersuade- the show attendees- arerushing pastyou.They don'tcarewho you are,how niceyouare,how fearfulyouare,orhow superioryou thinkyourproductis. Persuading atatradeshow isakintopersuadingonthestreet orin the ancientbazaar.Therearerules,butfew ofthem arein yourfavor.lt'smyresponsibilitytostoppassersby,getthem tolis- ten to aproductpitch,and coaxthem into leaving theircontact inform ation. To be costeffective,lcan'tpersuadepeople to stop one by one.lnstead,lmustcreate crowds.Large,scary crowds.lmust getsom anypeopletostop andwatch andlistenandactthrough- outthedaythatmyclient'slead-generationm achinesareflooded with prospects. H ow welldo ldo?The J'$Q//StreetJogrgtg/Onlinecallsme''the chairman oftheboard''ofcorporatetradeshow rainmaking.f'tgst
  • 22. ovEltv lEw Corllltgg. ')rwritesthatl'm ''anexpertatgettingtheattentionofpeo- p1ewithlotsofchoicesaboutwheretospendtheirtime.'' Even my com petitorsunintentionally complimentme.They referto meas''thetrainwreck''meaningthatwhen l'm pitching there are people laid out everywhere,filling the 1700th and spilling outinto the aisles,making itim possible foranyone to move.lcreatesuch pandemonium ,they say,thathardly ashow goesby from which lam notthreatenedwith expulsion by show m anagem ent. Guiltyascharged. l'vebeenpitchingattradeshowsfor24yeals,andinthattime l'destimatethattwentymillionpeoplehavestoppedtohearwhatl hadtosay,resultinginmorethanthreemillionleadsformyclients. W ho IstheBook'sO therAuthor? lwroteJ-foa?toPersgtgkePeobleJ///?0D0g1J//tggttoBePersgtgtle;twith my colleagueM arkLevy.M arkisanexpertpitchm anandwriterwhose skillshavehelpedmakehisclientsmorethanabilliondollars. M arkhascontributed many ofhisown influencetechniques and anecdotesto thisbookwhileworkingto bring my concepts tolife. W hat'sM y Pitch to You? Thisisn'tanordinarybookonpersuasion.lt'snotatomeonhow tocontrol,manipulate,orforceotherstosubmittoyourwill. Books that promise such adolescent fantasies don't hold water.Theirwin/losemethodssoonturnintolose/lose.Theirphi- losophy goesagainstthewaymostofuslive,think,and actand doesn'ttakeinto accountwhoweareand whatwewanttooffer theworld. lam going toteachyouhow to persuadein awaythat'snei- thersinister,manipulative,norzero-sum.lam goingtoshow you how tobecomeinfluential,charismatic,andm agnetic. Youwillgetwhatyouwantby helping othersgetwhatthey want,andintheprocess,youwilla11haveagood time.
  • 23. 12 DlkAw IN TH E LISTENER Thisisnotabookonhow towinatasinglenegotiation.This fsabookonhow towinatlife.ltteachesthatthebestway toin- fluenceothersistolookandbehaveasifyou'reapersonofinflu- ence.Always.Ata11times. ltteachesthatthewaytomakemoneyistohavefun.M yway isthewayofthepitchman,theconjuror,theentertainer.Forthat, lmakeno apologies. lwillnotinflateordiminishwhatlhavetoteach.Youwillget the unvarnished truth,because the unvarnished truth is what works.ltworkswhetheryou're trying to influence a child at home,theboardofdirectorsinaconferenceroom,ortenmillion viewerssittingintheirlivingroom s,watchingyouontelevision. Areyou ready,then,to learn how aprofessionalpitchman persuadespeoplewhodon'twanttobepersuaded,andhow you can dothesame?lfso,step closer. ldon'twanteveryonetohearthis.
  • 24. C H A N G E T H E M O M EN T hatyoudo can have arem arkableeffecton peo- ple.Don'tbelieve m e?Try this:Ask afriend to think aboutthebestsummerdayshe'severexpe- rienced,then watch herclosely.You'llwitnessa strikingchangeinherphysiognomy anddemeanor. Shemay look aboutdreamily,asifshe'strying to orienther mentalim age in physicalspace.H ereyesm ay widen whileher jaw slackens.She'llspeakslowly,andthen,asshecatchesholdof avisceralm emory,she'llramp upand tellyouaboutachildhood triptoacarnivaloralongkisson aparkbench. By the time she'sfinished,she'llbe grinning and feeling as though she'sfound something she'd lost.Shemay even beteary eyed.And a11you did was ask a question.You changed her thoughts,her posture,and her outlook with a question.One question!That'spower. Youdidn'twrestleherintoahappy state.Yousettheproper conditions and 1et her mind do the rest.You changed her m om ent.
  • 25. CHANGETHEIVIOIVIENT M ostpeople walk around in theirproblems.They view life through theirperceivedlimitations.Theymeasuretodaybywhat happenedyesterday. W hen you change the moment,you shiftpeople'sperspec- tive,takingthem from wheretheyaretowherethey'd liketo be. From thatvantagepoint,peoplewillbem oreattentiveandmore receptiveto yourpropositions. Youcan changethemomentin anumberofways.lnthefol- lowing three chapters,you'lllearn methodsthatrequire sim ple props.Now,though,let'scontinuelearninghow to doitthrough language. C HAN GE TH E M O M EN T W ITH W O RD S ln acorporateplanningm eeting,lchangethemomentbyyettiny Ileoll/etosee(g.lïeneryeticy'gtgrein(gspltgg.')rsenses(gsbossible.Beforethe plannersstarttheirwork in earnest,lgo around theconference table and,one by one,ask the participantsabouttheirgoals.l wantto hearaboutthe organization'sgoalsand theirpersonal goals. Thefirstperson tospeakisusually guarded.H etalksin self- protective,distancing language.ln language that can neither offend norinspire.ltsoundssomething likethis:''Theorganiza- tion'sgoalisto assumeleadership ofthe industry by thefourth quarterofnextyear.Theorganization plansto do thisbyim ple- menting Six Sigmathroughoutthecompany and by im proving customerserviceasaresultofbreakingdown departm entalsilos. M y personalgoalistodowhateverittakestosupporttheleader- shipinm akingthishappen.'' Thatanswerwon'tdo.lt'smachinetalk.H umansdon'tspeak like that.Orifthey do,it'sacorruption ofwhatit'slike to be hum an. lchallengehim :''lheard whatyousaid,and lstilldon'tun- derstandyourcompany'sbusiness.W hatdoesitdo?'' ''ltmanufacturesindustrial-strength piping/''hesays.
  • 26. CH ANGE TH EIVIOIVIENT W ITH W ORDS ''W hydoestheworldneed industrial-strength piping?'' ''W ithoutit,you couldn'terectskyscrapers,run submarines, havelastingsewersystems.'' ''Soyourproducthelpsbuildcities?'' ''ltdoes'' ''Protectsthenation'scoasts?'' leS. ''W ashesawaywasteandsafeguardspeoplefrom disease?'' ''Yes youcouldlookatitthatway.'' ''W hydoesyourcompanywanttobetheleaderinthisfield?'' ''W edeservetobetheleader.W edon'thidebehindmarketing claims,likesomeofourcompetitors.W egivethecustomerwhat the/repayingfor.Heavy-dutymaterialstrength.'' ''You talked aboutbreaking down departmentalsilos.W hat didyoum ean?'' ''Attimes,peopleindifferentdepartm entsdon'tcommunicate well.They don'tshareinformation.Theydon'thelp oneanother asmuchastheycould.'' ''lfyou gotthem sharing inform ation and acting asa team, whatwouldhappen?'' ''W ewouldm akeourproductsevenbetter,becausethere'dbe astrongercross-fertilizationofideas.'' ''lfthathappened,how wouldyourjobbedifferent?'' ''l'd probably havemoreresponsibility.There'd bemoreem - ployeesunderme,andl'dbeworkingonbiggerprojects.W hich isfineby me.l'm muchbetterwhenthepressure'son.'' ''W hatelse?'' ''l'm inon theprofit-sharing plan,so l'dstand tomakeagood dealmoremoney.'' ''W hatwouldyoudowiththatmoney?'' ''H alfwouldgo into my kids'collegefund,and halfwould go toward aEuropeanvacation.'' lturn to the nextperson atthe table and listen to herre- sponses.lfthey arecrispand authentic,lm oveon.lfnot,lques- tion herforaslong asittakesto gethertotellmewhatshetruly
  • 27. 16 CI-IANGETI-IEM OM EN T hopesforherselfand theorganization.lwanttohearrealmoti- vations,inreallanguage. Bythetimeeveryonehasspoken,there'sanexcitementinthe room .W hy?Becauseofthehonesty.Co-workersare seeingco- workersasthey really are,maybeforthefirsttime.They under- stand oneanother'sassumptionsand aspirations. Theroom alsopulsesbecauseofthepelsonal,emotion-laden, word-pictureseachpersonispainting.Theplaceisfillingwithlife. Dryconceptshavebecomevivid.Deadscenesnow danceandsing. lcoaxlivelywordsandimageryfrom peoplein orderto acti- vatetheirim aginationsand hearts.lgetthem seeing in threedi- mensionsand speaking abouttheirthoughtsin waysthatshift perspective.lthen repeatback to them whatl'veheard,intheir ownlanguage,and ladd somelanguageofmy own to heighten themoment. lputeveryoneinto thefuture.laskthem toseetheirorgani- zation twoyearsfrom now.lt'sreacheditsgoaland istheleader in itsfield.M orepiping isbeing shipped.Clients are building stronger,saferstructureswithit.Eventhemediaisimpressed.Tor- tggehasdonean articleonthecompany,ashasTorbes. Because oftheprofit-sharing program,everyone'ssalary has increased.Theirmoney isgoing where they wantitto go:into collegefunds,savingsplans,buyinganew house,anew car,atrip toEurope. laskthepeopleto picturethemselvesatthecorporatecele- bration.lt'satarockclub.TheirCEO hasrentedouttheclubfor thenight,and abandisplayingeveryone'sfavoritesongs.Spread outacrosstables are fun foods:steaks,burritos,tacos,pizza.l havemy clientssmellthecheeseonthepizza,thecilantrosprin- kled onthetacos. TheCEO standsandaskseveryonetojoinhim inatoast:''To a11ofyouform akingthisorganizationdosomuch,sofast.''They clink glasses,drink down the champagne,and head outto the dance floor.O nly then doesthe organization'sscheduled plan- ningsessionbegin.W hy?
  • 28. FJAZJSAZDPLJSJIGSSJIVJSJVJF KNOW S EIVIOTION TRUIVIPSLOGIC Becausetheparticipantsarenow in adifferentpsychological place.Theirm omenthaschanged.W heretheywereclosed,they are now open.W here they were hesitant,they arenow giving. W herethey wereproblem -focused,they are now goal-focused. - .r'/?:?ijjerenceintllefrrlfgkstrtggs/tgtesfgto(g?ijjerenceo-ft/gtg/ft.')rintllefr!)/(g.lï- niny.ltisaspirited,productivesession,onethey willremember. O newhosememorywillguidethem through therealwork that mustbedoneiftheirvisionistobecomeareality. THE J-JASJ/A#.D BLISINESSREW fV/KNO W S EM O TIO N TRUM PS LO GIC lfusingwordsto alterperspectiveseemstoo much likehypnosis foryou,1etmepointyouto theSeptember-october2000issue oftheJ-ftgrptgrkBusinessReview.lnan articleentitled''GettingtheAt- tention YouNeed/''authorsThomasDavenportandJohn Beck discussastudythey conductedwith 60executives. Theauthorsaskedeach executiveto m akenoteofhisorher interestlevelconcerning the messagesthey received in agiven week.Thosemessagescouldhavecometothem throughconver- sation,e-m ail,phonecalls,oravariety ofothermedia.The re- sult?D avenportandBeckwrote: Overall,thefactorsmosthighlyassociatedwithgettingrtheexec- utives'lattention,inrankorder,were:themessagewaspersonal- ized.,itevoked an emotionalresponse,itcame from atrustworthy orrespected sender,and.itwasconcise.The messagesthat170th evoked em otion and.were personalized were m ore than twice as likely tobeattendedtoasthemessageswithoutthoseattributes. 1'11repeatthatlastsentence,with my addedemphasis:''Them es- sagesthat170th evoke?twlotfo.lïand werebersonalize?weremorethan twiceaslikelytobeattendedtoasthemessageswithoutthoseat- tributes.'' To getattention,to beremembered,to changethemoment, you mustmake yourmessagespersonaland evoke emotion in
  • 29. CHANGETH EM OM EN T yourlistener.ltdoesn'tmatterifyourlistenerisanautomechanic, orthe executive ofaconglomerate.You mustalterthingsfor them,inthem,ifyouwantto succeed. Y Backroom 'Ilpsto ChangetheM oment + Stobtlofzqgll/tglrfg. pyourfrlllorttggcetot/?efzqor/k.Supposeyoumanu- facturebricks.Yourproductcanbeusedtobuildanouthouse oracathedral,sowhy assumeit'11beused in theformerand notthelater? ln general,peoplearem odestabouttheirabilitiesandthe rolethattheirproductsandservicescanplayinsociety.W hy? Perhapsit'sbecausethey'reafraid to standout.Orthe/re scaredthatiftheyelevatetheirsights,they'llbedisappointed. W hateverthereason,beingoverlymodestdoesn'tservethem ortheworld. l'm nottellingyoutoboastorm akefalseclaims,butwhy wouldn'tyouwanttothinkandactasifyouandyourproduct can serveourcivilization'shighestideals,ifsuch elevation is possible?lfyou'reapublisher,youdon'tproducemerebooks, yougivepeoplethemeanstotranscendtheircurrentstation in life.Yougivethem knowledgethattheycan translateinto real-world achievements.Youprovidethem with restand sol- acewhen daily lifeprovestoo much.Youhelp readersfocus on hum ankind'shigherideals.Thesearewonderfulandgen- uinequalities.W hy notclaim them ? To changethemomentforothers,youmustfirstdoitfor yourself.Giveyourselfawider,deeperunderstandingofhow you and yourofferingsbenefitthe world.Push yourselfon this.Selectaclientbenefitthatyourworkbrings,andfurther ituntilyougetaclearpictureofhow ithelpstheworld. lfyou produce microchipsforan automobile m anufac- turer,youprotectthelivesofmillionsofpeoplewho count on yourwork to getthem to and from theirdestinationsin safety.
  • 30. FJAZJSAZDPLJSJIGSSJIVJSJVJF KNOW S EIVIOTION TRUIVIPSLOGIC lfyoumanufacturedressshoes,you helppeoplefeelbet- terabouthow theylooksothattheycangothroughtheirday with moreconfidence. lfyouorganizeofficespace,youhelp businessesfunction more smoothly so theiremployeesarelessstressed and can spendm oretimem akingthecompanymoney. Thisisnotasnow job,snakeoil,orself-deception.lt'sa fulllookatwhyyoudowhatyoudo. + Use(gIlersogkjavore?imayery(gs(grletggsojc/gtgg-t/fg.pt/?erlorleat-for t/gtwl.Peoplespeakastheythink.Theirspoken languagemir- rorstheway they processconceptsin theirhead.So when you'respeakingwith som eone,pay attention to thetypesof metaphorsheuses,and to the specific languagethatexcites her.lfyoucanframeyourconceptsintheirtypesofmetaphor or by using their language,you increase your chance of changing themomentforthem andgettingthem to remem - berwhatyousay. For instance, someone m ay use lots of sound-based metaphorswhen talking:''lt'sasclearasabell''''lhearwhat ou'resaying/'''That'smusicto myears.''lfso you'd positiony , yourconceptinanauditorycontext:''M aybethiswillstrikea chordwithyou.'' Ofcourse,ifyoudon'tusethistechniquejudiciously,it can betransparent.Pick yourspotsforit.W hen you do it properly,thelistenerswillcarryyourideaswith them along tim e. + Asê(gquestiontlltgtsegksbeobleintotllefrp st,intotllefr-j-fïtfïre,orjlibs tllefrbetsbective.Although you can'tcontrolanother'sthoughts, youcaninfluencepeopletothinkinnew directions.Oneway to do thatisthrough theuseofquestions.Specifically,t/fïes- tfogstlltgtrtwlopetlltwl-j-rorltllefrcfïrreatsftfïtgtfog. O ne type ofquestion luse focuseson thepast.Forin- stance:
  • 31. CHANGETH EIVIOIVIEN T ''Te11m eaboutatimeyouwerelostinbusiness.'' ''W hat'sthe mostsignificantbusinesslesson youke learned inthepasttwoyears?'' Notice that these questions are based upon emotion- ladenthemes.Thelisteneris''lost''and haslearned a''signifi- cant''workplacelesson.-.r'/?:rloreextranet/?esftfïtgtfogyourt/fïestfo.lï (gkkresses,t/?erlorelikely you'llclltgelget/?erlorleat-j-ortlltgtlistener(ggt:t obenfï!lt/?ecogperstgtfo.lïinfïgexllectet:tyetrltwlortgl'/eways. Llsingthesameideaofappealingtotheextrem es,youcan ask questionsthatalsoputpeopleinto thefuture: ''lfyou reached yourgoalthree monthsearly,whatwould youdowith thatextratime?'' ''W herewillyou bethistimenextyear,ifyou continue to holdthatassumption?'' And you can takepeopleoutoftheircurrentreality by get- tingthem to flipaperspectiveandcreateanew reality: ''W hatwouldhaveto happen foryourmostagonizingbusi- nessproblem tobesolvedtoday?'' ''lm agineyou had to runyourbusinesswith halfyourstaff. H ow wouldyoumakeitwork?'' Become a question junkie.Collectinteresting inquiries and trythem outin casualconversationwith businessassoci- ates.Seewhereyourquestionstakepeople.Thesequestions show youhow easy itistochangethemomentforothers. ln theend,influence isn'tso much azero-sum game of m anipulationtechniques,asitisawayoftransportingpeople to adifferentplace.lfyoukechosen thatplacecarefully,the peoplewillbem orereceptivetoyourideasandrequests. + Dosometbiny0gtojt/?egorpl.Changingthemomentisa11about givingpeopletheunexpected,whetheritbeanew ideaorthe framearoundwhichyoupresentthatidea. ln the next chapter,you'lllearn aboutTransform ation M echanism s,which are distinctive metaphorsyou perform
  • 32. FJAZJSAZDPLJSJIGSSJIVJSJVJF KNOW S EIVIOTION TRUIVIPSLOGIC that enable you to communicate your ideas in mom ent- changingways.Theyattractattentionandcommunicatewith substance.Butdon'tfeelyouhavetoputon aperformanceto dosomethingoutofthenorm. lfyou're involved in anegotiation,you could overnight theotherparty aletterreiteratingasinglepointyoumadethe day before;thatpointwillstand outmorepowerfully than it did duringyourconversation. lfyouhaveguestsoverfordinner,you couldcook adish with aspecialingredientandusethisingredientasameansof changing people'sfocuson whatthe/reeating.lknow a womanwho broughtback aspicefrom hertrip to lndiaand useditin adish.Thisspiceinitiatednight-longconversations aboutlndia,theTajM ahal,worldtravel,foreignpolitics,and U.S.history.Quiteamoment-changerforafew pennies. + Cbanyet/gerlorlt':tJ/ectggseffstberl//?ttbinytot10.W henlspotacranky child on aflight,lsitnexttohim.Asafatherofthree,lknow whatit'slikefortheotherpassengelswhenachildisrestless. lreach into my pocket,removeasquareofpaper,white on oneside,blackon theother,and lstartfolding.Thechild watches.lturntohim andsay:''l'm makingajack-in-the-box. W henl'm finished,Jackwillbewearingatuxedo,ashirt,a tie,andgloves.W henyouliftthe1id ofhisbox,he'llpopup. A11from thisonesheetofpapen'' The child leans closerto watch.lgethim involved.l m akefoldsand1ethim pressdownthecreases.W henl'm fin- ished,lhaveabox,whichlopen,andoutspringsJack.lthen hand the origamisculpture to the child,as a gif-t.ltis a whimsym adeespecially forhim . lcan'tknow thisforsure,but1'11bethe'llremem berthat moment.H e'11recallthetimethemanon theairplanefolded ajack-in-the-boxforhim. W hatdid ldo?Did lm ake asix-figuresale?N o.W hatl didwasgiveachild amomentoffascination.Someentertain- ment.Somehappiness.
  • 33. T H E T RAN SFO RM AT IO N M EC H A N ISM y favoriteway to changethemomentisthrough a Transformation M echanism.lowe a1otto mecha- nisms.Theykehelpedfeed and clothemyfamily,as wellaspayformyhomeandcals.They'reoneofthe mostpowerfultoolsyoucanusetopelsuadeinbusinessandinlife. W hatisaTransformationM echanism?lt'satrickwithapoint. A mechanism putspeoplein apleasurestate,andthat'swhereyou wantthem .O ffbusiness,on pleasure.ltsetsa receptive atmo- sphere.W hen you use amechanism,people are more likely to lowertheirdefensesandgiveyourideasanhonesthearing.Amec/?- (ggfsm fs(grlettgll/gorrltgtlebbysical,(gg;tt/ggsrltgtlerltwlortgl'/e(gg;tIlersgtgsfpe. M ETAPH O RSASA M EAN S O FM AKIN G SEN SE Everyoneknowsthepowerofm etaphors.Theyhelpusbetterun- derstandoneideaby relating itto anotheridea.H ere'san exam - ple.lfsomeonetold you thatshe had trouble sleeping because
  • 34. IVIETAPH ORSASA IVIEAN SOFIVIAKING SENSE 23 hermattresswas''hardasarock/''wouldyouunderstandwhatshe meant?Ofcourse.You'dknow thatshecouldn'tsleepbecausethe m attresshad no giveto it.Themetaphoricalphrase''hard asa rock''helpsyouseeandfeelthem attress'sstiffness.lfyoukeever slepton ahard mattress,youmay even experienceabacktwinge justreadingthephrase.That'sthepowerofmetaphors. H ereisanotherexample.Amongyourincominge-m ailm es- sagesyouseeonewith thesubjectline''Upgrading YourCom- puterlsNow AsEasy AsTying YourShoes.''W hat'sthismean? Again,ano-brainer.Somecompanypromisestom akeyourcom - puter run better, and installing its product is simple. The metaphoricalphrase ''aseasy astying yourshoes''conveysthis thought.Afterall,wea11learned to tieourshoeswhen wewere fouryearsold,sowhatcouldbeeasier? M etaphorsareeverywhere.lfyoutookanhourtomonitora11 themetaphorsyoureadin booksanda11them etaphoricalim ages youseeontelevision,yourheadwouldswim (which,bytheway, isanothermetaphor). llook to my bookshelves,and on oneshelfalonethere are enough bookswith metaphoricaltitlesto keep me busy fora month:Pgrll/eCow)Hell'sAgle/s?T'/?efxecgtfoger'sSony)T'/?e'Ih?yerin.l T'ofzqg?kklfrtgdeivonyers)J//tg//tf'lg 0.lïAllèators)and Steeriny t/?eCrtg/. M etaphorsoneand a11:waysofmakingyouinterestedinonesub- jectbycloakingitinthewordsandimageryofanother.Youdon't actuallywalkonalligatorsin J//tg//tf'lg 0.lïAllèators,andSteerinyt/?e Crajtisabookaboutwriting. ln oneTV commercial,afinancialservicescompany isrepre- sented by abull.ln another,asportsutility vehicledrivesup a canyonwallatasupernaturalangle.Theseimagesdon'thaveadi- rect,one-to-onecorrespondencewithreality.The/remeantto convey an idea,afeeling.To createafeeling,commercialsoften go to extrem es. H ere's a soda commercial:A teenager is soaring through cloudsonaskateboard,andaflockofgeesefliesby.Theteenager whipsoutacan and sprayssodainto them outhsofthe thirsty
  • 35. TI-IETp-/ttqsyolklklATlox M ECI-IAN ISM geese.Thegratefulbirdsbreaktheirtraditionalform ationanduse theirbodiesto form thesodacom pany'slogo.Thoseim agesare metaphorical.Teenagers and skateboards don'tfly,and geese don'tform logos.Youknow that,lknow that,thesodacompany knowsthat. W hatthecompany istryingtodoism akeusunderstandone thing(thetasteofthesoda),byexplainingitthroughtheimage ofsomething else(the skateboarding teenagerand thegeese). Thecompany wantsusto havecertain thoughtswhen wethink ofitssoda.ltwantsustothinkYouth,Freedom,andDaring.lfit cam e outand said,''O ursodafsYouth,Freedom,and Daring/'' we'd be skeptics.Butifthecommercialworksand we associate thosequalitieswiththatsoda,itworksbecauseofmetaphor.En- tertainingmetaphor. M AKIN G TH E SH IFT TO M ECH AN ISM S Formostpeople,perform ing aTransform ation M echanism re- quiresanew wayofthinking.The/renotusedtoinfluencing othersthrough metaphor,entertainment,humor,orfun. Tothem ,influenceseemsagrim game.Theyapproachpresen- tations,negotiations,andmeetingsasifthe/remarchingintoa firefight.Theyfigureiftheyhavetheirfactsstraightandtheirlogic issound,theiropinionsshould win out.And ifitlooksasifthey aren'twinning,theymightturntointimidationtogettheirway. l'm notknocking seriousness,determination,facts,logic,or even intimidation.Those thingshave theirplace.(l,forone, wouldn'twantmylawyerwritingjokesintoacontractthatcalls forairtightlegalreason.)W hatl'm sayingisthatabullrushtothe heartofthem atterisn'talwaysthebestpersuasiontactic. W earen'tm achines.W edon'tprocesslogiclinearly aswellas som emightthink.A criticalpointthat'sobviousto youm ay be invisibletome. A Transform ation M echanism highlightsyourcriticalpoint and presentsitto thelistenerin away impossibleto miss.The
  • 36. THE M ECHAN ISIVIIN ACTION mechanism isalearning lesson doneup asan intriguing dem on- stration. THE M ECH AN ISM IN ACTIO N ln Chapter1,youreadabouthow lusedarubberbandtoclosea sale.The band wasamechanism .lthelped influence my client whenwordswerehavinglittleeffect. M yclientbelievedthatthetradeshow crowdslattractwould hurtherbusiness.Shereasonedthatwithamob ather1700th,her targetm arketwouldstay clear.lknew differently.From adecade ofexperience,lknew thatmy pitcheswould attractconvention attendeesofevery stripe- includingthepeoplefrom hermarket. Notonly would hermarketflock,butthey'd be impressed that hercompanywasattractingsuchheavytraffic. Thatrubberband transformedthem omentforher.ltturned hermind 180degrees.lttookherobjection and madeitintoa reasonforhiring me.H ad lnotused themetaphoroftherubber band,lwouldneverhavepersuadedhertosignmeon. Letmeshow youanotherexampleofamechanism l'veused, so youcanseetheconcept'sutility.Afterthat,1'11teachyouhow toconstructRnduseyourownmeclnanisms. W ith thismechanism,lwasn'teven in thesamepartofthe country astheperson lwastryingto influence.Theheadofsales atam anufacturerphoned,asking meto speak athercompany's annualtwo-day conference.Shewanted meto tellastory,do a demonstration,createexcitement.Fine,lcoulddothat.Theonly problem ?Shewanted ascript. ''Youmean anoutlineofmygeneralconcepts?''lasked. ''N o''shesaid ''lneedafullscript.lt'scompanypolicyforany speaker.W ewanttomakesureyourmessagesandoursjibe.'' ''ldon'tworkfrom ascript/''lsaid.''lhavespecificideaslwant togetacrosstotheaudience,andthen lusewhatevermeansnec- essarytogetthoseideasacross.'' ''l'm sorrythen.W ecan'tdobusiness.''
  • 37. TH ETRANSFORM ATION IVIECHAN ISIVI The nextday she received an overnightdelivery envelope from me.lnit,wasaletterthatsaidthefollowing: 1'm sorrywehaveyettocometoan agreem ent.lfyou don'tmind., though,1'd.likeyoutod.om eafavor.W illyouparticipateinaquick experiment?lfso,readon. Think ofanumberfrom onetoten. M ultiply yournumberby nine. lftheresultingnumberistwodigitslong(e.g.J15)Jactd.those digitstogether(e.g.J1+5=6). You now haveanew numberinyourhead..Subtractfivefrom it. Taketheresultrand.think oftheletterofthealphabetthatcorre- spond.swith it.SoJifyou'rethinking ofthenumberonerthecorre- sponding letter would be A. lf you're thinking of tw or the correspondingletterwouldbel).And.so forth. Think ofacountrywhosenamestartswith thatletter. Thentakethesecond letterinthatcountry'snamerand.thinkof ananim alwhosenamebeginswith thatletter. Think ofthatanimal'scomm oncolor. Finished?Please phone meon my cellphonerightnow.1don't carewhattimeoftheday ornightitis.1willanswer. W hen lanswered hercall,shewaslaughing.''Areyou going toreadmymind?''sheasked. ''lbelieve so/''lsaid.''Focuson the im agesdancing in your mind.Keep focusing.M y brain isreceiving apicturefrom your brain,butthepicture doesn'tm akesense.lt'sofsomething that doesn'texist. ''Afterall,therearenograyelephantsin Denmarkl'' The woman gasped.Based on my written instructions,she had been thinking ofgray elephantsin Denm ark.Apparently,l hadreadhermind. ''Thatisun-frigging-reall/''shesaid. lthendidsomethingunusual.lexplainedthestunt.
  • 38. TI-IE M ECI-IAN ISM Ix Ac-rlox W eread backoverthesheet,and ldiscussed each step:how anynumberfrom 1to 10multipliedby 9musthave9asthesum ofitsdigits;how theresultingcalculationforcesthem tothinkof theletter?;how mostpeoplewillthinkofDenmark (withthe DominicanRepublicadistantsecond);how thesecondletterin Denmark,which ise,willalmostalwayslead toe/ell/gtggtandlrtgy. W henwewerefinished,shecoulddo thestuntaswellas1. ''N ow how doyoufeelaboutit?''lasked. ''N eat.Thanksforsharingit.'' ''Doyouseewhatjusthappened?'' ''Yourreaction wentfrom 'un-frigging-reall'to 'neat.'W hy? Because now you know how it's done.Knowing how certain thingsaredoneisaletdown. ''M oreto thepoint:Knowing how certain thingsaredoneis unnecessary. ''Youwantmeto openyourconferencewith abang,so that the5OOpeopleattendingwillbeexcitedaboutwhatthey'reabout tolearn.Youwantthem to seethepossibility andpowerthatlies ahead forthem .Youwantthem believingin themselves,andyou wanttheirmindsfully presentatthatconference,so they give youtheirbesteffortandtheirbestideas.Correct?'' o rrec . ''How lgetthose500peopletoexperiencepowerand possi- bility,then,isa11thatmatters.H ow lgetthem to thatstate is unimportant.You're notpaying m e formy wordsand actions. You'repayingmebecauseoftheenergyandfocuslhelpothersto jr JJcrea e. Shehad to discussthe matterwith som ehigher-ups,butin the end,l gotthe contract.The Transformation M echanism helpedm akeanabstractconceptvivid.ltsmessage- thatprocess isunimportant,aslong astheresultisstrong- hithomeforher. Themechanism didn'tclosethedealonitsown,butithelpedme readdressherconcernsin anew light.
  • 39. TH ETRANSFORIV ATION IVIECHAN ISIVI TAKIN G AN EN TERTAIN M ENT INVENTO RY l'vecalled amechanism atrick,butitcan alsobeotherthings:a puzzle,ariddle,aconundrum ,apieceoforigami.Anything that entertains,ismemorable,flipsperspective,andgivesclarity qual- ifiesasamechanism. To getafeelforhow tousemechanism s,takeaninventoryof whatyou already know how to do.W hatskillsand interestsdo you havethatm ay laterhelp you proveapointmetaphorically? W ritedownyouranswers. J//lltgtttgsêsijo.'y.0gijokgrf'lg (gtvorlulay?Do you chairmeetings with scientists?Areyouexpertatreachingdecision m ak- ers?Canyoudraw amean Venn diagram ?Canyouwrite e-m ailthatalwaysgetanswered?Doyoukeep aflawless dailyorganizer? J//lltgtareyourbobbies? Do you collecttwentieth-century LI.S. stamps?Build colonialshipsin bottles? Read hard-boiled thrillers?Skidouble-blackdiamonds?Hitinabattingcage? J//lltgtskillst10youlltgpe?Can you bakeachocolate cake?Fish like apro?Sketch arealisticstilllife?Build asturdy bu- reau?Throw and catch aFrisbeelikeagradstudent? J//lltgttrfcês(ggt:tbuzzlest10youêgofz??Canyoujuggleknives?Find aselected card from ashuffled pack?Add rowsofthree- digitnumbersinyourhead?Startfirewithsticks?Dothe Sbgrb. ')r'Jlmescrosswordin50minutes? J//lltgtfst/?equirkiesttllf'lg youtzaof.p/90f,17to?o?Canyourubabottle againstawallso thebottlesticks?Createalobsteroutof asheetofpaper?Callthetossofacoin seven timesin a row?Fixasix-cylinderenginewith ahairpin?N ameeach partofamapleleaf? Ijyoutverein(gttg/t'lïtsllofz?,f.plltgtf.pogzyour(gctbe?Wouldyoudo impersonations? Recite apoem ? Drum on empty paint cans?H itabullk-eyewith an arrow at20paces?Beatthe baseofahumanpyramid? L steverythingthatcomesto mind,mundaneorextraordinary.
  • 40. H OW DO YO U BUILD A IVIECHAN ISIVI? 29 H O W D O YO U BU ILD A M ECH ANISM ? Creatingyourownmechanism iseasy,onceyougetthehangof it.Let'screateonenow.Thinkofacurrentpersuasion problem .lt can be important,butnothing too heavy.Nothing thatm akes youcringe.Pickaproblem thatyoucanplaywith,soyoucanget afeelforthistechnique.Yourproblem couldbefrom theofficeor from yourpersonallife. O nceyouhavethatproblem ,extractthehigh conceptfrom it.lnotherwords,cutawaya11thedetailandthinkoftheproblem inonegeneralline.Forinstance: ''lwanttoconvincemy bossto1etmehandleaproject,but he'snotsurel'm ready.'' ''lwantthe media interested in my firm'sCD-RO M action gameattherolloutparty.'' ''lwantmy neighborto help me getoutword thatthelocal governmentischanging the zoning in ourarea,and it could hurthomeowners.'' ''lwantto convincemydaughtertobem oreresponsiblewith herallowancemoney.'' Getit?There'sdetailenough thatthesituation isrecogniz- able,butnotenough detailto tellacompletestory.Youwantthe headline.Thethumbnailsketch. Now takethatconceptandmatchituptoeachtaskyoudo,tal- entyouhave,andtrickyouknow,andseeifoneshedslightonthe other.Supposeyouhavetheproblem,''lwanttoconvincemyboss to1etmehandleaproject,buthe'snotsurel'm ready.''Suppose, too,thatyourinventory listcontainsthe entry,''Can throw and catch aFrisbeelikeagradstudent.''H ow mightthosetworelate? Let'ssee.Yourbossdoesn'tthinkyouhaveenoughexperience andexpertisetomaketheprojectwork.Andwhileyoumaybea world-classFrisbeeplayernow,therewasatimewhenyouhadno ideahow tothrow one. W hen you were nine yearsold,you'd watch the teenagels throw Frisbeesonthebeach.Youaskedifyoucouldtry.O neofthe
  • 41. TI-IETp-/ttqsyolklklATlox M ECI-IAN ISM teenagerstossedyoutheFrisbeeandithityouintheface.Youtried tothrow itstraight,butyoumusthaveheldittoolong,anditwent widerightby 10yards.W iththeteenagels'guidance,though,you improvedquickly.A shorttimeafterthat,youweregreat. YoubelievetheFrisbeeexperienceandyourcurrentproject situation have adirectparallel.Atthispointyourbossmay be right:Youmightnothandletheprojectexpertly.Butyou'renot goingtogetbetterbyhangingback.Youneedtolearnbydoing. That'show you became world class atthrowing aFrisbee,and that'show you'llgetgoodonprojects.Sure,theprojectismore importantand difficultthan learning tothrow aFrisbee,butthe waytoexcelatitisthesame.By doing. H ow couldyouusethisparallel?lnanumberofways: You could meetwith theboss,takeoutaFrisbee,spin iton yourfinger,ask him ifhe'severplayed before,tellhim yourstory,andrelateitto theprojectsituation.ln that scenario,theFrisbeeinitiallyactsasan attention-grabber, and thenyouuseittom akeametaphoricalpoint. O r,youcould discusstheproblem firstand bringtheFrisbee outofyourbriefcaselater,asameansofintensifyinghis interestonthepointyou'reaboutto make. O r,you and aco-workercould play Frisbee on the lawn in frontofyouroffice building,and whenyourbosscom es out,youm akesureheseesyoudoingtricks.O utthere,or laterinhisoffice,youpointouttheparallels. Noticethatineachcase,thephysicalobject- acolorfulFris- bee- servesasaway to transform themoment.You'renotjust tellingastory aboutlearning tothrow aFrisbee,you'rebringing yourbossbacktothatpointintimewhenyouwereanovice,and thenyou'redemonstratingyourskillnow.You'regivinghim avis- ceralexperience. A mechanism worksbestwhen it'stangible.W hen there'sa demonstration.W hen theperson you'retryingto persuade gets
  • 42. H OW DO YO U BUILD A IVIECHAN ISIVI? involved in the situation m entally,emotionally,and physically. Thereasons? Situationslikethatareunusualduring thecourseofanormal day.Butwhenyouputaperson into asafe,intriguing,entertain- ment-based,out-of-the-ordinarysituation,shecan'tuseherstan- dard defenses to shield herselffrom you.She can'tgo to her defaultthinkingstrategiesasameansofmentally dismissingyour argument.Shehasto reactdifferently,becausetheexternalstim - u1iaredifferent.She'smoreopentowhatyouhavetosay because youkeforcedherinto beingopen. Twomorequickexamplesofusingwhatyou alreadyknow as amechanism : J'ogr!)r0J?/tpl:''lwantmy neighborto help me getoutword abouthow thelocalgovernm entischanging the zoning inourarea,and how itcouldhurthomeowners.'' A liney'rorlyourfgpeatory:''lcollecttwentieth-century U.S. jr JJsam ps. rlec/gtggfsrl: You meet with your neighbor and pull a Theodore Roosevelt stamp from yourwallet.You talk aboutyourhobby and thestamp'svalue.You also draw a parallelbetweenRooseveltandyourproblem:''Today,we know Teddywasagreatpresident,an inspiring historical figure.Butbackwhenhewasinoffice,peopledidn'tjust rolloverforhim and do whathe said.He foughtsome powerfulenemies.ln particular,he busted up illegalbig business- thetrusts.Now,l'm notcom paringourzoning problem with trusts,butdamnit,Teddy didn't1etpeople havetheirwayjustbecausetheyhadmoney.W rongwas wrong.Asfarasl'm concerned,that'sthekind ofbattle we'reinnom ''Thestamp actsasamechanism and givesa historicalbackdrop toyourargum ent. J'ogrIlrolp/erl:''lwantthe mediainterested in my firm's CD - RO M action gameattherolloutparty.''
  • 43. TI-IETp-/ttqsyolklklATlox M ECI-IAN ISM A /fge-frorlyourfgpeatory:''lcanjuggleknives.'' A rlec/gtggfsrl:Attherolloutparty,startjugglingknivesasanat- tention getter.Telltheattendingmediathatwhileknives may bedangerous,you canjugglesomething farmore deadly.Putdown theknivesandjugglecopiesofyour CD -RO M action game.Tellthe people,''Actually,the dangerhereisnotinjugglingthesegames.lt'sinplaying them.''Displaythegam esonascreen,andshow how your company hascreated aCD-ROM with moreblood and gutsthan any gameevermade.Yourproductisgiving its targetm arketexactly whatitwants.Theknivesgraphi- cally setacontextforscreeningthegame. W H AT IFYO U DO N 'T HAVE A SKILL O R D O N 'T KN O W O FA PU ZZLE YO U CAN USE? Fearnotifyouhavenoskillorpuzzletouse:J-foa?toPersgtgkePeoble J///?0Dog'tJ//tggttoBePersgtgtle;ttotherescue!lconsidertheTrans- formation M echanism to be such apowerfulpersuaderthatl've loadedthisbookwith 20 ofmyfavorites.Thereisnoguesswork here.lhaveused each and can attesttoitspower.Youhaveonly tolearn andpracticethem . lnfact,it'sagoodideatotrythesemechanism sbeforeyoure- ally need them .Thatway yougetcomfortable attracting atten- tion andbeing bold.Trythem atlunchesandinform almeetings, and asicebreakerswith seatm atesaboard planes.The ideaisto havefun andtokeepyoureyesopen fortim eswhenyoucan use them as metaphoricalpersuadersin key situations.lfyou get good atperforming them now,they willpay dividendsforyou whenyouneedthem most. ln therestofthisbook,lincludeamechanism attheend of eachchapter,inthehopethatiflspoonthem outinsm alldoses,
  • 44. w HAT IFYOLlD ON'T HAVEA SKILL? you'lltry each mechanism then and there.Atthebook'sconclu- sion,lofferyouan additionalfourmechanismstodraw upon. lalso describeeachmechanism aspartofanimaginarysitua- tion in which you are the m ain character.Presented thatway, thesesituationswillgiveyou additionalideasabouthow to use thesemechanismsinyourownlife. Y Backroom ''llpsIorPerlormingTranslormation M echanism s + lfyouwantpracticedrawingconnectionsbetween unrelated ideasandobjects- askillthat'sattheheartofcreatingpotent mechanisms- here'sagametoplay. Slip offoneofyourshoesandstudy it.H ow isthatshoelike yourthorniestbusinessproblem?(lfyou'rehavingtrouble finding aparallel,break yourshoedown into itscom po- nents.How does the stitching relate to yourproblem? Thelaces?Theheel?Soundscrazy,lknow,butitcondi- tionsyoutothinkflexibly.) Look atthe ground you're standing on.How isitlike your life? L stentothesoundsaroundyouandpickone.How isitlikea businessgoal? Takeanitem from yourwallet.H ow isitlikethesunrise? Examineyourcomputer'skeyboard.How isitliketomorrow? W hen youke answered these questions,make up your own.Duringyourdrivehome,forinstance,picktwoitems(a green light and a hydrant,a crosswalk and a billboard,a rearview mirrorandasongontheradio)andaskyourselfhow they arerelated.
  • 45. TH ETRANSFORIVIATION IVIECHAN ISIVI A TransformationM echanism:TheM agazineTest Thestene You/rethedirectorofa marketingfirm,seated infirstclassonacross- countryflight.Nexttoyousitsaprosperous-lookingwoman,clearly anexecutivefype,thumbingthroughamagazine.Youexchangewel- coming nods. A few minutesintothetrip,youstrike upaconversationabout thedestination,theweather,herprofession.Shegivesbrief,politean- swersaboutherdatabasecompany andasksaboutyourIivelihood. Yousmile,Ieanin,andwhisper:zzDoyoureallywanttoknow? It'sa Iittlefrightening.Somepeoplecan'thandleit.'' Youroddanswermomentarilystartlesher.She'susedtohaving herquestionsansweredwithoutpreambleorartifice.Yetsheisin- trigued.Becauseyoudon'tappeardangerous- seated infirstclass, elegantlydressed- shedecidestogo alongandpressesyouformore information. ''Icreatefeelingsonagrandscale''yousay.zzMaiorcorpora- tions,IikeAppleand Dell,hire metocreateaspecifictypeoffeeling intheirclients.'' Shewondershow youdothat. zzLetmegiveyoua demonstration.'' Asyouconspicuouslyturnaway,youaskthewomantopickup hermagazine.zzFagethroughit,''yousay,zzfloodyourmindwithin- formation.Thatmagazinehasfwohundred orso pages,withhun- dredsofpicturesandthousandsofwords.Keepflipping backand forth.LetaIIthatinformationwhiparound insideyourhead. zzNow geta random numberinmind ...andturntothatpage. Scanthepage,noticethewords,Iotsofwords,gotothetopIine. LookattheIongestwordonthatIine.Imagine itpulsing.Seeitflash- ing.Seethatwordflashingasifit'sonawebsitescreen.M akethat word bright.Turnupthecontrast.Brighter.Brighter.Brighterstill.Shut the magazinel'' (continoed)
  • 46. W HAT IFYOU D ON'T HAVEA SKILL? (Continoed) Turningback,youreachintoyouriacketpocket,extractabusi- nesscard,scribblesomething acrossitsbackand hand itfacedown to thewoman.''W hatwordareyouthinkingof?''youask. Shesays ''E e Iasses.'', y g Youtellherto turnoverthecard.There,to herastonishment,is yourdrawingofa pairofeyeglasses. ''W ouldyouIiketoknow how Ididthatk'' Shewouldl ''Ithoughtso,''yousay,''andthatfeelingyou/reexperiencing rightnow is,inasense,whatIdofora Iiving.Ihead amarketing company,and,asIsaid,maiorcorporationshireustofashioncam- paignsthatcreatecertainfeelingsintheirclients.Inthiscase,Iwas tryingto makeyoufeelwonder,and ...''Bythetimetheflight Iands,you'repracticallyoId friends,andyouhaveanappointmentto meetwithherandhercompany'sprincipalsto see how youmight bestrepresentherfirm. Behlnd the Stene Inventedintheearly 1960sbypreacherDavidHoy,thiseasy-to-do mechanism canconvincepeoplethatyouhavepsychicabilities.Here youwilluseitasapieceofwhimsicalstagecraftthatb0thattractsatten- tionandenablesyouto presentyourofferinginitsmetaphoricalwake. Toperform themechanism,clandestinelyobtainfwo piecesofin- formation:a pagenumberfrom themiddleofa magazine,and the IongestwordonthetopIineofthatpage. Thatinformationwould havebeensimpletoacquireintheairplane scenario.Forinstance,youcould havespottedapageandaword whenyouwerefirstseated,asyoucasuallyglancedoveratthewoman. Or,youcould havenotedwhatshewasreading,pulledaduplicate from thein-flightmagazinerack,turnedtoanappropriatepageand word,andslidthepublicationbackinplace.W hateveryourmodus operandi,youhavetheinformationinmind,andnooneisthewiser. (continoed)
  • 47. TH ETRANSFORIVIATION IVIECHAN ISIVI (Continoed) Atyourseat,youtooarethumbingthroughyourow nmagazine, whichisdifferentfrom theexecutive's.Atsomepoint,youstrikeupa conversationand startyourpitch.W henyougettothedemonstration part,turnawayandtalkabouthermagazineasaglutofwordsand images,whilesheflipspages.Now fortheprofoundlysneaky part. You'reaboutto dowhatmagicianscalla''force'';thatis,you're going tocoax hertoopentoyourmemorizedpageandguide herto ourmemorized word.Here'show.Y Tellherthatyou'd Iikeherto zzgeta random numberinmind.''As yousaythat,turnbackto herand holdyourmagazineso thatits backcoverfacesher. W ithyourIefthand holding themagazine'sIowerIeftspine,use yourrightforefingertoslowlyriffletheupperrightcornerofthemag- azine'spages(Figure3.1).Askthewomantocall''stop.'' W henshedoes,holdyourforefingeratthespotcalledfor,and openthemagazinesothatitsfrontand backcoversfaceher.Your spectatorseesonlycovers,nopages. Lookatthepage,ca//ootyoormemorizedpagerlumber,close the magazine,anddrop itintoyourIap.She now has''a random numberinmind//- the numberyouwanted hertopickaIIalong. Turnawayagain,andaskhertoturnto thepagenumbershese- Iected.ThenaskhertoIookatthetopIine,pickouttheIongestword, andclosehermagazine. The restisacting and presentation. Backroom 'IlpsIortheM agazineTest + Ihave performed thismechanism beforetrade-show crowdsand forindividualsinintimatesettings,anditneverfailstowow.Isay thisbecauseIsuspectthatsomereadersmay believe ittoo boldto fool.Thosereaderswould bewrong. (continoed)
  • 48. W HAT IFYO t1DO N'T HAVEA SKILL? E ; '> < blb'k f- q .R ! ''u:a. jr.FIII.,. x. ::,'. ' , . k.. tr uj4g;jj,;,I, Figure3.1 Riffletheuppercorners. (Continved) W henyouperform theforce youclre cltthesclmetime exe. cutingwhcltmentclliststerm cl''miscclll.''It'sclstclndclrdmincl.reclcl. ing technique.You Iook cltthe informcltion on clpclge on cl plclyingcclrd oronclslipofpclper,clnclyoucclllthcltinformqtion byclnothernclme.AreyouIying?Perhqps butitisclthecltriccllIie. You/reIying inthesclmewclyLclurenceOlivierIiesinHumletclncl MclrlonBrclndo IiesinIhe Goc/rcflllef'.Ifyouneedprqcticewith thistechnique Icokcltyourclcxgclnclcclllitclcclt.Lcokcltyourcclt clnclcclllitcltree.Lookcltcltreeclnclcclllitclcclr.You/llsoonget thehclngofit. /continved)
  • 49. TH ETRANSFORIVIATION IVIECHAN ISIVI (Continoed) # Frealtbeforceasinconseqoential:Youwantyourspectatorto thinkofa random number,sowhatbetterway ofgettingsucha numberthanIetting chancedecide?Likea mixing machineblow- ingIotteryballs,you/reriffling throughyourmagazineasa meansofshufflingnumbers.AsIongasyouplayitnatura1,few peoplewillevenrememberthatyoueverhelda magazine. # A trooblesbooting point:Attimes,you may riffle through aIIthe pagesinyourmagazinewithoutthespectator'scallingstop.Nota bigdeal.Say''Let'sstartover,''and repeat. # Naturally,you can also perform thismechanism with books.If youraregoingto pitchina houseoroffice,find awaytosecretly peekintooneoftheowner'sbookssoyoucanmemorizea page numberandword.8utthebookbackwhereyoufound it. W henyou're readyto perform,grab severalvolumesfrom the bookshelves,includingtheforcebook.Brieflystudytheircovers,asif you'reweighingthemeritsofeach,handtheforcebooktoyourspec- tator,keeponeforyourself,anddiscardtherest.Now you'reset. # Intheairplanescenario,Imadeitseem thatyouweregoing tore- vealthismechanism'ssecret,butthatwasaninterest-holdingtech- niqueonly.Neverrevealthesecret.W hy? Lookatitfromthespectator'spointofview.Youhaveiustread hermind.ThinkofthatlYouhaveapparentlyiourneyedintoher thoughts,into theplacewhereshekeepsherIovesand ambitions, herfearsand failures,and you/ve broughtbackevidenceofthat trip.Even ifthe spectatordoesn'tfully believe yourclaim,she's damnedsureyoudid something brilliant.So ifyouspillthebeans, she'sgoingtobedisappointed:Youdidn'tread hermind,nordid youdoanything particularly brilliant. Ofcourse,eventhoughI'vewarnedyounottogiveawaythe secret,Isuspectthatyouwill...once.Butafterthatone time,I know youwon'tdo itagain.It'sdisturbing to seethe Iookofad- mirationdrainfrom a face. (continoed)
  • 50. W HAT IFYOU D ON'T HAVEA SKILL? 39 (Continoed) + TheioboftheTransformationMechanismistomoveconversations to a differentIevelofthought.Intheairplanescenario,Ihad you use the mechanism asa way ofgetting theexecutive to experi- encewonder,which iswhatyourmarketing program purportsto do.Soshefeltwonder,whileyoutalkedaboutdeliveringwonder. W hatothermessagescould thismechanism represent?Itcan symbolizeyouruncannyabilityto understandyourclient'sneeds, show how you'reb0thonthesamewavelength,demonstrateyour knowledge ofthe marketplace,and dramatizethe powerofthe media (vibrantimagespractically Ieap outofthe spectator's headl),amongotherthings. W hateveryourmessage,experimentwithwaysofusing this mechanism to bring itto Iife.
  • 51. T H E BO D Y M ETA PH O R he Transform ation M echanism has two subsets:the Body M etaphorand thePaperM etaphor.Lkemecha- nisms,these subsetsalso useanalogy to coaxpeople's mindsintofreshperspective.Thedifferenceam ongthe three?Theprop each usestogetresults. lnaTransformationM echanism,thepropisanoddobject(an origamilobster),aconventionalobjectinanoddcontext(akite in aboardroom),oraconventionalobjectwith which you do somethingodd(arockthatvanisheswhenyoutossitintheair). ln aBodyM etaphor,theprop isyourbody,orthebodiesof thepeopleyou'reinfluencing. ln aPaperM etaphor,theprop isadiagram orcartoon you draw infrontofthepeopleyou'reinfluencing. Youke learned aboutm echanisms.Now you'lllearn how to perform BodyM etaphors,andin thenextchapter,you'lldiscover theinsand outsofPaperM etaphors.
  • 52. W HAT A BODY IVIETAPH OR LO O KSLIKE W H AT A BO D Y M ETAPH O R LO O KS LIKE Aslsaid,theprim ary prop in aBody M etaphoristhe human body.Yougetothersto experienceanideaby makingyourbody and theirsanallegoricalexpression ofthatidea. Sayyou'reaconsultantandyou'resellingacompanyonyour software-based knowledge-sharing process.ln frontofyou sits the head ofeach department.Youkedoneeverything youwere supposed to do.Youopenedyourpresentation with azing,un- covered and intensified the problem,offered yourproductasa solution,segued into itsfactsand benefits,and dem onstrated it. Beforeheadinginto aclose,youkeaskedforquestions. The departmentheadslikewhatyou said,buteach one of theirquestionsseemsto takeyoufurtherfrom finishing thedeal. You'relosingthem .M ostofthem aretechnocrats,andtheyseem to bemired in analyzing theindividualfeaturesofyourproduct ratherthantheoverallresultitwillproduce.Tobreakthisdown- wardpresentationalspiral,youdecideto useaBody M etaphor. ''Thequestionsyou'reasking areimportant/''yousay.''Butas we'retalking aboutsomeofmy product'sfeatures,lwantyou to keeponethinginmind.lnfact,lwantyouto/lwhatl'm about tosay.Everyonepleasestand. ''Putyourfeettogether,yourhandstogether,intermesh your fingers,stiffenyourlegs,stiffer,squeezeyourjowls,yourneck, yourspinalcolumn. ''X ghtenyourbody like aknot,like atight,tightknot.Grit yourteeth.Gritthem .Gritthem.H oldit.H oldthetension.And now ...release. ''Feelthetension leaveyourbody? Do youfeelthepressure releasing? ''Thatreleaseiswhatmyprocessdoesforyoursystem . ''lt takes bottlenecked inform ation and allows it to flow throughouttheorganization,whereitcanbeturnedintoservices, products,andcapital.
  • 53. TI-IEBODY M ETAPI-IOP- ''See,yourdetailquestionsareimportant,butlet'sneverforget thatmy processand productare aboutcreating acompany that can produceindozensofdifferentdirectionsatonce. ''M y process is about liberation.lt's aboutinnovation.lt's abouthelpingyourcompanydowhatitwasmeanttodowhenit erformsatitsbest.''17 DoesyourBodyM etaphorturn thesituationaround?M aybe. W hatitdoesdoisbreakthedepartmentheadsoftheirpreoccu- pationwithminutiaeandgetthem backontrack,soyoucanper- suadethem onthebenefitsofthebigpicture. This example used squeezing and releasing as a means demonstratingwhathappenswhenyouremoveapluginthesys- tem .H ow m ighta similardemonstration be used to influence othersinyourownlife? BO D Y M ETAPH O RSAND YO U Perhapsan employeeofyoursisafraid ofm aking amistake and hercautionisgettingin theway ofherduties.Youwantto break herofherperfectionism,so you invite herinto youroffice and discussthesituation.Duringyourtalk,youleadherthroughthe squeezing and releasing,demonstrating how when you'retense, it'shard to focuson anything otherthan thetension.H owever, whenyoureleasethetension,it'seasiertofocuson everythingin frontofyou. You could also flip the rationale behind the squeezing-and- releasingexercise,andbringupthepositiveaspectoftension. Forinstance,you ask a slack employee to tense up,and draw attention to the pronounced muscles in his forearm s. Thenyou askhim to relax,andshow how thosemusclesdisap- pear.Yourpoint:W henweoperateatfullcapacity,wedowhat weweremeantto do.O urbodiesgetstronger,ourabilitiesin- crease. You could also usethesqueezing and releasing asameansof showingharmonyandbalance.Tensionwithoutrelaxationcauses
  • 54. BO DY M ETAPI-IOP.SAxo Yo u 43 burnout;relaxationwithouttension resultsinalifewithoutdirec- tion.A yin-yangdemonstration. Ofcourse,squeezingandreleasingisjustoneBodyMetaphor. W ithsomethought,youcan com eupwith otherstoproveyour points. O nepublicspeakerinvitesan audiencememberto facehim, grab hisrighthand,and intertwinerightlegs.Then thespeaker and hisvolunteerleanback asfarasthey can.Each alonewould fall.Butbecausethe/relockedtogetherbyhandshakeandlegs, they rem ain upright.The speakerdrawsaparallelbetween the exerciseandworkingtogetherproductively. AnotherpopularBodyM etaphorisusedbyspeakerstofireup theircrowds.The speaker asksher audience to stand,extend theirrightarmsand forefingers,and swivelasfararound asthey can,withoutm oving theirfeet.Afterthecrowdhasdonetheex- erciseonce,thespeakerwalksthem through aninspiringvisuali- zation abouttheircapacity to do morethan they everthought possible.Then she asksthem to repeatthe exercise,only this timethey'retotryswivelingmuchfartherthanbefore. O n thesecond try,mostpeoplecan im proveon theirinitial perform ancesdram atically.Someactuallydoublethedistanceon the second go-round.Thespeakerdrawsaparallelbetween the exerciseandthepowerofourminds.(Bytheway,ifyouwantto trythisexerciseordoittoothers,m akesurenooneinvolvedhas abadback.Donewrong,itcanbepainful.) Themetaphorsl'vejustdescribedputthebodythroughphys- icaltension.Butyoucan dom etaphorswithouttaxingthebody ata11. RobertM iddleton,amarketing consultant,usesan engaging metaphorto help audiencesre-see a conventionalrule ofsales and marketing.SaysM iddleton:''lwanteveryone to hold their penson topoftheirheads,likeyourpenisanantenna.''Hewaits afew secondssoeveryonecanlookandlaugh,andcontinues:''A11 yourcustomershavearadioantennaontheirhead,andtheyonly tuneinto one frequency,W IIFM ,which standsfor'W hat'sin lt
  • 55. 44 TI-IEBODY M ETAPI-IOP- forM e'?lfyouwantyoursalesmessageto getthrough to them, you haveto m akesureyou'retalking aboutwhattheywant,not whatyouwant.'' M iddleton takesthe standard W IIFM conceptand givesit new life.Hisaudienceisnotjustentertained;theyalsogivemore seriousthoughtto aconceptthey m ay already haveunderstood, butneverapplied to theirbusinesses. Some Body M etaphorsmake theirpointsthrough mystery. M ore than 1OO years ago,a teenager named Lulu Hurstcon- vinced the world thatshepossessed aphysicalmagnetism that robbedstrongmenoftheirstrengthandcausedatleastoneearth- quake.Asbizarre as herclaimsseem ,she was a headline per- former and was studied by leading scientists as someone possessingsupernaturalpowers. During herlifetime,H urst's methodswere never exposed. H owever,she revealed some ofhersecrets late in life,in the pagesofhermemoir.M ostofthem had todowith leverage,and m anycanbemadeintopotentBodyM etaphors. Anexample:Hurstwouldstandtwofeetfrom awallandhold herhandsflush againstit,asifdoing astanding push-up.Then she'd have one man stand behind herand puthishandson her shoulderblades.Behindhim,adozenmenwouldthen taketheir places,oneatatime,eachwithhishandsontheshouldersofthe m an in frontofhim .On thecountofthree,each would steadily pushwith a11hism ight.W hathappenedto Hurst? Nothing. Ashard asthemenpushed,H urstremained uprightandsmil- ing.W ashersecretbased on metaphysics?No,itwasbased on plain,o1dschoolbookphysics. Forthe stuntto work,H ursthad to be able to handle the strength ofthem an directly behind her;that'sit.Theothermen on theline werewindow dressing.The effortofeach wasab- sorbedby themanin frontofhim .Hurstcouldhavehad athou- sandhe-men on theline,and aslong asthem an directlybehind herwasam ouse,shehadnoproblems.
  • 56. APPLYING TI-IEBODY M ETAPI-IOP- Can you seehow herdemonstration could be turned into a rem arkableBodyM etaphorforyou?lm aginethatyou'retryingto proveapoint.Perhapsyou'reamemberofacharitableorganiza- tion,and theothermem bersaredown onyourgroup'sability to effectchange. Youkegiventhem yourbestarguments,butthe/restillhang- ing theirheads.They think yourcommunity'sproblems are too big.Noonegroupcanmakeadifference.Youoffertogivethem a demonstrationofjusthow powerfulonepelson,oneorganization, canbe.Youstandfacingawallandlineupagroupofyourmostro- bustcolleaguesbehindyou.Theygetred-faced from pushing,but stillyoudon'tbudge.W hen you'refinished,yougo back toyour mainideas,now seenthroughthelensofyourdemonstration. Doyouthinkyou'dhaveeveryone'sattention?Youbet!You'd notonly havetheirattention,butthey'd beweighingyourcon- ceptsmoreheavily.Youjustputapictureintheirminds,afeeling intheirbodies,thattheywon'tsoonforget. A PPLYIN G THE BO DY M ETAPH O R Forstarters,thinkofapersuasionsituation thatcomesuprepeat- edly.W hatdoyounorm allysayduringit?W hatdoyounormally do?W henyoufindacompellingpointthatyoufeelmightneed strengthening,extracttheconceptfrom it. Perhapsyou'rean architectwho specializesin building sky- scrapers.W hen you presentto prospects,youhave alaptopfull oftablesand charts,showing how much stressa structure can take.They seem to appreciateyourfactsand figures,butyou wishtherewasawaytheycouldexperienceit. Yourconcept:You wantan allegory thatdemonstratesthat you know whatyou'retalking aboutwhen itcomesto structural strength. W hatwouldfitthat? YoucouldusethatH urstpushingdemonstration.You'd make yourpointwith factsand figures,butyou'd also usethedem on-
  • 57. TH EBODY M ETAPH OR stration to show thatthere are tricksto making structureshold, andyouknow thosetricks. O r,youcouldmakeupyourownmetaphor. Perhapsyoucouldstand onyourchairandindicatetheweak pointsinyourimpromptustructure.You'dsay: ''W here thechairlegstouch theground isaweakpoint,be- causethechaircouldmove.W herethechairseatisboltedtothe legsisaweakpoint,becausetheboltscouldloosenanddropout. W heremy feetcontactthechairisaweakpoint,becauselcould slip.Tallbuildingshaveweakpoints,too.Butjustastheweak points between me and the chairare apparent,so too are the weakpointsin abuilding.Letmeshow youwhatlmeanthrough thissimulationon my com puter.'' UsingthatBody M etaphor,doyouthinkthepeoplelistening toyouwouldhaveabetterunderstandingofwhatyou'reaboutto show them onyourcomputer? Coming up with yourown metaphorrequiressomeim agina- tion,butit'snotrocketscience.Youtakeyourhigh conceptand you makehuman bodiesparallelthatconceptin away thati11u- m inatesit. Y Backroom ''llpsIorCreatingaBodyM etaphor + N ames like T'rtggs-forpltgtfogkklec/gtggfsm and Boijy kklettgll/gorare metaphorsin and ofthemselves.They're attemptsto make new ideascom prehendiblethrough ideasyou already know. Don'tgethunguponthecategoriesandwhetheryou'reusing onetechniqueortheother. lm entioned M iddleton's pen-on-the-head exercise to a colleague.H esaid,''W ouldn'tthatbeaTransform ationM ech- anism,ratherthan aBody M etaphor?Afterall,apen isin- lved''vo . H isfeedbackwaswellmeaning,butunnecessary.Chang- ing the momentand influencing the otherperson are key. H ow yougetthereisimmaterial.Foryousticklers,substitute
  • 58. APPLYING TI-IEBODY M ETAPI-IOP- yourindex fingerforthepen,andyou haveyourselfapure Body M etaphor. + A Leytot/?eJ-fgrststggt:Theperson behindyoumustpush evenly (gg;tstea?ily with palmsagainstyourshoulders.lfthe person pushesin stopsand starts,yourbalance may bethrown off andyoumay beknockeddown. H ow doyougetthepersonpushingevenlyand steadily? Ask.Remember,the person doesn't know how the stunt works.Askingto push evenly and steadily soundslikeanatu- ra1condition forthe test.The person willacceptitatface value. lfthepersondoespush instopsandstarts,reestablishthe condition youke set.Say that this is a demonstration of strength,notbalance. A TransformationMechanism: TheFressure FointLeg Lock TheStene The headengineerofyourcompany'scommercialdivisionisreadyto endthemeeting.It'sbeengoingforanhour,andyou/renocloserto a resolutionthanwhenyoubegan. Heand theengineersseatedaround him wantyouto fireyour assistantbecauseshefumbled asensitiveinformationhand-offbe- fweenyourdepartmentand theirs.That'show theyseeit,anyway. You/renotsosure. Theevidenceagainstherappearsflimsy,yettheseengineers won'tbudge.They/reclose-minded and unwilling toexploretheinci- dentinanydepth./f/cou/diostopenupsomeJoubfintbeirminds, youthink,tbenmaybetbey'dgivetbesitoationafairerbearing.You decideto Iauncha mechanism. (continoed)
  • 59. TH EBODY IVIETAPH OR (Continoed) The headengineerIooksexhausted,soyouapproachhim and say,zzIcanusepressurepointstoraiseyourenergy inaflash.''He eyesyoususpiciously.Youcontinue:zzThephilosophybehind pressure pointsisthesameasthe philosophy behind acupuncture.Youapply pressureto onepartofthe body,and itaffectssomeotherpart.Vigor originatesintheIegs.Don'taskmewhy,itiustdoes.Ifyouhitthe properpoint,thewholebodygetsiuiced.Thewrongpointshutsyou down.Letmedemonstrate.'' YouasktheengineertostandwithhisIegsslightlyapart.You thenIeanacrosshisbodyand,usingonefinger,pressaspotfwo inchesabove hisIeftkneecap.zzl'm blockingyourenergyflow,''you say.zzTryIiftingyourIeftIeg.'' Toeveryone'sastonishment,theengineercannotIifthisIeg.zzAre outryingk''youask.Y Heassuresyouthathe'snotonlytrying,buthe'sstrugglingto Iift it.Afterafew secondsofeffort,theconfused and impressed engineer burstsoutinnervousIaughter.Youreleasethepressure,andaskhim to IifthisIeg now.Instantly,itgoesup. Thewholeroom iscrowding aroundyou.Theywantto know if the pressure pointtechniquewillworkonthem.Canitrestoreen- ergy?Cureheadaches?Alleviatea bad back? zzI'IIshow everyonehow to do it,''youassurethem,''butfirstI mustmakea confession.W hatIdidhad nothingtodowithpressure points.Itwasa humbug.A humbugwitha message. zzYouwereaIIfocused onmyfingertip.That,though,wasthe trick'smisdirection.Ithad nothingto dowithitsfunctionalmechan- ics.''So saying,youshow thegrouphow,asyouIeanedacrossthe engineer'sbodyto touchhisknee,youpressedyourIeftfoottohis rightfoot,and IeanedyourIeftshoulderinto hismidsection.These innocent-looking actions,whichtheengineerdidn'tevennotice,pre- ventedhim from shifting hisweight.Theresult:HisIegwasIocked in Iace.P (continoed)
  • 60. APPLYING THEBODY IVIETAPH OR 49 (Continoed) ''Idid thisstunttoshow thatyoucanfeelsureaboutaneffect's causeandstillbewrong. ''Now I'm notsaying thatyou/rewrongaboutmyassistant,butI don'tthinkwe/veused anyrigorinsearching forotherpossible rea- sonsforthefoul-up.SincehercareerisontheIinehere,Iiustwantus to becertainofourfacts.'' The roomfulofengineersIooksatoneanother.They/restillcon- vinced ofyourassistant'sguilt,buttheygrudginglydecideto reexam- inethesituation.Theexperiencehasopeneda crackofdoubtintheir minds. Behlnd the Stene ThispotentTransformationM echanism isbased uponanoId stuntthat appearsinbeginner'smagicand sciencebooks.Inthosebooks,you perform itwithoutwindow dressing,onyourself.Ifyoutrythatstunt now,you/llhaveabetterunderstandingofhow toperform itasa mechanism,onothers. StandwitheitheryourrightorIeftsideagainsta wall.Now try IiftingyouroppositeIeg(theonenotcontactingthewall).Youcan't do it.AsIong asyoukeeponesideofyourbodyflushtothewall, youroppositeIegwillstaystucktotheground. The reason?Youcanonly Iiftthatopposite Ieg ifyourbodyad- iustsitsweighttohelpyou,andbecausethewallisactingasa brace,movementisimpossible. TheTransformationMechanism versionofthistrickisbased upon refinementsmadebytheAmazingKreskin,withfurthertouchesby MarkLevy.Itdisguisesthemethodthroughtheuseofmisdirection- theartofgettingtheaudienceto IookwhereyouwantittoIook. Toperform theFressureFointLeg Lock,havetheparticipantface theaudience.Youdothesame,butstandcloseenoughto him that theIeftsideofyourbodyisalmosttouchinghisrightside(forexpla- nationpurposes,I'massumingyou/reonhisright). (continoed)
  • 61. TH EBODY IVIETAPH OR (Continoed) Asyoudiscusspressurepoints,reachacrosshisbodywithyour righthand,andbendfolw ard totouch hisIeftknee.Inthatposition, it'saneasymattertoslideyourIeftfootagainstthesideofhisright footand forceyourIeftshoulderagainstthesideofhismidsection. Basically,you/rethewall.He'IIfind itimpossibletoIifthisIeftIeg be- causeyourbody iskeeping hisbodyata mechanicaldisadvantage. Backroom 'IlpsIorthePressurePointLeg Lock + You needn'ttackle the spectatorto getthismechanism to work. Firm yetsubtlepressureisaIIthat'sneeded. + IfyoufindthatyoursubiectcanIifthisIeg,itprobablymeansthat you're notsufficientlycontacting hisupperbodywithyourshoul- derandtorso.Leanin. + print,these bracing movements appearartificial.In perfor- mance,theyare not.Ifyoupractice the mechanism ona friend, you'llsee how naturalitisforyourbody to contactyourfriend's bodyasyoureachacross. + Youmaywonderifthe secretistransparentto the personwhose Ieg you're Iocking.Notusually.Ifhe realizesyou/re Ieaning in, he'llassumeit'sincidentaland won'tIikelymake anyconnection befweenyourheftand hisownIeg-lifting inability.Ifthegenuine method dawnson him,don'tworry;thismechanism isstilla re- markable thing to experience- and you were going to explain how todo itanyway. + Ifthe idea oftemporarily fooling people unnel-ves you,use the science-bookversion instead.Askpeople to stand with theirsides againstawall,and show them how itmakesmovementimpossible. Thendraw a metaphoricalparallelbetweenthewallanda problem theorganizationfaces. (continoed)
  • 62. APPLYING THEBODY IVIETAPH OR (Continoed) + W hy give away thesecretto thismechanism?AsImentioned, thisstunthasbeendescribed inbooksavailableto thepublicfor decades.Still,ithas an astounding effecton those notin the know. + Mechanisms Iike thisone,inwhichyou use the body's natural physiology againstitself,are particularly valuable because they canbeperformedalmostanywhere,infrontofanysizegroup.AII youneeddo isdraw a metaphoricalparallelbetweenthemecha- nism andthepointyou/remaking.Someothermechanismsfeatur- ingthebody: Asksomeone seated ata deskto continooosly trace a small circleonthefloor,using the toesofeitherfoot.Asshe keepsher footmotiongoing,hand herpenand paperand askherto sign hername inscript.Asodd asitsounds,shewillbeunabletoac- complishthetask. Asksomeone else to sitwith hisfeetplanted on the ground andhisarmsfoldedoverhischest.Thenpressyourindexfingerto the middle ofhisforehead,and ask him to stand.He can/t.As Iongashekeepshisfeetflatand hisarmsfolded,hewillneverget sufficientbalancetorise. Haveanotherunsuspecting soulshuthereyelidsandturnher eyeballsupward,asifshewereIooking throughawindow inthe topofherskull.Ifshe keepshereyesinthisposition,she/llbe un- able to open herIids.In the medicalfield,thisphenomenon is known as Bell's Reflex,and isthoughtto have evolved as the body'sway ofprotecting the eyesfrom trauma.The technique is usedinphonydemonstrationsofhypnosis(zzcloseyoureyesand imagine a Iarge hole inthetop ofyourhead.Through thathole streamssunshine.Isn'tthatsunshine warm and calming? Keep Iookingatitsglow,feeling itswarmth.Asyoucontinuestaring up atthatwonderfulglow,try opening youreyes.Youtry opening (continoed)
  • 63. TH EBODY IVIETAPH OR (Continoed) them,butyoucan't.TheIidsarestucktightlytogether....'').If youdiscoversomeonewho canopenhereyes,itmeansthatshe momentarily Iooked down,perhapswithoutrealizing it.Don'tbe critical.Instead,congratulate heron herunusualability and at- temptthe mechanism withanotherperson.
  • 64. T H E PA PER M ETA PH O R he problem many people face when learning how to persuadeisthatthey study tacticsthey can'tpossibly use.M ostinfluencetacticsarewin/loseaffairs.Theygo againstthewaywethink and behave.Theydon'ttake into accountwhoweareandwhatwewanttooffertheworld. lfyoukeevertriedto adoptsuch atacticandfeltsoiled,lap- plaudyou. Believeme,l'm a11forgettingwhatlwantoutoflife.Butget- tingwhatlwantincludesdoing rightalongtheway.That'swhy you'llseethatmy strategiesarebasedm oreon makingmy posi- tion clearandentertainingthan onbackingpeopleinto acorner. ThePaperM etaphorisaperfectexampleofwhatlm ean:lt's a principled,often lighthearted,persuasion technique.lfwhat you'reoffering isofmutualbenefitto 170th parties,thatbenefit becomesapparentthrough themetaphor.lfwhatyou'reoffering works,the otherparty can'thelp butsee and agree with the beautyofitslogic.
  • 65. TH EPAPER IVIETAPH O R W H AT ISA PAPER M ETAPH O R? A PaperM etaphorisadiagram ,sketch,orcartoon thatbrings yourmain ideatolife.Youdraw itinfrontofyouraudience:ona whiteboard;on thebackofanapkin;insideam atchbookcover. Yoursketch may seem impromptu,butit'snot.Rather,it'sthe productofa1otofthinkingyoukedonebeforehand. PartofaPaperM etaphor'scharm andpoweristheroughnessof yoursketch.lt'snotaboutartisticskill.You'renotM ichelangelo. W hatyoudraw isa11aboutthe strength ofyouridea.J'og're Jfpflg your(ggkfeace(gclltggcetoexteriencef.plltgtyouketllfgêf'lg byyettiny tlltwltouse(g.lïextrasense:sr/llt.'rbeykeseef'lg intoyourrlfgtl.You'realso telling them- through actions,notwords- thattheideayou're drawingisparticularly important,sothey'dbetterleanin because they don'twanttomissit. Letmeshow youhow luseaPaperM etaphor;then 1'11teach yoLl13OW toConstrtlctyotlrOWn. Suppose lam having dinnerwith Don,the head oftrade- show developmentforalargecorporation.Donwantstohireme, butbeforehedoes,hewantsto learnm oreparticulars. Duringourcrabcocktails,lgrabthreepapernapkinsfrom the barand usethosenapkinsasamemorablestructureforwhatl'm going to say. ltellDon thatlcallmy trade-show procedure '''The Build, H old,M oveProcess.'Thatis,lbuildthecrowd,holdthecrowd, and movethecrowdto action.'' ltakeanapkin,m arkitwith abold ''1,''and sketch ahammer on it.'T hishammerrepresentstheBuild Step/''lsay.''Beforeany- one attheshow understandshow remarkableyourproductsare, theyhavetobepresentinyour1700th.Youmustbuildthecrowd.'' lturnthenapkintowardhim anddropitonthetablebetween us.lstarttotalkabouthow lcreatecrowds.LverytfrleJttg//t(gllogt builijin.qt/?ecrofz'rtJta3t/?egtgll/tfg-fortwllllltgsfs.lalsorefertotheimage on thenapkin:''Noticel'vedrawn ahamm er.That'stosymbolize thatthisisthe Build Step.Butwhatare thecharacteristicsofa
  • 66. W HAT ISA PAPER IVIETAPH OR? hammer?ltworksthroughforceandm akesaheckofanoise.The characteristicsofahammeraremycharacteristics,too.Tobuilda crowdatamajortradeshow,youcannotbesubtle.Youmust...'' W hen l'm finisheddiscussing theBuild Step,lm ark thesec- ond napkin ''2''and draw afistwithstickfiguresextendingoutof itstopandbottom .lthenslidethisnapkinbetweenus,andlcon- tinue:''Step 2istheH oldStep.Onceyoukebuiltthecrowd,you musthold them .lfnot,a11yourwork isfornaught.Thisisthe step whereyou give them yourproduct'sfeaturesand benefits, butyoumustdosoinaway thatmakeswhat'shappeningatyour 1700th more importantthanwhat'shappening anywhereelse on thefloor....'' W hen l'm finishedwith theHold Step,lmarkthethirdnap- kin ''3,''and ldraw arunning man,complete with motion lines trailingbehindhim.ldrop thisnapkinnexttotheothers. ''The third step isthe M ove Step.W ithoutthispartofthe process,youkewastedyourmoney.Afterall,youkerentedcon- vention floorspace,constructed a1700th,paid dozensofstaffto workit,and hired aperformerto build acrowd.Butunlessthat crowd watchesyourproductdemosand leavestheircontactin- formation,youkefailed.A11youkedoneispaytoentertainthou- sandsofpeople,with nothing to show foryourmoney.That's why in thisstep it'sim portantto getthe crowd to move,and moverapidly....'' DomycartoonspersuadeDontobuy?lfl'vedoneeverything else correctly,yes.A PaperM etaphorcan'tclose adealon its own.ltworksin tandem witheverythingelseyou'redoing. The exampleyoujustread centered around my three-step trade-show process.Butitcouldjustaseasilyhavefocusedona singlefeaturewithinastep.How wouldthatlook? W e're back in the restaurant,and Don hasquestioned me abouttheM oveStep.Hewantstoknow exactlyhow lgetpeople tomoveintothe1700thsothe/llleavetheircontactinformation. l answer him on anothernapkin.O n it,ldraw an overhead schem aticofhiscompany's1700th.Asldo,lgetDoninvolved in
  • 67. 56 TI--IEPAPEP-M ETAPI-IO P- the sketch,asking him aboutthe booth'slayoutand wherethe staffwillbepositioned. ''lwillstandhere/''lsay,drawinganX atthebooth'sbackwall. ''W ithinforty minutes,two hundred fiftypeoplewillbesurround- ingmeinaparabolicarc.''ldraw that,too.''W henlfeelthecrowd's interestisatitsheight,lwillgetthem to lineuphere.''lcirclethe spot.''lwilldothatbyofferingasampleofyourproduct....'' W henl'm finished,thenapkinlookslikeafootballplay.O ra battleplan.ThepaperiscoveredwithX's,O 's,anddirectionalar- rows.lt'samess,butitm akessense.lt'saschem aticofwhatwill happen. lhand Donthenapkin.ltellhim tobringitbacktohisoffice and shareitwithhistrade-show staff.Thatway,everyonewillbe onthesamepage.W henl'm attheshow,there'llbenoconfusion. Thenapkin actsasadditionalproofthatlknow my business and willstand behind it.lt'sagraphic depiction ofmy claims. H aving itreassuresDon,and makeshim morelikely to go for- wardinhiringme. PaperM etaphorscan beusedto illustrateeven the mostab- stractofconcepts.RobertM iddleton,themarketerwemetlast chapter,usesaPaperM etaphorto substantiatewhathecallshis ''Law ofL mitedldeas.'' O n a flip chart,M iddleton draws a man,and around that m an'shead hesketchesshapes:stars,squiggles,circles,squares. ''These shapesrepresentthisman'sideas/''saysM iddleton.''Let's counthisideas.Hehasone,two,three,four...tenideas.H e'sa 1otlikea11ofus.W eonlyhaveafixednumberofideas,that'swhy wetendtothinkthesamethoughtsoverandover. ''Suppose,though,them angivesaway oneofhisideastothe world,through abookhewritesorabusinesshestarts.''To illus- tratetheconcept,M iddletondrawsanarrow pointingawayfrom oneoftheshapescirclingtheman'shead. ''You'dthinkhe'd only havenineideasnow,right?Butlfind thatwhen you give away an idea,theworld alwaysgivesyou a
  • 68. K'I-IAT IsA PAPEP-M ETAPI-IOP.? 57 new ideato takeitsplace.''AsM iddletonsaysthis,hedrawsina new shape to replace the o1d one.''The m an stillonly hasten ideas,butifhestartsgivingthem away,the/realwaysreplaced byfresh ones.'' O fcourse,M iddleton'sm odeliswhimsical,and heknowsit. O urgoodthoughtsm ay notbefixed in number,butwedotend to recycle ourfavorites.M iddleton'ssketch humorously tellsus thatifwewanttoexpandourhorizons,wemustcontributetothe world.H ad M iddletonputhislessonintowordsalone,hem ight have seemed to be lecturing his audience.ln cartoon form, though,histheoryisengaging. The properPaperM etaphorcan stickwith youraudiencea long,long tim e.Rob Kaplan,a writer and form er publishing house editor in chief,told me the story of a metaphorthat's stayedwithhim for20years. ln the early 198Os,Kaplan wasattending abusinessconfer- encewherehemetShep Pollack,who atthetimewaspresident ofPhilip M orris.The men started talking,and eventually their conversationturned to theconceptofpower. Kaplansaid,''lnmycompany,l'm amiddlemanager,soldon't havemuch power.lnyourcompany,you'reatthetopoftheorga- nizationalpyramid,soyouhavetheultimatepowen'' Pollacklaughed,grabbedapieceofscratch paper,anddrew a pyramid.''Rob,you're here?''he asked,pointing halfway down thepyramid.Kaplan agreed. ''And youthinkl'm hereatthetop?''asked Pollack,pointing tothepyramid'sapex.Again,Kaplan agreed. Pollack then did something so simple and powerful that Kaplan sm iles as he relates it today:the president of Philip M orristurned thepieceofpaperendforend,so hisdrawingwas now upsidedown. ''lnreality/''hesaid,''l'm hereatthebasewiththeresponsibil- ityforthewholeorganization onmy shoulders.ldon'thavethe ultimatepower.lhaveto answerto everyone.''
  • 69. TH EPAPER IVIETAPH O R H O W TO CREATE YO U R O W N PAPER M ETAPH O R Creating aPaperM etaphorisno differentthancreating aTrans- formationM echanism oraBodyM etaphor.Youthinkaboutyour m ain persuasion pointsand come up with waysto depictthem through diagram ,sketch,and analogy. O fcourse,you don'twantto draw fordrawing'ssake.You wantyoursketchtoilluminate,notclutter.W iththatinmind,ask yourself: W hataremy mostim portantpoints? H ow do lexplaineachpointnow? H ow doesmyexplanationforeachgo over? W hichpointismostcompelling? H ow mightluseaPaperM etaphortomakeitmorecompelling? W hichismy leastcompellingpoint? H ow mightluse aPaperM etaphorto makeitmore com - pelling? W hatisthemostcommonobjectionlhear? How canluseaPaperM etaphortoovercomethatobjection? From youranswers,youshouldcom eupwith adozenpossible metaphols.W i11a11ofthem beequallygood?Ofcoursenot.Some willbeweak.Somewillbestrong.M ostlikely,you'llhavetoforce them into conversations,atfirst,tounderstandwhichiswhich. ThePaperM etaphorisalow-stresswayforyoutochangethe momentforthepeopleyou'repitching.ltonlyrequiresapen and apieceofcrum pled paperpicked up from the floor.W hen you findtherightmetaphor,though,itsvalueisoutofa11proportion toyourefforts.Themetaphorconvertsasitentertains. Y Backroom ''llpsIorPaperM etaphors + lfyou'rehavingtroublefindinganalogiesforyourpersuasion points,keep thiswordin mind:like.Askyourself:W hatismy
  • 70. H()W TO CREATE YO UR OW N PAPERIVIETAPH OR 59 pointlike?W hatelsedoesitremind meof?W hereelsehavel seenthiskindofidea? H ere'san example:Yourhousehasatwo-cargarage,but youownfourcars.Twositinthedriveway andgetbeatupby theweather. You'reconvincedthatyouneedaseparatetwo-baygarage onyourproperty.H owever,yourhusbandisn'tassureasyou are.Hedoesn'twanttopartwiththe$30,000neededtoerect thenew building.H ow topersuadehim? N aturally,you'llneedtodoa11yourhomework.Aninvest- mentthatsize shouldn'tbe based on whim orsm oke.You have to decide whetheryou need fourcars,pin down the priceforconstructingagarage,andsoforth. lfyouke done thatand are stillconvinced,then it'sthe timetoextractyoursituation'shigh conceptandaskyourself, ''W hatisthislike?.'' ln this example,there are severalconcepts,depending upon which pointyou wantto address.You could take a problem -oriented approachorasolution-oriented approach. A bossibleIlrol'/twl(gllllrotgc/?:'Theelementswillrotthecars standingoutside.'' A bossiblesolution(gllllrotgc/?:''An extra garagewillraise our ropertyvalue.''P W hichtochoose?Beforedisregardingone,trytoform an analogyforeachtoseewhich isstronger.Forthesakeofthis example,let'ssayyoukechosentheproblem approach.W hat doesitsconcept,'Theelementswillrotthecarsstandingout- side/''remindyouof?W hat'sitlike? lt'slikean applerottingon theground:Theelementsget to thefruit;the fruitdecaysand becomesuneatable.ln the sam eway,theelementsgetto thecars,theirbodiesrustand theirgearsgetwet,andthey becomeundrivable.
  • 71. TI-IEPAPEP-M ETAPI-IO P- O r,it'slikethatbattleshipwiththerottinghullyousaw on vacation.Atonetime,thatship could do battle with enemy shipsand planes,buttheweatherand elementshave aged it badly.Samekindofsituationwiththecars.Justbecausetheyke gonethroughtherigorsofbeingdriven acrosscountry,doesn't meantheycanlastthroughsustainedmistreatment. Those are two analogies.You could have come up with hundreds.Ofthesetwo,though,whichwouldbestrongerfor yourhusband?Probably the battleship analogy.Thepoorly patched holesin theship'shullm ade quiteanimpression on him.Hedidn'tevenfeelsafebeingonboardduringthetour. H ow wouldthatshipanalogytransfertoaPaperM etaphor? Simple.Youcouldsityourhusbanddown,andshow him there- searchyoukedoneonbuildingagarage.You'dwriteouttherea- sonsforand the reasonsagainst.You'd tellhim how youke weighed 170th options,and thatbuilding thegaragem akesthe mostfinancialsenseandwillsavewearandtearonthecars. Asyou'respeaking,youcanflip overthepaperanddoo- d1ethebattleshipon thebackofthepage.Remindyourhus- band oftheship,and itsrotting hull.Pencilin a11thedecay yousaw chewingawayattheship.Draw theparallelbetween theshipasjunk,andthecarsbecomingjunk.Youcanevendo anotherfastdoodle ofthe ship sinking.And then,perhaps, yourcarssinking. Sound funny? lf so,that's good.ln this case,''funny'' meansstrikiny.''Funny''meansrltwlortgô/e.''Funny''means it'11 find aplaceinhismind,evenwhereyourmorerationalargu- mentsbounceoff. Again,on itsown,arotting battleship analogy won'tget youfar.Butcoupleitwith good argumentsandfigures,andit willentertaininglydrivehomeoneofyourkeypoints. + A PaperM etaphoractsasamemoryhook,asamnemonic.lf there'sapartofyourargumentyouparticularlywantremem - bered,that'swhereyouusethemetaphor.
  • 72. HOW TO CZEATEYOLIZOW N PAPEZMETAPHOZ 61 A TransformationMechanism: TheImpossibleObiect The scene TheCEO hclscqlledyouclndtherestoftheexecutivecommilteetcs gethertodiscussthe8m rcentdipinnew clientsyourorgclnizcltion hclsexperiencedoverthepclstfourmonths.shebelievesthedipisthe scllesDivision'sfclultbutyoufeeldifferendy.scllesistheobviousplclce topointclfingerbutinthiscclse theproblem lxginsfclrtherupstreclm. Youtclkem ursecltclnclwithoutclwordofexplclncltion tosscln oddobiectintothemiddleoftheconferencetclble.TheCEO picksit upclnclstudiesit(Figure5.1).''W hcltisitk''sheqsks. ''Ibroughtitto mclkeclpoint'' usqy.''BeforeItellm uwhcltit, P is,tellmewhcltyouthinkitis.'' Figure5.1 W hatisit?
  • 73. TH EPAPER IVIETAPH O R (Continoed) ''It'stwo blankindexcards,folded and cutandsomehow com- binedtogethen'' zzcombinedtogether?W hatdoyoumeank'' TheCEO studiesit.''They/reseparate indexcards,butthey seem to sharethismiddle piece.Idon'tunderstand how that'spossible,but I'm Iooking rightatit.Doesanyoneelsecaretotakeashotatthisk'' Shepassesitdownto othercommitteemembers,andthey/re uzzled too.zzokay,''theCEO says,''we/restumped.Now,w hyareP , oushowing itto usk''Y zzl-lerecomestheexplanation,''yousay,asyoureachintoyour briefcase,pulloutsmallerversionsoftheobiect,andtossoneinfront ofeachcommitteemember.zzTakea Iookatthose.W hatdoyouseek'' Ratherthanbeingplain,whiteindexcards,these ''impossibleob- iects''aremadefrom businesscards.Eachmemberholdsareplica constructedoutoftwoofhisorherownbusinesscards. Youask,zzNow,usingthesesmallermodels,tellmehow theob- iectwasconstructed.'' O nebyonetheexecutivessmile.Eachisexperiencingan''a-ha'' moment,asthey/reableto unfoldand separatethecards,and put them backtogetheragain. zzW hywaseveryonenow ableto figureoutthecardsk''youask. zzTheprintingonthesecardsiswhatdidit''saystheCEO .''Fig- uringoutthefoldsand thecutsontheblankindexcardswasimpossi- ble.W ehad no referencepointstofollow.Butonthesesmaller models,aIIwehadtodowasunfold them untilwerestored ourbusi- nesscardstoshape.Thatsolvedthe puzzle.'' ''Right,''yousay,''soyoufound outhow thepuzzleoperated by workingsomething onlytangentially related tothepuzzle.'' ''Exactly.'' ''Inthesameway,IthinkI've'solved'thepuzzleofournew-client decline.M ostpeoplethinkit'sa problem thatbeganinourSalesDivi- Butwhile Iwas studying something unrelated to oursales,I (continoed)
  • 74. HOW TO CPEATEYOLIZOW N PAPEZMETAPHOZ 63 (Continved) foundclsilucltionthcltshedsIightonwhywe/renotsigningupclients clsquicklyclswewere.ItseemsourMclnufclcturingDivisionisoffon itsproductionbythreem rcentclnclthcltccluses '' Theexecutivesputclsidetheirimm ssibleobiects.TheCEO even bclllshersupclncltossesitintothegclrbclge.Butnow youhclvetheir completeclltention clnclthe/reheclringwhcltyou/resclyingincltcs tclllyclifferentwcly. Behind 'he A ene Tomqkeqnimm ssibleobiectoutofonecqrd here'swhqtyoudo: Grclbclblclnkindexcclrdclnclclpclirofscissors. FoldthecclrdinhcllfIengthwise(Figure5.2). stclrting inthemiddleofoneofitsIong sidescutthecclrd untilyoureclchthefold(Figure5.3). Turnthecclrdclround clndcutitinlwospols(Figure5.zt). (continved) p Figure5.2 Fold card Iength- w ise. @ hy Figure5.3 Cuttocenter fold.
  • 75. THE PAPEZ M ETAPH O Z w k A< ; /'.1. ; .> Figure5.5 Twistbottom Ieft third ofcard. Figure5.: Turncard and cuttw ice more. (Continved) GriptheIeftmostpclrtofthecclrd clncllwistittowclrdyou 180degrees(Figure5.5). ThemiddlepieceofthecclrdIxlpserectlqswesclw inFigure 5.1),clndyou/redone. Alwcscqrdimm ssibleobiectisdonethesqmewqy onlyyou stclrtwithlwocclrdsnestledtogether. Toperformthismechqnism clsclescrilxclin''TheScene/': First,conslructclnimm ssibleobiectoutoflwounIinedindex cclrdsthcltyou/venestedtogether seconclcoplwobusinesscclrdsfrom eclchm rsonyou/llE)eper. suclding clnclplclceeclchpclirbclcktobclcksotheprintingfclcesout oneclchside.Cutclnclfoldeclchpclirintoclnimm ssibleobiect. sticktheblclnk.fclceclobiectclndthebusiness-cclrdobiectsinm ur briefcqse clnclm u/reset (continved)
  • 76. HO W TO CREATE YO UR OW N PAPERIVIETAPH OR (Continoed) Backroom ''llpsIortheImpossibleObject + Inthemathematicsfield,theimpossibleobiectisknownasahy- percard. + W hy use fwo cards nestled togetherinstead ofone?Two cards makestheobiectsturdierandhardertofigureout.Thepeopleex- amining itthinkthatsomehow thesecond card contributesto the obiect'simpossibilify. + Ifyoudon'twantto use people'sbusinesscards,considerother possibilities,including bookmarks,postcards,orindex cardswith a handwrittenmessage. + W henI'm caughtw ithoutscissors,Itearthecardswithmy hands; that'stheinferiormethod,though.Thereason:Thekindsofiagged tearyourhandsmake give viewerstelltale evidence ofhow the obiectwasconstructed.
  • 77. TH E Q UICK O PEN IN G PIT C H ew thingsaremoreimportantthan knowinghow topitch whatyou do foraliving.lfyou can createintriguewhen someone asks aboutyourjob,you might find a life- changingbusinessopportunitydumpedrightinyourlap. Some people callwhatl'm aboutto teach you an ''elevator speech.''Forme,thatterm'stoopassive.Anelevatorshuttlespeo- p1ewhostandwith theirheadsdown,staringattheirshoes,anda speech makespeopledrowsy.Theterm elevatorslleec/ganda11itim - pliesaren'tformeandshouldn'tbeforyou. W hen someoneasksyouwhatyoudoforaliving,youwantto shakethem .Youwanttochangetheirmoment.Youwantthem re- membering you andyouransweralong time.Let'scallthistech- niqueaQuickPitch.YoucanuseyourQuickPitchinseveralways: + Deliveritwhen someoneaskswhatyoudo foraliving. + M akeitthekeypointofatalk.
  • 78. THEQUICK PITCH OPENING # Leaveitasan answering-machinem essage. # Presentitasyourownoutgoingmessage. # Useakeyconceptfrom itasasloganonyourbusinesscardor website. Thosearejustsomeofitsuses. l'dlikeyoutoputtogetheraprototypeQuickPitchsoyou getpracticewriting and deliveringit.Yourfirsteffortsprobably won'tbe good.That'sokay.H ow can you possibly getbetterif youdon'tstartfrom whereyouare? First,1etmegiveyouexamplesofhow lopen myQuick Pitches.Then 1'11deconstructthem and show you how to use them astemplates. Let's assume l'm ataparty ora conference,and someone hasasked methatmagic question,''W hatdo youdo foraliv- ing?.''l'd open my response in one oftwo m utually exclusive w ays,depending on who asked and whatlfeltwould intrigue thatperson. The firstopening isdeclarative:''lperform miracles.Notof thereligiouskind.Ofthebusinesskind.M ajorcorporations,like IBM and lntel,hiremetorepresentthem attradeshows.lactasa hum an m agnet,drawing thousandsofprospectsto me asifthey wereironfilings.'' The declarativeroute tellsthe listenerwhatldo.ltdoesn't ask itasserts. The second routeisquestion based:''Haveyou everseen a trade-show performerso dynamicand engagingthathundredsof show -goerssurround him hourly to experiencedemonstrations, which seem almostpsychicinnature?A performer,representing prestigious firms like M itsubishi, who with a snap of his fingers compels his audiencesto leave theirvaluable contact- inform ation athisbooth? Youke neverwitnessed such a per- former?Thenyoukeneverseenme.'' Thequestion-basedroutetakesthesamekindofinform ation asthe declarativeroute,and itbindsitinto queriesthatputthe
  • 79. THEQLIICK PITCH OPENING listenerin an activerole.Each opening,in itsownway,isan ad- vertisem entthatexplains... + W herelwork(tradeshows). + Forwhom lwork(corporations). + Theexperienceofwhatit'sliketoseemework(1do''mira- cles''andgivedemonstrations''almostpsychicinnature''). + Andthepayoffforthosewhohireme.(1attractprospectsas easily asamagnetattractsiron filings,and l''compel''show - goerstoleavetheircontactinformation.) T'llfgêojtbeseolleafelgs(gszo-secogt:tcomf'lg (gttrtgctfogs.'Tbey'reperôtg/ collayestlltgtsllof.pIlertfgeatcre?its(ggt:texcitiny(gctfo.lïscenes.lfyou'recuri- ousto learnmoreaboutitssubjectafterhearingone,thepitch succeeded.lfyouyawned,itfailed. Now,such approachesmay seem appropriateonly forthose in aflashyprofession.Butunderstandthatlcouldjustaseasily have announced myselfin lacklusterfashion,as a ''trade-show presenter''or, even worse,''afreelancerwho sellsproductsand servicesatcorporatetradeshowsforthosecompanieswho want theirofferingsputinabeneficiallight.'' W hateveryourprofession,you can come acrosslike asky- rocketorasputteringfirecracker,dependingonhow youpitchit. C O N STRU CT YO U R O W N O PEN IN G To build yourown entertaining,curiosity-heightening open- ing,writedown answersto these focusing questions,the Per- suasionN ine: T'/?0areyourclients?Getyourtypicalandatypicalclientsdown onpaper.Alsolistthem asindividuals(e.g.,Andy Grove),as corporateentities(e.g.,lntel),and aspartofthemarketto whichtheybelong(e.g.,chipmanufacturers).
  • 80. CO NSTRU CT YOUR O W N OPEN ING 69 2. J'//?. y ijoyourc/fentsbire. ')rog orIlgrclltgseyourIlrokgct? Prospects usuallycallwhenthe/reinpain,soyourjobasaself-pitcher istoidentifyyourprospects'painanduseitasthemainthrust ofyourcampaign.L stthe benefitsyourservice orproduct providesand thehurtsyouheal. 3. J//lltgtIlrocessesijo. 'y.0gusetoyenerateresg/ts-foryourclients?A quick story:O ne hundred years ago,Schlitz became the best- sellingbeerintheLlnitedStatesbecauseitsbreweryrananad cam paign detailing how itm ade the beer.The interesting thing?A11breweriesm adebeerthesameway,onlytheynever thoughtofsharing itwith thepublic.W hen theSchlitz ads cam eout,thepublicassumedthattheprocesswasproprietary to Schlitz!Yourlesson:Theordinarycanseem extraordinary, depending upon the context.Think ofpracticesthatseem commonplacetoyoubutthatm aywow yourlisteners. 4.J-fof.prlrp/Jtyourc/fents'clientsbeajjecte?byyourjob?Yourstrong workhasramificationsbeyondwhatclientsevenrealize.Lst thewaysin which youreffortsbenefityourclients'external (ggt:tinternalcustomers.Said differently,how do you make yourclientslook good in alltheirmeaningfulbusinessrela- tionships? 5. J///?0areyourcomlletftors,(ggt:t/90f,17are. 'y.0gbetter?lfyouarenotsu- periorto yourcompetitorsin someway,leave the business. Pitching,evenwhenit'sentertaining,cannotsavemediocrity. lfyou arebetterthan mostthough,getspecific asto how.ls your quality distinct? Do you have a delivery or billing method thatmakesyou stand outfrom the crowd? lsthere historybehindyourproductthatm akesitunique?N ow isnot thetimeformodesty.M akesurethough,thatyouhave ara- tionaleforeach point.(lfyourstaffis''theindustry'smost knowledgeable/''explain whatl'd seetoprovethattheywere mostknowledgeable.) 6. Have. 'y'ogf.po.lïany(gf.ptgrks,beencftet:tint/?erletlftg,oryarnere?Ilrtgfse-from (grecoynize?source?Thesecitationsneedn'tcomefrom thebl'ew
  • 81. THEQLIlcltPITCH OPENING J'orê'fvesorsomeaugustbody.lfthe localrag saysyour restaurantserves''thebestM exicanfoodonRoute519,''putit down.W hilelmaynotknow theragorwhereRoute519 is, thatquotetellsmethatthere'ssomethingspecialaboutyour eatery.l'dwanttohearmore. J-foa?ijo. ')rogyuaranteeyourwork?Guaranteesprovide prospects with safety--safety thattakesthefearoutofagreeing toyour proposition.lfyouhaveaguarantee,paradeit.lfnot,consider creating one.Thingsto guarantee:yourword,yourprocess, yourprocess'sresult,the resultthe clientwillcreateby using yourprocess,the client'sunconditionalsatisfaction.Domino's Pizzabuiltabillion-dollarfranchiseon thestrength ofasingle guarantee:''Fresh,hotpizza delivered to yourdoorin thirty minutesorit'sfree.'' J///gtgtareyourJ/gsfgessgccessstoties?W henaskedwhattheydofora living,mostpeopleanswerwith bald factslike''l'm an HTM L programmen''Rarelydoesthatkindofapproachengage,because thelistenerdoesn'tknow thelifebehindthefacts.lfyouprogram inHTM L,explainhow yourworkhalvedthedownloadtimeof atoy company'shomepageand helped thecompany generate anadditional$900,000revenuethreemonthsafterlaunch.That's thekindofstorythatmakesprospectsshow theirface. Ctg.lïyoucreaterlettgllllororsimile(groggt:tyou,yourbusiness,oryour brocess?Areyou''theEinsteinofthebondindustr/'?Doyou produce''theRollsRoyceofhandbags''?lsyourmoviescript ''likekkl. yDfggerf.pftllAnijrlonM ars''?ln thewordsofeducator PeterElbow,''Everymetaphorrandsimilelisaforce-fit,amis- take,aputtingtogetherofthingsthatdon'tnormally orliter- allybelong together''(J//rftf'lg f.pftllPofz'errNew York:Oxford LlniversityPress,19981,79).Yetthesemistakescommunicate afeelingthatmorestudiedlanguageoftenfailstoproduce. O nceyougathertheanswerstothePersuasion Nine,usethe declarativeand thequestion-basedstructuresasyourguides,and fashionthem oststirringanswersintosampleopenings.
  • 82. co xs-rltu c'rYoulto w x opEx lxci J'ofïrobeninysmfïst(gkkressyourtaryetrltgr/tet,(gstvell(gst/?ebenejittbey yetjromtletg/f'lg f.pftllyou.Otbertlltg.lïtlltgt,tlog'tcogstrtgfgyourselj.Letyour stronyest(ggsf.perskfcttgtef.plltgtyofïsay,(ggt:t/90f,17yousay ft.Forinstance: ''l'm a cyber-defender.lenable families,friends,and busi- nesses to communicate on the lnternetin a way that m akes crim inal third parties incapable of overhearing theirsensitiveinformation.''(Declarative,foraninforma- tionsecurityprogrammen) ''H aveyou everseen aphotograph in amuseum,oreven in som eone'swallet,thatstopped you dead in yourtracks and m adeyourecallatime in yourlifeyou'd long since forgotten'?.That'swhatldo.lcaptureand recapture mo- ments in time and allow people to return to emotional places they never thought they could again visit.'' (Question-based,foraphotographen) ''Retailershiremeto find them profitsin unexpected places. And iflcan'tfind atleastfiftythousand dollarsinunreal- izedprofits,theyarenotrequiredtopayme.''(Declara- tive,forafinancialconsultant.) ''H aveyoueverthoughtaboutwhatwouldhappenif,forsome reason,you couldn'tsupportyourself? M y work assures thattlltgtcould neverhappen.And whatldo costs my clientsnothing.''(Question-based,foraninsuranceagent.) W hileyou'rein thisgenerative stage,have fun and experi- mentwith waysto configureyourPersuasion N ine information. Perhapsstartonepitch with ametaphor(question#9),and an- otherwith yourguarantee(question #7).Orstartone with a newspaperquotepraisingyourwork(question #6),andanother withabriefclientsuccessstory(question#8). TheopeningofaQuickPitchismuchclosertoartthanitis to formula.You wantyourm aterialto lead you.W hatto lead withisajudgmentcall.A creativeact.Youtakewhat'sstrongest, mostintriguing,mostimpressive,andyouleadwiththat.
  • 83. THEQLIlcltPITCH OPENING Keepputtingtogethercombinationsuntilyoufind afew that excite you.Keep tweaking ideas and language untilyou hear yourselfsay,''Sonofagun,t/gtgtcapturesthespiritofmywork.'' lfyou'reenthused by aphraseandshow it,chancesareyour listenerwillbeenthusedby it,too. Y Backroom ''llpsIortheQuickPitch Opening + W henyou talk aboutyourbusinessto colleaguesandclients, whatgetstheirattention?lsthereafactthatraiseseyebrows? A condensable story thatmoves them to the edge oftheir seats?lfso,youwanttofitthatintoyouropening,ifata11pos- sible.YourQuickPitchopeningshouldintriguepeople,grab them ;ifyoualreadyhavethatkindofinform ation,useit. # lfyou'restuck,askyourcolleaguesand clientswhatthey find mostgrabbing aboutwhatyou do.Take theiranswers and convertthem into openings.Youmightstum bleupon agem . Forinstance: You'rean attorneywith ageneralpractice.You'regood,so thereareanumberofdirectionsinwhichyoucouldtakeyour opening.Oneclient,though,tellsyouthefollowinganecdote. She's hired you a dozen times,butthe mostdramatic thingyoudidwastostopherfrom investingin abusinessthat you felthad a faulty revenue m odel.You ended up being right.A yearlaterthebusinesswentsour,and investing in it would havecosthereverything.Youneverknew how im por- tantyouradvicehadbeen. H ow mightthat be converted into an opening? H ow about:''lstop peoplefrom bankruptingthemselves/''or''Busi- nesspeoplehiremetoprotecteverythingtheykeworkedfor/'' or,''Peoplehirem etolookovertheirshouldersandmakesure the/remakingtherightdecisions.'' Noneoftheseisrightwith acapitalR.Theym aybegood choiceswhenusedwiththerightcrowd.The/recertainlyin- triguing.W hat'smore,youhaveacasestudytobackupyour
  • 84. CO NSTRU CT YOUR O W N OPEN ING bravado.That'scritical.lfyou're going to m ake a startling claim,youmustbeabletosubstantiateit. + YoucouldmaketheargumentthatQuickPitchopeningstake asideroutebeforegettingtothepoint.Butlwouldarguethat side routesgive hue,color,and texture to life.Side routes m akeastoryastory. Take Conef.pftllt/?eJ//fgk.Told straight-ahead,itisa tale aboutaSouthernwom anwholosesherfortunebecauseofthe CivilW arand then hasto rebuild herlife.Thatdescription m ayworkasahighconcept,butit'striteonmostotherlevels. ltcertainlydoesn'tinspire. W here'sthepageantry?W here'stheblood,thebone,the life?ltisthesidestories- aboutScarlettO'H ara'slovers,her shattered self-respect,herresolve- thatm ake the story the world'smostwidelyread,aftertheBible. W henyoudelivertheopeningofaQuickPitch,youke capturedyourlistenerwithintrigueandstory. Atfirst,theapproachm ayfeeloddtoyou.Buttheprinci- p1ebehindtheQuickPitchopeningisthesameprinciplebe- hindmostbooksyoukeread and mostplaysandfilmsyouke seen.ltworks.You'reshowingyouhavegutsenough to use whatworks,evenwhen it'snotwhat'sdoneconventionally. A TransformationM echanism:Fredicting Fingers Thestene Ataconference,yourunintoagroupofcolleagues,mostofwhom youhaven'tseeninyears.Oneasksifyou/restillasgoodatplaying the marketasyouwereyearsago. zzBetterl''yousay.''W hatIdo isresearcha company untilIknow every singlething aboutit.Igettoknow itsowellthattheentirecom- panyisanopenbooktome.Iknow everymovethey/regoingto (continoed)
  • 85. THEQUICK PITCH OPENING (Continoed) makebeforethey make it.Letmeshow youwhatI'm talking about. Insteadofcompanies,though,1/11demonstrate itwithyoupeople. zzEventhoughIhaven'tseenmostofyouforyears,Istillunder- standyouwellenoughto know exactlyhow you/llthinkand act.1/11 provethat. zzW howantsto participate?Jack.Elizabeth.Good. zzl'm going toturnmyback.W hen Ido,IwantJackand Eliza- bethtoeachholdupany numberoffingerstheywantononehand. O nefingertofive. zzThen,Alex,Iwantyouto calloutthetotal.Based uponwhatI know aboutJackand Elizabethand numbersand behavior,1/11tell youhow manyfingerseachofthem isholding up.'' Youshieldyoureyesand turnaway.A few secondsIater,Alex caIIsout''Five '' Youthinkfora moment,andthentellyourcolleaguesthatJackis holdingupthreefingers,and Elizabethfwofingers.Youareright. zzLet'smakethisharder.JustincaseyouthinkI'm incahootswith anyone,IwantJackand Elizabethbacktoback.Idon'twanttosee them,and Idon'twantthem seeingeachother.Let'scontinue.'' Againyouturnaway,andagainAlexyellsoutatotal.Even underthesestringentconditions,youcorrectlyguessthenumberof fingersoneachperson'shand. Aftera few repetitions,youaskthreemorepeopletocomeforward: fwotohold uptheirhandsand onetocalloutthetotal.Yetevenwith thesenew people,youguessthenumberscorrectlyagainandagain. Awed byyourdemonstration,everyonewantsto know ifyou haveanystocktips.Yousay:zzDon'tbedeceived bywhatyou/ve seen.Ifmystocktipsarebetterthananyoneelse/s,it'sbecauseIre- allydoresearchacompany Iike mad beforeputting moneyonit. GuessingnumbershasIittleto dowithit.'' Youaskifanyonewould IiketogoforIunch.Inpart,becauseof yourintriguingmechanism,almosteveryoneioinsyou. (continoed)
  • 86. CO NSTRU CT YOUR O W N OPEN ING (Continoed) Behlnd the Stene Aconfederate(orfwolisused,andthatpersontipsoffthenumbers toyouusingasimple,ingeniouscode.Here'show todo it: Find acolleaguetoactasyoursecretassistant.Tellheraboutthe Mechanism,and teachherthiscoding sequence. Forthefirstround,sheshouldholduptwofingersandmentally notethenumberoffingerstheotherpersonisholdingup. Eachtimeafterthat,sheshould hold upthe numberoffingersthe otherpersonpreviously held up,plusone. So,iftheotherpersonholdsupthreefingers,onthenextround yourconfederateholdsupfour(theoriginalthree,plusanadditional one).W hatiftheotherpersonholdsupfivefingers?Yourconfederate signalsyoubyholding upone. Here'swhatitIooksIikeinaction: Youasksomepeopletostepforward.Elizabeth,yoursecretas- sistant,isoneofthem. YouturnawayandIistenforthetotal.W hateverthesum,youknow Elizabethisholding upfwofingers,soyousubtractfwofrom thetotal. Sayyouhear''seven.''Subtractfwofrom seven,and telleveryone that''Elizabethisholding upfwofingers,andJackisholding upfive.'' O nthe nextround,youhear''three.''W ell,youand Elizabeth know Jackheld upfivefingersinthefirstround,so Elizabethisgoing toholduponefingerthisround.Youriob,then,istosubtractone from thetotal.Sowhenyouhear''three,''yousay,''Elizabethishold- inguponefinger,andJackisholdingup- 0...You'recorrect. Y Backroom 'IlpsIorPredictingFingers + How doyouswitchaIIthe playersinvolved and stillperform the mechanism?Youhaveasecondconfederate.W henyougetridof yourfirststooge,youbringinyoursecondonetoreplaceher. (continoed)
  • 87. THEQUICK PITCH OPENING (Continoed) Is thatcheating?Ifyou thinkso,you/re Iiving by rulesthat aren'twritten anywhere.W here does itsay thatyou can only haveoneaccomplice,nottwo?Forthatmatter,where doesitsay youhavetostopatfwoaccomplices? Inthe 1930s,a mind readernamed Annemannsaid he'd fill anauditorium withaccomplices,ifitmeantthathecould astound theonepersonintheroom whowasn'tinonthetrick.Annemann didn'tfeelboundbyimaginal'yrules. He also did a card trickthatmightinterestyou:A spectator would picka card and putitin hisorherpocket.Laterthatday, whentheprocedureandthecardwereforgotten,Annemannwould takethespectatorto a restaurant.W hentheywereseated attheir table,AnnemannwouldaskthespectatortoIookup.There,pasted totheceiling,wasaduplicatecardtotheonethespectatorhad. How did itwork?Beforeyouguess,Ietmemake itclearthat AnnemannneverIeftthespectator'ssightorhad contactwiththe restaurantoncethecard waspicked. The method?Annemann had a differentcard pasted on the ceiling ineachof52 restaurants.W henhesaw whichcard had beenselected,he tookthespectatortotheeaterywiththe corre- sponding card onitsceiling. Now,Annemann'smethod wasn'tslick.Itdidn'tinvolve ele. gantsystemsoryearsofsleight-of-hand practice.Butwasiteffec- tive? Think aboutit.8utyourselfin the spectator's place,and imagine whatyourreaction would be.Ifit'sIessthan iaw- dropping,you/renotbeing honestwithyourself. + W henyou/retryingtoinfluencesomeone,ponderthesequestions: W hatam Itl-yingtoaccomplish? W hatdoestheotherpersonwant? (continoed)
  • 88. CO NSTRU CT YOUR O W N OPEN ING (Continoed) How canIgivetheotherpersonwhatheorshewants,while IgetwhatIwant? W hatconditionsarestopping mefrom makingthishappen? Aretheseconditionsvalid? How wouldInormallygo aboutgetting whatIwantinthis situation? How elsecanIgoaboutgettingwhatIwant? Now,whatam Igoingtodo tomakethishappen?
  • 89. TH E Q UICK PITCH BO DY heQuickPitch Openingiseffortandart.Youmust comb through yourresponsibilities,promises,and ac- complishm entsandcondensethem inawaythathooks people.N otaneasythingtodo. TheQuickPitchBody,though,isdifferent.lt'snothardto develop.lnfact,l'vealreadywritten itoutforyou.Thebodybe- ginswithalonesentence,whichyouuseafteryouropening. Thissentence,l'vebeentold,hasbeenused by salespeopleat som eoftheworld'slargestcorporations.lt'11help you establish rapportwith thepersontowhom you'repitching,anditwillhelp youtopersonalizewhatyou'regoingtosay,so itintereststhem . Beforelgiveyouthesentence,1etmesetascene: You'reatabusinessmixerand arewaiting in lineforacock- tail.Thewoman in frontofyou turnsaround,smiles,and asks whatyoudoforaliving. You say,''Sm allbusinesseshirem eto makesurethey geta11 themoney owedthem .'' Shesays,''Soundsinteresting.How doyoudothat?''
  • 90. W HAT THE BODY SENTENCE DO ESF(3lkYO U That'swhenyou deliverthe Quick Pitch Body sentence: ''J''//?. ytlog'tyoutellrltr(gôc'fïtf.plltgtyout:t(?,(ggt:ttlltz 1411tellyofï/90f,17f.plltgtJ ijo(gllll/ftstoyou.'' Tattoothatsentenceonyourmind.lt'sgold. W H AT TH E BO DY SEN TEN CE D O ES FO R YO U W henyou delivertheBody Sentence,you gettheotherperson talking.Thishasseveraladvantages: + You create arelationship with her,predicated on give-and- take. + Youhearabouthersituation. + Youlearnaboutthepartsofhersituationthatinteresthermost. + You understandwhereher''problem''and your''solution''co- incide. Thinkaboutit.M omentsagoyouwerestrangers.Now,while youmaynotbebosom buddies,you'reatleastacquaintances.You haveinform ation abouteach other,andyouhavepointsthatyou can discuss. To besurethatl'vem adethisclear,1etmegiveyou acouple moreexamplesoftheQuickPitchBodysentenceinaction. Firstexample:You'reastockbroker.Youm eetaman and ex- changepleasantries.Heasks,''W hatdoyoudoforaliving?'' Yousay:''lndividualinvestorshiremetom akethem moneyin awayfasterandsaferthan theycoulddoby themselves.'' H esays,''Really!How doyoudo that?'' Yousay,''ltdependsupontheparticularinvestor.Tellmeabit aboutyourself,and 1'11tellyou aboutthekindsofstrategiesmy firm wouldrecomm endforyou.'' Second example:You'reaweb designer.Youmeetawom an whoasks ''W hatdoyoudo?'' You say,''H aveyou everbeen surfing thelnternetand come acrossasitethatstopped you dead in yourtracks?A sitewhose
  • 91. THEQLIlcltPITCH BODY graphicsand 'look'm ade you pause and smile,because they so perfectly spoketoyouonabusinessandaestheticlevel?'' ''lh vel''a ''W e11,lmakethatkind ofsitehappen.'' ''Really!H ow doyoudothat?'' ''So lcan explain itin themostinterestingway,why nottell mealittleaboutwhatyoudo,and 1'11tellyou how my work re- latestoyoursituation.'' C O N VERSATIO N AL KEYS O fcourse,even afteryoukedelivered acompelling opening and asked yourquestion,peoplemay notbe asforthcomingwith in- formation asyou'dlike.That'swhenyoumustdraw outinforma- tion.How doyoudo that? Listen r/eell/lr.Thatmeansfocusing on the otherperson with yourears,eyes,andmind. O n thetrade-show floor,lseedaily examplesofshallow lis- tening.An attendeewalksinto a1700th,thecompany representa- tive greetshim ,reads his name tag,seeshe's notfrom a big organization,andlosesinterest.Therepresentativem aysmilepo- litely,but she starts peering pastthe attendee at the passing crowd,hoping to spotsomeonemoreimportant.Naturally,that isnotthewaytolisten. J///?C'.:yousttgrt(gcogperstgtfog,(gssgrletlltgtyoulltgpesometbinytoyive t/?eotllerbetson(ggt:ttlltgtberson lltgssometbiny toyiveyou.Perhapsthe transaction won'tinvolvemoney.ltm ay involve exchanging in- sights,stories,orhighspirits;thosearevaluabletransactions,too. W hileyou'relistening,it'simportantthatthespeakerunder- stand how much you value whathe orshe hasto say.W hen speakers understand that,they'lltalk to you with much more depth and goodwill. O ne way lconvey my interestisby looking peoplein the eyesasthey speak.llearned how effectivethiswaswhen lstud- ied stagehypnosis.
  • 92. CONVERSATIO NAL KEYS ln orderto hypnotize,a hypnotistmustm ake certain the subjectistotallypresent- inthehereandnow.Todothat,the hypnotistwilloftenaskthesubjecttogazeintohiseyes.This isnotdone forsome kind ofpowertrip.lt'sdone so thatshe won'tbedistracted bythesurroundings.O nlythen canshefall into atrance. Sometimes,ahypnotistwillcheat.Ratherthanstaringinto a subject'seyes,he'llstareatthebridgeofhernose.Therationale? The hypnotistcan hold hisgazelongerand moreintently that way.Try itasanexperiment,butrealizethatthatlevelofinten- sity is usually unnecessary.You're not trying to coax people under,orturnthem intozombies.You'rejustshowingthem that theirideas,theiropinions,theirbeing,matterto you.Forthose purposes,plaino1deye-to-eyecontactisfine. Listenactively.Anotherwaytoshow you'relisteningintently is through the empathy technique known as(gctfpelisteniny.This methodwaspopularized by psychotherapistCarlRogers.To lis- ten actively,youperiodically repeatbackwhatyou'rehearing in yourownwords. Forexample,thepersonyou'retalkingto says:''l'm thehead women'sfashionbuyerforadepartmentstore.loverseeateam of eight,and wemakeseasonalpurchasesfrom thebigm anufactur- ers.M ostly,webuy clotheswith astreetlook.Youknow whatl mean?Low -cutskirts.Bellyshirts.Lotsofblack.Thatm aysound kind ofglamorous,butit'saheavily numbers-driven business.l look atmy spreadsheetsfarmore than llook atthe clothing or themanufacturers'catalogues.Afterall,we'reexpected tohavea high'turn'rateonourclothes,otherwisewe'reintroubleandthe store'sintrouble.'' ln response,yousay:''You'retheboss,butthere'scertain lim - itson yourfreedom.Youkegotto begood atwhatyoudo,be- causethenum bersdon't1ie.'' Yourwordsshow theotherperson thatyou're.lï0tjgstbeariny tllefrf.porks,you'reIlrocessf'lg tllerl,t00.You'rethinkingaboutthem and the/rehavinganeffect.
  • 93. TI-IEQulcitPITCI-IBODY Rebbraseyour(gestfogs.During the conversation,youm ay ask the otherperson a question she doesn'tunderstand.Shem ight look atyou quizzically,orgive you an answerthatshowsshe didn'tgetwhatyouweredriving at.Shemightalso answerin a way thatconfusesyou.lfany ofthese thingshappen,takethe sam equestionand comeatitfrom adifferentangle.Someofthe bestwaysofdoingthatare: X eyourquestiontoherpastexperience:''Yousayoneofyour clientswasFedEx.W hatkindsofprojectsdidyoudoforthem?'' lntroduceahypotheticalelementintothequestion:''lflwere thehead ofan IT department,how mightluseyourservice?'' Sim plify theaudiencewith yourquestion:''So,iflhad toex- plain to my five-year-oldwhatyoudo,whatwouldltellhim?'' TIM E TO M O VE lfyou'reupforanassignment,reader,m aylsuggestone?Takeyour QuickRtch OpeningandtheQuickPitchBodysentence,and practice170thontwostrangersaday,everydayforthenextweek. Forget about persuading them .Forget about picking up clientsforyourservice ormaking lasting relationships.lfthat happens,good.Butthat'snotthepurposeofthisassignment. Thisassignmentispurelyforguts.lwantyoutopracticeput- tingyourselfouttherein awaythat'sunnaturalforyou.N omat- terwhatyou do foraliving,theskillyou'relearningwhen you pitch to strangerswillserveyouwelltherestofyourdays.You willlearn so much from this.ltisan easy-to-m anagestep onthe waytom akingyouunstoppable. G UT TRAIN IN G Pitching to strangers asa m eans ofm astering techniques and nervescameoutofmy own career.From thetim elwas13untill was19,lhadasafejob asamagician aboardcruiseships.After awhile,though,lgottiredoftheregimentedshipboardroutine.l
  • 94. G uT TRAIN ING 83 decided to beamagician on land.Thetrouble?lknew no one. No agents.No producers.Nomeetingplanners.lnessence,lhad torestartmyCareerfrom scratch. lapplied a technique lhad read aboutin a thin,mimeo- graphedbookletcalledJtT'tgêes(lgts,Dtgrlrlft/,byPaulDiam ond.ln it,Diamond explainshismethod ofcold calling formagicians. Basically,thisiswhathesays: + W alkintoahoteloratradeshow. + Checkoutitseventscalendarinthelobby toseewhatspecial eventsaregoing on. + Find ahospitality room orcocktailparty thatseemspromis- ing,andwalkintoitasthoughyoubelong. + Do 10minutesofmagicforasm allgroupofguests. + Afteryouperform ,askoneofthegroupm emberstopointout thehost. + Approach the host.Tellhim youke been performing forhis guests,andthe/reenjoyingwhatyou'redoing.Lethim know thatifhepaysyourfee,youwillstay on to entertain forthe restoftheparty. Usingtheaboveapproach,wasleveraskedtoleave?Yes,but lgotaskedto stayfarmoreoften than lwasasked to leave.The ratiowasprobably20:1. By showing initiative,notonly did lgetwhatlwanted,but the hostand the partygoersgotwhatthey wanted,too:afun evening.Aneveningtheywouldrememberandtalk about. lstilluse avariation ofthisbusiness-generating technique today.W hen l'm notbooked,lfind outwhere there's atrade show andlflythere.O ncel'm intheconventioncenter,llookfor weaknessintheroom . Now,thatdoesn'tmeanllookforweakcompanies.W hatldo lookforisanexceptionalcompanythat'sfailingattheshow. lwalkuptothepersoninchargeandsay,''lmightbethemost importantperson you'llmeettoday,because lcan solve your
  • 95. THEQLIICK PITCH BODY problem ,andyou're problem lookspretty big.''l'm welldressed and articulate,sohelistens. lsay,''N o one'shere.lt'stwo hoursinto theshow and you havethisbigempty1700th anditlooksterrible.Nooneisshopping it.Youhavetenmillion dollarsinroboticsandproductshere,but noonewantstoseethem . ''l can guarantee that you'll have a hundred and fifty prospectslined up in frontofyourlead-generation m achine in twelvem inutes.lwilldo itforfree.lfitworks,you'regoing to have abiggerproblem .You'regoing to havetroublegathering a11the leads.You're going to run outofprinterribbon,tran- scriptiontape,and manpowen'' Doesthisapproachalwayswork? lmakeitwork.Companiesdo,infact,turnmedown.Some- times,lhavetodotwotofourcoldcallsatagivenshow.Butita1- waysdoesworkeventually. The pointl'm trying to underline here isthatto become a betterpersuader,you'regoingto haveto do thingsoutsideyour comfortzone. Doing thingsoutsideyourcomfortzonedoesn'tm ean you must becom e a different person. lt doesn't mean you're a phony.ltcertainly doesn'tmeanyouhaveto com promiseyour ethics. ltmeansyou shouldn't1etyourself-conceptstop you.lf youthinkyou'retooshy,ortoonervous,ortoodignified todo whatl'm asking you to do,you're letting yourfearsinterfere withwhatcouldbeamoreliberated,enjoyable,persuasivelife foryou. Youdon'thavetowaituntilyouhavecourageorskillenough totry.You'reready rightnow. TO DAY . . . Strikeup aconversationwith astrangerinatheater,asuper- m arket,wherever.
  • 96. 85 Then,hitherwithyourQuickPitchopening.W henshe says,''How doyoudothat?''follow upwith theQuickPitch Bodysentence. W hensheanswers,listenclosely.Lookherintheeye.Process whatshe'ssaying,and repeatitbacktoherinyourownwordsto show you'rethoughtfully weighing herideas.Letthe conversa- tion flow from there. lfyouwanttoturntheconversationinto apersuasionconver- sation,you'llhaveampletime.Onceshestartstalking,afew dif- ferentscenarioswillpresentthemselves: + You'lldiscovershe'saprospect. + You'lldiscovershe'snotaprospect. + You'lldiscoverthatwhile she's nota prospect,she knows som eonewho is. A11thesescenarioshaveapotentiallygoodoutcome:lfshe'sa prospect,youhaveachancetopitchandpersuadeher.lfshe'snot aprospect,youhaveachancetoenjoyafriendlyconversation.lf she's not a prospect butknowssomeone who is,you have a chancetogetanintroductiontothatprospect. Y Backroom ''llp IortheQuickPitchBody + W antasimplew ayto intensifypeople'sattentionduringthe QuickPitch?Usethepitchman'sbestfriend:aprop.Say you m anufacturepharm aceuticals.W henyou're asked what you do foraliving,reach into yourpocketand pullouta lone pill.W ithout a word,display the pillon youropen palm fora few seconds.Don'trush.Play up the mystery. Thenpointto thepillandsay:''That'swhatldo foraliving. M y companylengthenslives.W eeradicateproblems.lfyou have afastheartbeat,weslow itdown.lfyou're depressed, weremovethedepression.''Believeme,youwillbelistened to andremembered.
  • 97. THEQUICK PITCH BODY A TransformationMechanism: Breakinga Fencilwitha DollarBill TheStene Forthreedays,youandyourmanagementteam havebeenhavebeen holed upinahotel,working feverishlyona productroll-outstrategy. Youcongratulateeveryoneondoing goodwork.Thestrategy youaIIdeveloped isa powerfulone.And itneedsto be.Thecom- any'sfuturedependsonit.P Strategizingisiustonestepintheroll-out,youtellthem.Now comesthecrucialworkofactuallygetting theproductto market. Therecanbenomarginforerror.Thingsmustwork. Younoticethatoneofyouremployeeshasa pencilbehind her ear.Youaskhertostepforward. Youaskanotheremployeeto Iendyoua crispdollarbill. Youcontinuetalkingaboutthenew product,itsrolloutstrategy, andtheneedforthecompanytofocus.Asyouspeak,youfoldthe billIengthwise,creasing itwithyourthumbnailoverand overagain. Yourspeechisreachingacrescendo.YourmanagersareIeaning forward,hanging onyourwords. Youaskthewomanto plantherfeetandtohold thepencilfirmly, onehand neartheeraser,theothernearthepoint.Youtellhernotto move,whateveryoudo. Youhold upthebillforaIIto see,andyousay:''Focusisa pow- erfultool.Focusiswhatgetsthingsdone.Ifwecanfocusstrongly enoughontheresultwewant,andbackthatfocusupwithaction, who knowswhatwecanaccomplish.'' AsyoudeliveryourIastwords,yousuddenly karatechopthe pencil'scenterwiththefolded bill.Toeveryone'sastonishment,the pencilsnapscleanlyintwo.Faperhasbrokenwood. ''That'sthepoweroffocus,''yousay.zzAndthat'stheIevelof focuswemustkeeptogetthisproiectsuccessfullytomarket.'' (continoed)
  • 98. 87 (Continoed) DaysIater,backatheadquarters,aIIthe managersareclearand passionateastheyspeakwiththeirteamsabouttheforthcomingroll- out.zzFocus,''theysay,zziseverything.Ifwekeepoureyesonthis proiect,there'snotellinghow bigitcouldgo.'' Behlnd the Stene The karatechopdid indeed breakthepencil.Butitwasn'tthedollar billthatdidthedamage.Itwasyourindexfinger,whichyousecretly extended asyoubroughtthebilldown. Toperform Breakinga FencilwithaDollarBiII,borrow a billand fold itIengthwise.Thisfolding isforshow.You/re bringing asmuch attentionaspossibletothe bill,so noonesuspectsthe realsecret. Creasethe billseveraltimesasyoutalk.Holditupto theIight, asifyouwereexamininga razor'sedge. Now gripthebillsoyourthumb isononesideandyourcurled indexfingerisontheother. Bring thebillupbehindyourear,soyoucancomedownwith force.Now springlAsyourhand descends,stickoutyourindexfin- ger(Figure7.1). Yourfingerandthebillwillcontactthepencilandbreakit.(Don't worry,thepencilwillbreak;notyourfingerl) O nceyouhearthesnapandyourfingerhasclearedthepencil, curlyourindexfingerbackintoyourfistandtakeyourbow. Y Backroom ''llpsIorBreakingaPencilwith a DollarBill + Therearethreealternatehandlingsforthismechanism: Youcanperform itwithoutfolding thebill.Creasing it Iengthwise,though,addsa touchofrealism because youseem to bereinforcing thebillto makeitsturdier. (continoed)
  • 99. THE QLIICK PITCH BODY -;kkêb. FigureZ.1 Secretlyextend yourforefinger. (Continved) Ifyoufoldthebillyoucclninsertyourfingerintothe foldclsyoubringm urhclncldown.Thisisprobqblyun. necessqry,butifyou/resurroundedbyyourcrowd you mighttryit. 3. Youneedn'tstickoutyourfingercltclllInsteqd youccln breclkthem ncilwiththefrontofyourfist. * Actnclturcllclsyoucreclsethebillclnclexclmineilsshqrpness.The billisordinclry clnclnooneknowswhcltyou/replclnningondoing so there'sno reqsonto overdo it In mqgic there'sclsqying ''Don'trunifyou/renotE)eingchclsed''It's ccd qdvice. (J . * YoumclyE)ewonderinghow prclcticcllitistostickoutyourfinger clnclpullitbclckinthecourseofclsinglekqrqtechop.It'ssurpris. inglyeclsyclncldeceptive. Thekeyistostickycvrfingerotxœ ceyourhclndhclsstclrtedils descent.Ifm ustickycvrfingerouteqrlierthemethodisobvious. (continved)
  • 100. 89 (Continoed) + O nce you've broken the pencil,should you worry aboutbeing caughtcurling yourfingerbackin?Absolutely not.Thesnapping ofthepencilisso shockingthatyouraudiencewillfocus100 per- centoftheirattentiononthepencilandonthe reactionoftheper- sonholdingit.YouhaveaIIday tocurlyourfinger. + Can performing thismechanism hurt? Obviously,ifyou have a medicalcondition- likearthritis,osteoporosis,ora previously bro. kenfinger- you'llwantto skip thismechanism.Butifyoudo the chopfast,Iikeyou're bringingdowna rolled up newspaperonto afly,you'llbarelyfeelyourfingercontactingthewood.
  • 101. T H E SLO G A N PIT C H tthetradeshow,passersbywon'tstopforlinear,logical productpitches.Youcansayit'ssad.Youcansayitsig- nifiessociety'sdownfall.You can say whatyouwant. Butit'safactoflife. Peopledon'twantyoutotakethem througheachlogicalstep. The/reimpatient.Theywanttheconclusion- andthatconclu- sion had bettermakeinstantsense.Youkegotto givethem the bottom linefastandentertainingly. W hatl'vefoundtobetrueonthetrade-show floorisalsotrue in mostofsociety.lfyouwantto sellprojectsto the movies, you'dbetterknow how to speakinhighconcepts.lfyouwantto beonTM you'dbetterknow howtospeakinsoundbites.lfyou wantto be amediapundit,you'd betterknow how to speak in headlines.lfyouwantto beapolitician,you'd betterknow how tospeakinslogans. W hy doesoursocietydemand brevity?M y guess:lt'sdueto theamountofinform ationatourdisposalandthewaythatinfor- m ation getsdeliveredtous.
  • 102. TI-IEsl-ocm x PITCI-I 91 H ow much information isavailable to us?Youke no doubt heard thestatthatweattend to moreinform ation in aday than GeorgeW ashington attendedtoin ayear.W hetherthatcom par- ison is precise ornot,itm akesa point.lfwe mustprocessa mound ofinformation,wecan'tstudy itatlength. H ow dowegetthatinformation?Throughsourcesthatcater toourshrinking attentionspan,likeTV newsande-mail.E-mail, infact,isaperfectexampleofhow quicklyyounow havetothink and react.lgethundredsofmessagesaday,and my answersare usually composed oftruncated phrasesand computer-generated signaturefiles.l'm notlazy.l'm doingmy bestwithwhatl'vegot. W ewantourinform ationfast,entertaining,andpredigestedso wecan m akesenseofit.Youcan fightthisnew wayofbeing,or youcanuseittoyouradvantageasyouworktoinfluencepeople. lurgeyoutodo asldo:W henplanningpersuasionmessages, ?istillyourcogcelltsfgtoctgtc/?. y sloyans,(gg;tuset/gosesloyansrelletgter//.')r fzqft/gfg yourmesstgles.lfyou do- and your slogans make good sense- yourideaswilllodgeinthepersuadee'smind. W hen lpitch,lhave phrasesluse overand over,because theykeproved theirmettle.Oneofthosephrases:''W eownthe factories.''lsay: ''Ladiesand gentlemen,you mightwonderhow we can sell ourCD burnersso cheaply,and stillhavethehighestquality in theindustry.lt'seasy:W eownthefactories!That'sright,wehave factoriesinSt.Louis,inH ouston,inSeattle. ''O urcompetitorsfarm outtheirm anufacturing.W hen they needmoreburners,theyhavetowaitinline.Youheardm e.They haveto putin arequesttotheiroutsourcers,andthen theywait untilthosepeoplehave an open tim eslot.M eanwhile,my com - petitorlosesorders,so when they finally getanew shipment, theyhavetojackuptheprices. ''W edon'thavethoseconcerns.Youknow why?Becausewe ownthefactories!Everythingisunderourcontrol....'' Believeme,by thetime l'm through pitching,thatslogan is ringingin people'sears.Som eattendeeseven repeatitto them -
  • 103. TI-IEsl-ocia/tx PITCI-I selvesastheyenterthe1700th,almostasifthey werehumm inga hitsong. To m ake a phrase stick,repetition iscrucial,although you should neverrepeatfor repetition'ssake alone.Always have a point. lntheexampleyoujustread,''W eownthefactories''wasthe pitch'sum brella thought.Thatis,a11the information ltalked aboutreferred,in someway,to my client'sowningthefactories. Each paragraphpresentednew information aboutthattopic.Re- peatingthephrasemadesense. H ow m anyslogansshouldyouhaveinapersuasionm essage? Dependshow long them essage is,whom you're trying to con- vince,and what'simportant to them .For a formal,hour-long pitch,l'veused asmany asadozenslogansrepeatedthroughout. W hen you're thinking aboutstructuring yourmessage,you can actually useyourslogansasanoutline.ldo thatwhen lgive inform altalksontrade-show presentations. M y slogans for the speech are:''Put your people on a edestal''''Eyelevelisbuy level''''Hewho isloudestwins/''and17 , , ''Giftsand prizessecureattention.''Every time lgive thattalk,l usedifferentexamplesand add fresh ideas.Butit'salwaysstruc- tured on thosefourslogans.lrepeateach one,and by the time my talk isover,everyoneknowswhatitmeansand why it'sim - portant. A slogan isaconceptthatyouwantstuck inyouraudience's mind.Therefore,youwantto be choosy abouttheslogansyou createanduse.A slogancanbe... + A-fetgtgre:''Processesinformationinafractionofthetime.'' + Abenejit:''W henyouthinkofus,think'security.''' + A (gestfog:''How manyofyouwantanextra$2,000amonth?'' + A cballove:''lfyou're unsure,don't even think about going aheadwith this.'' + A strgctgre:''W e design,deploy,develop,and manage your jd NwOr .
  • 104. TH ESLOGAN PITCH 93 ltcanbe... + Lxcitiny:''lfyoulovewhatyoukeseen,that'sonlyfivepercent ofwhatitcandol'' + l-lotgst-fg/:''Youwon'thavecompetition becauseyouwillhave annihilatedthem .'' + Selj-rehrential:''We'rean American institution with interna- tionalpenetration.'' + T'oelgge-fg-clleeê:''lhatetodestroythousandsofjobs,butwe're justthatgood.'' + Insbiriny:''Onevision!O nesolutionl'' + Ptgfg-fg/:''Youwalkaway,tomorrow willbeno differentfrom today.'' Anotherway to add vivid slogansto yourmessageisto put your key concepts into a mnemonic and teach people that m nem onic. Sayyourun alandscaping firm,andyou'retrying to winthe lawn-care contractfor a11the town-owned properties.During yourpresentation tothetown leaders,yourefertoyourprocess sthe''ESP Process.''a Ofcourse,thelettersfSPareintriguingbecausetheyconjure upthoughtsofextrasensory perception.Youexplainthatinyour model,though,'T isforexcavating,Sisforseeding,andPisfor pruning.''Youthen talk abouteach step and how itwould help beautifythetown. W hateveryourjob,tryconfiguringthestepsinyourprocess sothattheyform amemorableword.ltjustrequiresimagination tom akeconceptsfit. Slogansaresopowerfulthatpeoplehavedevelopedentireca- reersaround them .Comedian Rodney Dangerfield,forinstance: H isslogan,orsignatureline,is''ldon'tgetnorespect.''ltsumsup hischaracterand driveshisroutines.Perhapsyoumightcomeup with aslogan thatworksso wellthatyou andyourbusinessbe- comeassociatedwithit.
  • 105. TI-IEsl-ocia/tx PITCI-I W hat'sgoodforDangerfield isalso good forCoke.Theprod- uct'sslogan:''TheRealThing.''W hatdoesthatlinedofortheCoca- Cola Company? ltreinforcesitsimage asthecreatorofthe soft drink,whilepushingthemessagethatanyothercompany canpro- duceonly aweakcopy.Thecompanyhasworkedhardthroughthe yearsatrepeatingthatsloganandpushingtheconceptsitrepresents. Beforeweleavethesubjectofslogans,ldon'twantyouto thinkthatthey'rejustforlarge,publicpresentations.Youcanalso usethem inprivatesituations,even one-on-one. lm agine thatyourfour-year-old daughter,Amy,ishaving a birthday party andwantsherUncleTom to attend.Tom ,though, is 170th busy and lives 1OO miles away.Nevertheless,since it would meanso muchtoyourdaughter,youwanttopitchhim on theidea. You take am omentto plan yourstrategy.W hatmightcon- vincehim to attend?H elovesAmy,buthemaynotrealizehow much hemeansto her.Tom isherfavoriteuncle.That,then,is ourslogan:''YouareAmy'sfavoriteuncle.''y W henyougetTom onthephone,youfocustheconversation onyourgoal- getting him to theparty- andyourslogan- ''You areAmy'sfavoriteuncle.''Youopen thecallby asking him to at- tend,youtalk abouthow much hemeansto yourdaughter,and throughoutthe callyou bring up thewords''You are Amy'sfa- voriteuncle.'' W i11hecometotheparty?W hoknows?Butbyusingtheslo- ganyoukeham meredhomeyourm ainmessage.Thedecision is his.Youkedoneyourpart. Y Backroom ''llpsIortheSloganPitch + H avingtroubleknowingwhichpersuasionpointstomakeinto slogans?Askyourself,''W hatdo lwantpeopletoremember?'' Renderyouranswerin ashortphrase.That'syourslogan. Also askyourself,''W hatdo lwantthem to do?''Thatre- quiresanotherslogan.lfyouwantthem tovoteyesonPropo- sition 29,yoursloganis''VoteYeson Proposition 29!''
  • 106. TI-IEsl-ocm x PITCI-I 95 + Useextreme,distortedimagerytomakesloganssticky.M emory expertsrely on such imagery so thatconceptscomeeasily to mind.Letmegiveyouanexampleofhow you'dm akeitwork. Say thelocalschoolneedsfundsto rebuild itscrumbling gym,andyoukebeenchosentopitchthecasetonearbybusi- nesses.O neofyourm ainpresentationpoints:W hen thegym wasbuilt,therewereonly 6OOchildren attendingtheschool. Now,since thecommunity hasgrown,theschoolhas1,500 students,anincreaseof250percent. H ow do you make thatpointwith distorted im agery? M any waysarepossible.How abouttying the 250 percent gain to anothergaineveryoneisfamiliarwith- weightgain. lfyouweighed 16O poundsandyouincreasedyourm ass by 250percent,you'dweigh 4OOpounds.Yourdistorted im - agery slogan:''Fitting a11thosestudentsinto thecurrentgym islikeputting afour-hundred-pound man in ahundred-and- sixty-poundm an'spants.'' O r,comparethestudentgrowthtosomethingelseevery- onecan identifywith- departmentstorecheckoutlines. SupposeitwasChristm asweek,andyouhadtowaitona departmentstoreline.You mightexpectacheckoutline 15 peoplelong.Butwhatifthatlinewere250percentgreater,a1- most40peoplelong?Afterpaintingthatpictureforyourau- dience,you mightperiodically recallthedistorted imageof '' waitingyourturn attheendofaforty-person line.'' H ow aboutheight?lfyou're6feettallandyouropponent is250 percenttallerthan you,he's 15 feettall.Nlightyou thencomparethatold,crowded,crumbling gym to ''playing basketballagainstanopponentfifteenfeetta11''? You getthe idea.W hatyou're doing isintensifying the imageinyourslogan,soithitsyouraudiencelikeablackjack. + O therwaystom akeasloganmemorable: Use(gIl/grtgsefzq/goseIltgrtsarein barallelcogstrgctfog:''Floatlike a butterfly,stinglikeabee.''
  • 107. TH ESLOGAN PITCH Civeyourbbrase(ggfgtergtg/r/gyple:''lfthe glove don'tfit,you m ustacquit.'' Tonnyourbbraseby strfglfg. ptoyetberr/gyplfg.pcorlllogepts:''Taste. Notwaist.'' + W henyourepeataslogan,m akesureyou'redoingitinaway that'sappropriateto thesituation.lfyou'respeakingbeforea largeaudience,youcandeliveryourslogansinaloud,thump- ing way.lfyou're speaking to smallgroupsorone-on-one, you m ustfityourslogansin m ore naturally;otherwise,you comeacrossasanaggressivepersuasionmachine. Forinstance,you don'twantto say,''You are Amy'sfa- iteuncle''''You areAmy'sfavoriteuncle''''You areAmy'svor ; ; favorite uncle/''overand overagain.lfyoudo,you'llsound likeyou'refouryearsold. lnstead,you wantto elaborate on thatsentence,and re- phraseit:'Tom,ldon'tthinkyourealizethis,butyou'reAmy's favoriteuncle.Shetold me so.She lovesspending time with you.ltwouldmeana1ottoherifyoucametoherbirthdayparty. lknow you'reacoupleofhouls'driveaway,butshe'salittlegirl, sheonly hasonefavoriteuncle,and itwouldmean somuch to herifshecouldseeyoutherewhensheblowsouthercandles.'' A TransformationM echanism:M issing theObvious Thestene Theworld'sIargestperfume manufacturerhasaskedyouradvertising firm to meetwithitspeopleto see ifthere'samatch.Yourexecutive boardhaschosenyouto representthefirm. Youwantto makesureyourpresentationisairtight,soyoucall togetheryourfirm'screativeandsalesteams.zzl'm goingto do my pitch''yousay,''andifyouthinkithasgaps,Ietmeknow.'' (continoed)
  • 108. TH ESLOGAN PITCH (Continoed) Youpitchyourheartoutand whenyou'rethrough,youwaitex- pectantly.A few peoplegiveyouconstructivecomments,butyoufeel they'reholding back. Ferhapstheydon'twanttoslam someonewhohasbeenhand- picked bytheexecutiveboard.You've preparedforthiseventualify withamechanism.YouhitakeyonyourIaptop,andaproiector throwsaslideonthewall.Thatslidesaysthefollowing: Thisisa mostunusualparagraph.How quicklycanyou findoutwhatisunusualaboutit?Ittruly Iookssoordinary, you'dthinknothingwaswrongwithitand,infact,nothing is wrongwithit.Itisunusual,though.W hy?Study it.Think aboutitandyoumayfind out.Trytodoitwithoutcoaching. Ifyouworkatitforabit,itwilldawnonyou.SoiumptoitI Tryyourskillatfiguring itout,ifyoucan.GoodIuck- and don'tblow yourcoolI Youpullastopwatchfromyouriacketpocketandsay,zzYouhave sixtysecondstosolvetheriddleoftheparagraph.Go.'' Aftera minuteyouaskforanswers.Feopletakeguesses,but nonehitsthemark. Finally,youtellthem:zzThatparagraphismissingthemostcom- monIetterintheEnglishIanguage:E.YoucanIookfarandwidefor anotherparagraphIikethisoneandneverfindit.Inasecond,1/11tell youwhyIaskedyoutostudythatparagraph.BeforeIdo,hereisone finalpuzzle.'' Youhitthekeyand theslidechanges: MY FINISHED FILESARE THERESULTOFYEARS O FSCIENTIFIC STUDY COM BINED W ITH THE EXFERIENCEOFYEARS. (continoed)
  • 109. TH ESLOGAN PITCH (Continoed) zzNow youhavefifteensecondsto discoverhow many F'sarein thissentence.Go.'' Afterfifteenseconds,youswitchofftheslideand askforan- swers.Mostpeoplesaw fourF's.A few,five.Youswitchtheslide backonandsay,zzlthassixF's.Countthem yourself.''Evenwithyour prompting,many peoplemisssome.Youwalkuptothescreenand tapeachFwithyourfinger. zzFeoplemisssomeF'sbecauseoftheIinebreaks.Butaneven biggerreasonisbecausetheirmindsskipoverthewordoqwhichap- pearsthreetimesinthesentence.Ofseemsinsignificant.Ithardly seemstomatter.Butwithoutoqthesentencewon'twork.Andwithout countingtheF'sinthethreeofs,youransweriswrong. zzW hyam ItorturingyouIikethis?Because my presentationis veryimportantto meandto ourcompany.Itmeansprestigeanddol- Iarsinourpockets.Infact,thepresentationisso important,thatI wantto do itagainforyou. zzIwanttodo itagain,only thistime,IwantyouIookingatitwith new eyes.W ithyourE-andF-findingeyes. zzIwantyoutowatchand Iistento mewithaIIyourcollectivewis- dom,andtellmehow Icanimproveit.Believeme,Idon'tIiketo be criticizedany morethananyofyoudoes.Butthispitchistooimpor- tantto aIIofus.Ineedevel-yone'shelp.'' Yourepeatyourpitch.Thistime,itsparksseriousand helpful comm ents. Behlnd the Stene Itworksasdescribed in''TheScene.'' Backroom ''llpsIorM issing the O bvious + Obviously,thismechanism isreally fwo mechanisms.I've routined them togetherforyou,butyoucanusethe''E''paragraphand the ''F''sentenceseparately,depending uponyouraudienceandgoals. (continoed)
  • 110. TH ESLOGAN PITCH 99 (Continoed) + 80thpartscomefrom LarryBecker,afamed professionalmentalist. + Considerprinting oneorb0thofthesemechanismsonthe back ofyour business card,so you can use itas a conversation starter. Forexample,supposeI'm amarketingconsultant,andI'm ina room withrealtors.Ihand onemycard andsay: ''You'IIwantto turn thatoverand have a Iook.You/llsee a sentence printedthere.A solitarysentence. ''Now,there'ssomething profound aboutthatsentence,some- thingyou'regoingto wantto know about.Ithasa directbearing onyourbusinessandontherevenueyoudeservetomake. ''W ould you Iike to know how thatsentence can help you make more money?W ould you Iike to know how thatsentence canhelpyoumovemorehomes,atagreaterprofit? ''Thinkofthatsentenceasadiagnostic,asatest.Inamoment Iam going to ask you to read itsilently.You/llhave fifteen seconds. zzW hileyou/rereading thesentence,Iwantyouto countthe numberoftimesinittheIetterFappears. zzo nceIhaveyouranswer,Iwilltellyouhow itrelatestoyou, yourbusiness,yourrevenues.Areyouready?GoI zzstoplNo morecounting.How manytimesdidtheFappear? zzFivetimes?That'sexcellent.M ostpeoplesayfour.Butinfact, thecorrectanswerissix.Checkitout. zzW hat's that? You say you would have found weren'tpressuringyou? ''Ibelieve you.IfIhad Ietyou go slowly,youwould have counted six.Buthere'sthe pointIwantyouto understand about thattest,andhow itrelatestoyourbusiness. ''Fressure,speed,and distractionwere partofthetest.They wereconditionsIbuiltinto it. (continoed)
  • 111. TH E SLOGAN PITCH (Continoed) ''Inthesameway,themarketplacehasconditionsbuiltinto it. O neofthoseconditionsisthenumberofrealfyservicesfightingto serviceyourprospect.There are realty firmsIining the streetsof every townand city,and dozensmoreonthe Internet,waiting to cutyououtwith Iowercommissions.Butthat'swhere Icanbe of help....'' # Anaside:Ifthe E-lessparagraphintriguedyou,youmightwantto read Georges Ferec's novelwritten in French asla Disparition andtranslated into EnglishasA k'ofd.It'saworkofcloseto three hundredpages,andnowhere initdoestheIetterEappear. W hatconstraintsdid an E-lessnovelputonFerec?W ell,two. thirdsofaIIEnglish wordscontain atIeastone E,asdo seven- eighthsofaIIFrenchwords.Imaginethechoiceshehad to make. Infact,youmightdo morethanimagine.Asanexercise,try writing anE-lesse-mailofatIeast75words,and seehow itreads. O r,ifyou/re even more adventurous,write yourown E-less mechanism text,relatedtoyourproduct,andproiectthatona screenduring aproductmeeting.
  • 112. C O N V IN C E W IT H SA M PLES he othernight lstood in front ofNew York City's M adame Tussaud's W ax M useum and watched the powerofsamplesatwork. Thousandsofpeoplerushedpastmewithapurposefullookin theireyes,seeminghell-benton theirmissions:to meetfriends, havedinner,seeashow,hitanightclub.lthoughtnothingcould slow theirpace.lwaswrong. Behind avelvetropeoutsidethemuseum stood awaxfigure ofRobin W illiam s.ltlooked likethe actorin every detail,even downtothefingernails. The people passing by stopped and stared.They examined the figure and called outto friendsso they,too,could study it. Behind the W illiamslikenesswasagauntletoflifelikewaxfig- ures- samuelL.Jackson,W hoopiGoldberg,M ichaelJackson- usheringviewersintothemuseum . Thepeoplewhostoppedchangedtheirevening'splansonthe spot.lheard onewom an say,''W ecan seeamovieanytime,but
  • 113. co xvlx cE W ITH SAM PLES how often do we getto see this?''Another:''The restaurant l wantedto go to isopen late.Let'sgo into themuseum first,and thenwecaneat.'' M adame Tussaud's wasn't the only exam ple of samples at work.lsaunteredaroundTlmesSquare,andalmosteverybusiness lsaw offeredsomeform ofsample: The music superstore had itslistening stations,which were crowdedwithteenagerslisteningtosnippetsfrom thelat- estCDs. Theclothingstorehad itsfitting room s,with linesofpeople waitingto tryonthepantsandtops. The gourmetshop proffered a thin slice of roast beefto shoppers. The health club offered a deeply discounted three-month trial,asaprelim inarytobuyingitsyear-longmembership. Thetravelagency promotedadirt-cheapcruiseasan entice- menttojoinitscruiseclub. Thecaricaturiston thesidewalkdemonstrated hiscartoon- ing abilitiesby displaying examplesofhiswork on an easel. Thesesamplesservedtwofunctions: They showed prospectsthatthebusiness'sproductsdo what thebusinessclaimstheydo.(Thewaxfigureslookedreal;the musicwascatchy;theroastbeefwasjuicy.) They 1etprospectstestthe productsto make sure thatthe productsfitwhattheprospectwanted.(Prospect:'Thisroast beeftastesjuicy,butdolreallywanttoeatmeattonight?'') lfyou wantto persuade people who don'twantto be per- suaded,you mustprovide them with asampleofyouroffering. O therwise,they'llhesitate.Once they hesitate,you'llprobably losethem .
  • 114. coxvlxcEw l-fl-lSAM PLES 1o3 A11my life lhave given away samples of my work.M y prospectsdon'thavetowonderaboutwhatthey'regetting.They seetheprocessandresultinfrontoftheireyes.That'soneofthe m ainreasonswhymyclosingratioishigh.lnfact,loftenreferto myselfas''TheJ-fgrltggPuppy DogClose.'' The Puppy Dog Closeisasalestechnique,and theideabe- hinditisthis:lfyou'resellingapuppy,andthefamilywhowants tobuythepuppyhesitates,offerthem thepuppyfreeforaweek. lftheydon'tlovetheanimal,theybringitbackandoweyounoth- ing.Asyoucanim agine,thereturnrateonthatdealwon'tbehigh. O ncethefamily hasthepuppy athome,they grow attached to it.Forinstance,they can'tkeep yelling,''H ey,dogl/''so they nameit.Now thepuppyisGeorge.lthasanidentity. Georgewagshistail,playswith thechildren,licksthe par- ents'faces,andbasically actsadorable.Henow hasapersonality. Thefamily caresforGeorge.They feed him,walk him ,and evenwipehisbottom ifhe'ssoiledhimself.Andyouknow aswell asldothatwhenpeoplecareforsom ething,theyusuallydevelop abondtoit. W henyouweresellingthepuppy,itwasjustanotherpuppy. Afteraweekwiththefamily,though,ithasconvincedthem thatit doeswhatpuppiesshoulddo.Thatpuppynow isafamilymember. The sample-based close doesn'tapply only to puppies.Asl said,lusethesamecloseweekly,sometimesdaily. W henlcold-callattradeshows,ldon'ttrytogetprospectsto buy my servicesin onethree-day chunk.Thatwould bequitea commitmentforthem to make,withmy approachingthem from outofthe blue.lhold offa11talk ofdaysand feesand commit- mentsuntilaftertheykeseenwhatlcan doforthem . lgive them oneshow.O nce theyke seen the crowd,ltell them:''lcandothisfivetim esadayfortherestoftheshow atmy rateofX dollarsaday.lfyoudon'twantmy services,givemea hug,and lwillleave.Thatshow willhavebeen my gifttoyou.'' W hatcan they say?Before larrived,their1700th wasdead. Now they have prospectslined up down the aisle.l've forced
  • 115. 1o4 co xvlx cE K'ITI-ISAM PLES theirhand.lfthey send me away,they look foolish.lftheykeep me,they looklikegeniuses. Providing asam pleofmy service issuch apartofmethatl opened this book with the technique.Rem ember the Fright Challenge? M y challengeto youwasnodifferentthanmy cold-callrou- tine,orM adam eTussaud'swax figure on the sidewalk,orthat sliceofroastbeef.ltwasmyway ofsaying:''Reader,hereisyour sam ple.Thisisthekind oftacticyou'regoingto learn from this book.lfthiskind oftactic appealsto you,then you're in fora treat.lfitdoesn'tappealtoyou,thenputthisbookdown.You're notgoingto liketheotherthingslhavetotellyou.'' A sampleknocksdownbarriers.Nomatterwhatyou'repitch- ing- beitaproduct,aservice,oran opinion- you m usttry to findawayto1etpeoplesampleit.Evenifyouhavetobegutsy or im aginative. (lgtsy.N ickCorcodiloswasatonetimeaSiliconValleyhead- hunter.Hefound therightpeoplefortherightjobs.He also foundoutthatmostjobseekersdon'tknow thebestwaytowin thejob on theirown.Corcodilos'sadvice? Provide employers with asamplethatyoucan dowhatyousay. Corcodilos,in hisbook Asêt/?eJ-fetgtl/gggten tellsreadersthat oncetheykelocatedajobopening,theyshould''figureoutwhat itwilltaketodothejobsuccessfully.''Then,hesays,''whenyou meettheemployer,don'twaitforanyonetoprodyou:dothejob, rightthereintheinterviem '' ln otherwords,don'tfoolaroundwith endlesssm alltalk or waste time answering theoreticalquestionsabout''W hatwould you do if...?''Don'teven spend much time on yourrésumé, which iswhatyouke donein the pastforcompaniesthatmay havelittlesimilaritytothecom panyyou'repitchingtonow. lnstead,grab am arker,head overto thewhiteboard,and tell the interviewer:''Look,l'vespenta1otoftimeresearching your company,thefield,and themain challengeyou'refacing.l'd like twenty minutesto show you exactly how l'd handle thatchal-
  • 116. coxvltkcEW 17l-ISAM PLES lenge,ifyou hire me.''W hen she givesyou the go-ahead,you don'tholdback.For20minutes,youfireyourbestideasandmost pragm aticsolutionsather. W hatifin hereyesyoudon'tsolvethe challengefacing her company?N ottoworry.N oonereallyexpectsyoutohandthem completesolutionsin 20 minutes.H owever,youwillhavegiven herapeekatyourtruethinking andproblem -solvingskills.You'll also haveshown thatyou'reapersonofpassion and initiative. lsthatagutsywaytowinajob?Sureis.lsitaneffectiveway? Tryit. Jmtglfgtgtfpe.Sofar,l'vebeendiscussingsamplesasifthey apply only to salessituations.Sampleswork in nonbusinesssettings, too.Forinstance,in schools. Recently,a clienttold me how his daughter'shigh school helped herclasssampleparenthood.Each studentwasgiven an artificialinfantto lookafterforaweek.Thesimulated baby,he said,wasrealisticinitsappearanceand,particularly,itsactions.lt burpedandcooed.ltsheadlolled.M ostimportantly,itcried ata11 hoursoftheday andnight,likearealbaby.Hisdaughterhad to wakeup andcareforthebaby,otherwiseitcontinuedfussing. Thebabyalsohad am onitorbuiltintoit,so thathisdaugh- ter's teacher could tellwhethershe handled or ignored the assignm ent. Amongthemanylessonshisdaughterlearnedwasjusthow all-encom passingtheexperienceofparentingababy is.W ith an infant,therearenobreaksortime-outs.W henthebabycried,his daughterhad to be there.W hen shewanted to hang outafter school,shecouldn'tstuffthebaby inherbookbag.ltspresence affectedeverythingshedid,justasarealbabywould. Conceptualizing and constructing asimulated baby seemsa tough chore.Butgetting teensto understand theresponsibilities ofparenthoodisaworthwhilereasonfordoingit. M yquestiontoyouisthis:lfsomeonecaninventafunctioning artificialbaby asaway to sampleparenthood,can'tyoucomeup withawayforothelstosampleyouroffering,nom atterwhatitis?
  • 117. CO NVIN CE W ITH SAM PLES TH IN G STO TH IN K ABO U T W H EN IT CO M ES TO CREATIN G A SAM PLE O FYO U R O FFERIN G Askyourself,''W hatprocessdo lwanttodemonstratetothe peoplel'm tryingtoinfluence?''and''W hatresultdo lwantto show them?'' A sampleofaprocessmightbegivingatourofyourfactoryso prospectscanseethecareyoutaketomanufactureeachcar. A sampleofaresultwould belendingprospectstheresulting carforaweek. Somepeoplewillwantto experienceyourprocess(how youdowhatyoudo),whileotherswillcareonlyfortheresult (whattheygetfrom whatyoudo). M akeapieceofyourprocessorresultinto asample: lfyou'reselling apound bag ofcashews,hand outthreefree cashews. lfyoupaintwholehouses,paintaclosetfornothing. lfyou'resellingayear-longconsultinggig,giveawayanhour- longsession. Seewhatl'm suggesting?Do asM adameTussaud'sdid,and givepeopletheactualproductinlim ited form . O nemoreexampleofwhatl'm talking about:W henM ark Levy,my co-author,and lapproached agentsand publishers with the ideaforthisbook,we used an 85-page book pro- posal. Partofthatproposalwasinformation (gllogtourproposed book:itsconcept,itstargetaudience,an annotated tableof contents,amarketingplanshowingwhatwewoulddotosup- portthebookwhenithitthestores.A11thatwasimportant. H owever,thelargestpartoftheproposalcom prised sam - p1echapters.Quitesimply,theagentsandpublisherswanted to seeifwecould producethebookwewerepitching.They didn'twantourassurancesthatwecoulddoit;theywantedto
  • 118. TH INGSTO TH INK ABO UT W H EN CREATIN G A SAM PLE seethegenuineitem.O nly afterthey read thesesam plesof textfrom thebook did theygetexcited aboutwhatwewere offering. Customizeyoursample. W hen lcold-callatatradeshow,lfirstread acompany's signsand brochures.Then,when the 1700th managerand l speak,laskherwhatmessagesandproductsshewantsm eto push duringmyfreesampleshow. My resulting show,then,doesn'tjustdraw a crowd.lt drawspeoplewho areintrigued by thecompany'smessages. W hen l'm finishedpitching,audiencem embersleavingtheir contactinform ation do sobecausethey now understand and areinterestedinthefirm . You,too,need to find waysto customizeyoursamplefor each audience.Thereasons?Theaudiencewillbetterunder- stand whatthey getifthey takeyou up on whatyou offer. The/llalsofeelanindebtednesstoyoufortakingthetimeto alterwhatyoudotosuitthem . W hateverand howeveryouuseyoursam ple,rememberthis: Thepeopleyouwantto influencearescared ofyou.They don't entirely trustyou.They'd liketo believewhatyou'repitching is true,buttheyke been burned before.Given whattheyke gone through,theircaution isreasonable.Yourgiveaway- yoursam - ple- mustbegreaterthantheirapprehension. Y Backroom ''llpsIorConvincingwith Samples + Some samples are defined by physicallimits (e.g.,three cashews),whileothersaredefinedbytimelimits(e.g.,atrial software program thatgoesdead after30 days).Consider waysyoucoulduseone,theother,or170th. + Mostofthesamplesl'vementionedaregiveaways.The/re freetoyourprospects.lfindthatapproachworksbest.
  • 119. co xvlx cE K'ITI-ISAM PLES O fcourse,there areotherapproaches.Forinstance,the reduced-fee strategy.lfyou're aconsultantand yourall-day workshop costs$2,000,youcouldgivean hour-long intro- ductoryworkshopfor$300. + H ow youpositionyoursam plein themindsofyouraudience m atters.Directm arketerstestthepositioning ofseveralsam - p1eoffersbeforecommittingtoone. Forinstance,the/llsend outtwomailingsforthesame product.O nemailingpromisesafreesampleofwbiteninytooth- pasteifphone numberX iscalled.The otherpromisesafree sampleofJ/retgt/g-ea/gtggcfg. ptoothpasteifphonenumberY iscalled. The marketersthen totalthe num berofsamplerequests phoned intoeach number.W hicheverqualitywins- whiten- ing orbreathenhancing- that'sthequality they leadwith in theirnationalcampaign. + Attimes,businessesusesamplesnotasameansofimpressing thepersonreceivingthesamplebutasawayofimpressingon- lookers.A caricaturistmay askapasserbytositforafreepor- traitso thatheappearsindem andtothepeoplepassingby. Thisstrategy iscommon in theatersstaging live shows. Theatermanagementfillsthe em pty seats by giving away tickets.Thatway,theshow lookshottothepayingcustom ers and to themediacriticsreviewingtheshow. A TransformationMechanism: Balancing aCoinona DollarBill TheStene Youand acolleaguearedecidingwhethertostartyourownbusiness orcontinueonasemployeesatyourrespectivecompanies.Youb0th know themarket,areexpertsinyourfields,andfeelyou/vespotted (continoed)
  • 120. TH INGSTO TH INK ABO UT W H EN CREATIN G A SAM PLE (Continoed) a need thatisn'tbeing met.Still,yourcolleagueisnervousabout Ieavingthesafefyofanestablishediob. Youask,''Doyouenioyyouriobk'' ''Ihate it''shesays. zzlfwestartourown business,doyouthinkwecanfindclientsk'' zzDoyouthinkwhatwehavetoofferisvaluabIeto thoseclientsk'' zzDoyouthinkwe haveastrongworkethick'' ''Doyouthinkwe havesmartsk'' ''Doyouthinkwecangetthebusinessfundedk'' ''Absolutely.'' ''ThenIdon'tunderstand it.W hat'sstickingyouk'' ''W henyoubreakthingsdownintocomponentsIikethat,the businessseemsdoable.Verydoable.IguessI'miustnotusedtotrp ingnew things,so beginninga new ventureisscary.'' W ithoutsayingawordastowhy,youreachintoyourpocket,pullout adollarbillandaquarter,andslidethem overtoyourcolleague.zzokay,'' yousay,''IwantyoutobalancethatcoinontheedgeofthatbiII.'' Shesmiles,becausesheknowsyou/reinto makingyourpointin curiousways.Infact,shethinksofthatasoneofyourbestqualities. Ratherthanfightyouonthis,shepicksupthebillandtriestostand theedgeofthecoinontheedgeofit.Aftera half-dozenattempts, shegivesup.''It'snotpossible''shesays. ''Yousayit'simpossiblebecauseyoudon'tknow how todoit. Actually,it'seasyonceyouknow thesecret.'' Youtakethebillfrom herand folditwidthwise. Thenyouopenitslightly,so itstandsonthetableina 9 shape. Youplacethequarterontopofthe bill,neartheapexofthe9,find- ingthespotwherethequarterstaysput(Figure9.1). (continoed)
  • 121. CONVINCEW ITH SAMPLES Figure9.1 Balancecoinonfolded bill. (Continved) Finqlly,yougrclsptherightclnclIeftsidesofthebillclnclslowly openituntilit'stclutwiththecoinbcllclncedm rfectlycltop it.Beccluse you/reclshowoffyouevenrclisethebillclfootoffthetclbleclsthe coinstclysbcllclnced Yourcolleclgueclpplcluds clnclyouhclnclthebillclnclthecointo hersoshecclntryclgclin.shequicklyqccomplishesthetclsk Yousqy,''Youthoughtyoucouldn'tdoitlxcqusem udidn'tknow how.Onceyouknew how itwqsqsnqp. /continved)
  • 122. TH INGSTO TH INK ABO UT W H EN CREATIN G A SAM PLE (Continoed) zzNow,I'm notsaying thatourbusinessventureisgoing to bea snap,butIreallybelievethereisa directparallelbefweenthisbill stuntandwhatwewantto do. zzW ealreadyknow a Iotaboutthemarketandhow ourexpertise canbenefitthatmarket.The partswedon'tknow about,wecanget help on.W ecanhireconsultants,wecancontactSCO RE,oroneof thoseothersmallbusinessagencies.W ereallydon'thavetoknow absolutelyeverythingbeforewemaketheiump. zzlt'snotaquestionofbeingahundred percentsurewecanmake thiswork.Hell,I'm notahundred percentsureofanything.Butifyou wereeightypercentsurewecouldmakeitasuccess,I'dsay'Let'siump.' zzW hatwedon'tknow now,we/llIearnwhilewe/reoutthere. That'stheonlyway.It'sIikethecoinonthebill.O neminuteyoucan't do it,becauseyouhaven'ttried,andthenextminuteyoucando it,be- causeyou/vegottensomehelpandyouworked it.W hatdoyousayk'' Yourcolleagueputsthecoinatopthe billand Iiftsitintheair. ShestaresatthecoinbalancedthereforaIong moment,and she ''Let'sdo it''says, . Behlnd the Stene Thestuntworksasdescribed in''TheScene.'' Backroom ''llpsIorBalancing a Coin on aD ollar Bill + The billmustbe crisp,otherwise itwillbuckle when you setthe coinatopit. #. Ifyou havetroublebalancing thecoin,trythisvariation:Fold the billwidthwisefirst,thenIengthwise.Now,Iaythecoinontheapex ofthe9 and pullthebilltaut.The coinshould easilybalancebe- causeofthebill'sincreased structuralstrength.
  • 123. T H E PO W ER O F FREE hen acompanyhiresme,theyexpectfury,excite- ment,and a 1700th bulging with prospects.To givethem whattheywant,lsometimesresortto basem otivators.Chiefamongthosemotivatorsis money.Crowdscomerunningforit. lrememberonetradeshow afew yearsback.A neighboring 1700th had 1,200 peoplecrowded into it,whilem inehad none. Thereason?They wereaboutto give away aH ummer,and the allureofthetruckprovedtoomuch forattendeestoresist.N atu- rally,ldidn'trelishthesituation,butlknew how torectifyit. lstood on my platform ,waiting forthem to announce the w inner's nam e. Themomentthey did,lsnapped 50 crisp hun- dred-dollarbillsinto a one-handed fan,held ithigh,and cried into my cranked-up PA system : ''Ladiesand gentlemen,let'shear itforthe winnerofthat H ummer!And forthosewhodidn'twin it,l'vegotfivethousand dollarstogiveaway.lsuggestyoustandinfrontofmerightnow, becauseevenifyoudon'ttakehomemyfivegrand,lwillgiveyou iftsofgenuinevalue.''g
  • 124. TH EPow Elk OFFPAE Theentireaudienceraced toward me.M y 1700th attendance wentfrom O to 1,200 intheblinkofan eye.lstolemy competi- tor'scrowd. Now you mightcallmy story crass,but,rem ember,lprom - ised you the unvarnished truth.And when you can comm and 1,200strangerstomoveinunison,youknow you'redealingwith som ethingpowerful,crassornot. W hatwasitthatgotthepeopletomoveso quickly? lfyousaid ''money/''you'repartially right. W hatkind ofmoney? Easy money.Treemoney.Everyone wantstofind treasurewithoutdigging. lm agineiflhad said,''lhavefivethousand dollarsforyouif you answermy phones,clean my house,and mow my lawn for twenty-fourweeks.''How manypeoplewouldhaveracedoverifl said that?That'sright,none. IjyoufzugttobeIlersgtgsfpe,/etgr.lï/90f,17toyiveIleoll/esometbinytlltgfs/70t1, ptg/gtgl'/ean?jree.Trade-show exhibitorsknow thislessonwell.Be- cause they're looking to attractpassersby,they putoutfreebies like software,books,bags,and candy.The passersby grab the freebiesasfastasthey can.Noexhibitorsevergohomewith un- used freebies.Notifthey'resm art. ' .r'/?eLeytousinyjreebies(gs(g.lï(gttrtgctfo.lïijeviceistorltg/tesgrelrogr(gg- ?iencejullyggkersttggkst/?eptg/geo-ff.plltgtyog'rebanijinytlltwl.Money,of course, has value to everyone,which is why it motivates strangersso well.Each stranger,in hisownm ind,convertsthe money into whathe wants.You don'thave to know a thing abouthim . O ther items,though,require pitching skill.Forinstance,l often giveaway Transform ation M echanism props,which come em bossedwith myclient'slogo.Onesuchmechanism isnothing more than a three-inch-long metal spring with a metal ring threaded ontoit.Youcan easily removetheringifyouknow the secret.lfyoudon't,theringstaysthreaded. Asan experiment,l've tossed outthese ringson springsto crowdsusingtwodifferentapproaches.
  • 125. TH E Pow ElkOFFPAE Duringthefirstapproach,lsimplycallita''gift''andsaynoth- ing m ore. During thesecond approach,ltossitand say:''lam giving you agiftyoucanusefortherestofyourlife.lt'sagiftthatwill m ake you the starofevery family get-together,thatwillmake youthecenterofattentionatyournextboardroom meeting.lt'sa devicethatisaseasytooperateasitispotent,andwillputasmile on people'sfaces,asitgetstheirmindsracing.Ladiesandgentle- men,don'tyoudareleave!Notuntillteachyouthesecretof'The RingonSpringl''' The firstway,m any people1etmy tossed ''gift''drop to the floor.They seeitasafew cheaphardwareitemsin aplasticbag and don'tunderstandhow itcanbenefitthem . The second way,peoplefightforit.They,too,seethatthe propsarecheap in termsofcost,butthey understand thatthe value ofthose propsismore than they can see.O nce theyke learned thesecretto theRingon Spring,they'llbemorepopular and beabletocommandattentioninkeysituations. W asllying?lfllied,l'dlosethem .W hatldidwasteachthem how to usethemechanism to achievewhatlsaid.ltaughtthem itssecret,how toperform it,andhow touseitasawaytochange moments.By the time lfinished pitching and teaching,my crowdshad an appreciation forthatRingon Springthatwentfar beyondthefew centsthatthephysicalpropscost. Ojjerinysometbinyjorjree,t/geg,isn'te?;ogl/?.Youmustfashionyour freeofferaroundsomethingyouraudiencefindsvaluable.Andif they don'tfully understand theitem 'svalue,youmustmakethem understand. Lookatthepracticeoflnternetm arketers.Theyofferfreere- portsasam eansofsecuring thenamesand e-mailaddressesof people visiting their sites.But these dayswebsite visitors are savvy.Theykeresponded to onetoom any lousyoffersand have hadtheire-m ailaccountsstuffed with spam asaresult.To geta visitor's information now,the marketerm ust sellthem on the valueofthefreereport.
  • 126. TI--IEPow EltoyFP-EE M any m arketersputadollaramounton theirreport,saying somethinglike,''This$79reportisyoursfreeifyousignuptore- ceive my newsletten''Thatdollarvalue givesitmoreperceived importance.Themarketersalsopeppertheirsiteswith mini-sales lettersforthe freereport,loading those letterswith dozensof bullet-pointedreasonsastowhyavisitorshouldtypeinhername and e-mailaddressandhitsend. Do theseployswork?Yes,butonly iftheinform ationinthe freereportisworthreading.Peoplewilldownloadit,butthenthe reporthastodeliver.ltdoesn'tmatterifthereportisfree.lnthe visitor'smind,thatreportcontainedwisdom worth$79.lfthere- portcomesup short,the marketerhashurthiscause.That'san importantpointto remember:A freebie isrepresentative ofthe companyhandingitout.lfthefreebiestinks,thecompanystinks. Giving away something forfree,then,isawonderfulway to persuadepeoplewhodon'twanttobepersuaded.Todoit,though, youmustdoitright.H erearesomequestionstoaskyourselfasyou thinkaboutswayingpeopletoyourpointofview withfreebies: W hoam ltryingto influence? W hatam ltryingtoinfluencethem about? Do lhave any relevantinform ation that lcan give them freely,thatthey'dfindvaluable? Do lhaveany relevantphysicalitemslcangivethem freely, thatthey'dfindvaluable? W hatcan lsay ordothatwouldgetthem to fully appreciate thevalueoftheinformationoritem? W henisthebesttimetogivethem theinformation oritems tohelpmycase? Let'slook athow these questionswould work applied to a housesale. T'/?esftgtgtfog:Youown asaltboxhomeonseveralacresofhilly landin Connecticut.A potentialbuyerhasm adeyouanoffer,but it's$12,000below whatyou'daccept.
  • 127. TI-IE Pow EltoyFP-EE You know thisbuyerlovesyourhouse,especially itswide- plankedwoodfloorsandwallspaintedin periodcolors.Butshe's concerned thatthere'sdamage she can'tsee.She'sthinks that onceyourfurnitureisgone,she'lldiscovergougesinthehard-to- replaceflooranddiscolorationsinthehard-to-matchwallpaint. She'salso concerned aboutthehouse'slocation in thehills. She'snervousthataheavy snow willsealoffthedriveway and m akeitimpossible forherto move.She'sbeen in situationslike thatbefore,andfounditdifficulttofindaservicetoplow herout. J''//?0(grlJtryinytoinjluence?Thepotentialbuyer. J//lltgt(grlJtryiny tofg-jlgeace/?er(gôogt?Buyingmyhouseatmy price.The sale may hinge on finding waysto ease her mindaboutherfloor,wall,andhillconcerns. DoJlltgpeany rleptggtfg-forpltgtfo.lïtlltgtJctg'lïyiveberjreely tlltgtsbe'? y'fgt:tptg/gtgô/e?lflcan'tpersuadeherthatmyfloorsandwalls arein goodcondition,lcangiveheralistofthecustom paintslused,andwherelboughtthem .lcanalsogiveher the name and numberofthe workerwho installed the flooringwhen lfirstmovedin. DoJlltgpeanyrleptggtbbysicalfttwlsJctg'lïyiveberjreely,tlltgtsbeljin? ptg/gtgô/e?Sinceshe'stroubledby thehillsand snow,lcan leavehermyoldleepwiththeplow attachedtothefront. Thecaris10yearso1dandisrustingbadly,butitstillruns and can movethesnow.lwasgoingtodonateittochar- ityandtakethetaxcredit.Butlcanthrow itintothedeal, whichwillactuallybeeasierforme. J//lltgtctg'lïIsayorijotlltgttvoulijyet/?ertojullyabbreciatet/?eptg/geojtbe fg-forpltgtfo.lïorfttwl?lcantellherhow thestorel'm sending herto forthe paintcreatesitsown colors,based upon sam plesfrom seventeenth-and eighteenth-century N ew England houses.These are proprietary colorsyou can't getanywhereelse. J///?C'.:fst/?ebesttfrletoyive/?ert/?efg-forpltgtfo.lïorfttwlstobelbm. ')rcase?l can giveherthelistofcolorsand theworker'snamenow.
  • 128. TH EPOW ER OFFREE Thatway,shehasthem whethersheupsherofferornot. And wecan writetheJeep and plow into thecontract rightaway,sosheseesl'm really andtrulygivingittoher, andwon'twithdraw theoffer. Gettheidea?You'renotcleaningoutyourjunkdrawer.You're finding thingsthatyou can easily give forfree,butthathave valuetotheotherperson.By giving,you'recreating agood im - pression in her mind.You're intensifying herinterest in what you'reoffering.You'realsocreatingareciprocaleffect. J///JM wereceive,wehelfgtlellte;ttot/?eot/gerberson(gg;tloo;to3aylucê 0grr/el't.Thinkaboutyourownpast,andyou'llseewhatlmean. M aybeyourcomputercrashed,and youwereterrified you'd loseacriticaldocumentstoredonit.Youphonedafriendsaw yin computertroubleshooting.H ecameover,ortalkedyouthroughit overthe phone,and saved yourdocument.How did thatmake you feelaboutyourfriend? lfhe asked you forafavorthenext day,would you grantit? O fcourse.And that'sthe idea behind freebies. W hen you giveameaningfulfreebie,peoplewantto return thefavor.lt'sexpected.AnepisodeofSeinjel?lampoonedthetrait. Ontheshow,ahackcomedianoffersJerryanewArmanisuitasa gift.W henJerryaccepts,thehacksuggeststhatJerrybuyhim a dinnerasafriendlygesture.Jerry isdisgustedbecausehedidn't really need thesuit,and heknowsthatthehackjustwantsto hangaroundhim.TherestoftheepisodeisspentonJerryashe begrudgingly triesfulfilling the obligations broughton by the ''free''suit(thesuitisworthameal,butwhatconstitutesa''meal''? lsitsoupandasandwich?lfso,whatkindofsoup?). TheSeinjel?episodeisnotonlyfunny;ithighlightsanimpor- tantpoint.You can try to createan obligation in others,butthe locusofcontrolresideswithinthem .Youcan'tforcethem to feel grateful.You can'texpectthem to reciprocate in kind,ifatall. Thebestyou can do issetthekindsofcondition thatnormally
  • 129. TH E Pow ElkOFFPAE createfeelingsofgratitude.O nceyoukedonethat,1etgo ofany absolutisticdemandsyouhaveabouttheoutcome. Y Backroom 'IlpsIorGivingFreebies + Any time you give away an item in a persuasion situation, considerwaysofbuildingitsvaluein theotherperson'seyes. ''Buildingvalue''meansm akingtheitem'sfmll/fcftusesandben- efitsextlicit.Youdothatsubtlyorboldly. Subtly.W henl'm atdinnerwithclientswhoarerealm agic fans,they askmetodo anillusionortwo atthetable.loblige by pulling outapack ofcardsimprinted with my company logo on back and doing afew effects,including agambling demonstration completewith second and bottom deals. M any tim es,1'11even show clientshow to do asimple trick,which they can use attheirnextneighborhood get- together. W henwe'refinished,lputthedeckbackinitsbox,and l presentitto my tablemateasagift.Beforeldo,though,ltear offthesmalltaboneachsideofthebox.Asldothetearing,l say,''You don'tneed these.They don'tserve any purpose. W hentheprosopenanew deck,theyrem ovethem .''Then l handhim thebox,sanstabs. O vertheyears,lhavehad morethan afew clientscallto bookashow,and mention thatthedeck lgavethem acted as areminder.M anyofthem keepiton theirdesk ordisplay it on abookcase.lt'sasouvenirofthetime aprofessionalcard handlergavethem aprivatelesson. Did ldo any overtselling?No.W hatldid do wasgive them afreebie- essentially,52JoelBauerbusinesscards- butl gaveitinsuchawayastorom anticizeit,toenhanceitsvalue. ldidn'thandthem justany deck.lhandedthem onewe had170thused,andthatconjuresupimagesofT'/?eStiny,T'/?e CfgcfggtgtfKiij,and otherlarger-than-life imagesofgamblers, streetoperators,andm agicians.
  • 130. TI-IEPow EltoyFP-EE Persuasion need notbe overt.lt can be subtle.W hat '' small''thingscanyoudo to rom anticizeyouroffering,orto m aketheotherpersonexperienceitsfullvalue? Bol?ly.Suppose you're a consultantwho specializes in creatingsm 00th work-flow systemsforwarehouses.A m an- ufacturerhascalled you to seeifyou and hehave afit.H e w antsan houron thephonewithyou,so hecan hearsome ofyourideas. You could approach hisrequest in one ofthree ways: (1)Youcoulddothecallforfree,andchalkitupasprospect- ing;(2)you could consideritan hour'sconsulting,andbill him;or(3)you could combine the firsttwo approaches. H ere'show thatmightsound: 'F'0g:''lwouldlovetospeakwithyouaboutthespecificsofhow l can m akeyourbusinessrun more productively.lmusttell you,though,lchargeforthiskindofca11.'' - .r'/?:rltggg-ftgctgrer:''Charge?Butl'm tryingtoseeiflshouldhire you.A calllikethisshouldbepartofyourcustomeracquisi- tion process.'' 'F'0g:''lwouldconsideritpartofmycustomeracquisitionprocess ifa11lweregoing todowasgiveyou asalespitch without anymeat.Butthat'snotwhatldo. ''W henwetalk,lwon'tholdback.Yougivemeyourprob- lem,lwillfixit.lwilltellyouwhatldoandhow ldoit.O n ourcall,youwillhearinsightsandstrategiesthathavetaken meyearsto develop.Thesameinsightsand strategiesl've used to fixsomeofthebiggestmanufacturerwarehousesin thecountnc'' - .r'/?:rltggg-ftgctgrer:''W hat'syourfee?'' 'F'0g:''Fourhundred dollarsan hour.Butwhat1'11do foryou is this:lwillgiveyouthatfirsthourasagift.Forgetaboutpay- ment.1'11do thatbecauseldon'twantyouto haveanyhesi- tation in using my service.W e'11discussyourproblem ,1'11 tellyouwaysto makearealdifferenceinwhatyou'redoing,
  • 131. TI-IE Pow EltoyFP-EE andafterthehourwecan170thdecideifitmakessenseforus tocontinueworkingtogether.Soundfair?'' T'/?erltggg-ftgctgrer:''M orethanfair.Thanksl'' Do you seewhatbuildingvalueboldlym eans?ltdoesn't meanyouneedchangewhatyou'regivingtheotherperson.lt meansyouchangethecontextbeforehereceivesit. + Asltossoutfreebies,oneofmy standard pitch linesis,''Peo- p1e wantthingsforfree,and they wantthem nowl''You'd thinkthatlineinsulting,wouldn'tyou?You'd thinkthatasl delivered itto the crowd,people would storm outofthe 1700th.Buttheydon't.Thelineactually elicitsahearty laugh, becauseeveryoneunderstandsitstruth. Besides''free''thekeywordinthatlineis''now.''T'rytoyive Ileoll/etllefrbrizefrlrletlftgte/lr.O ursociety demandsinstantgratifi- cation.Criticizethatfact,oruseittoyouradvantage. + Sometimesgiving away an item callsforan unconventional strategy.ln fact,theway you giveaway anitem canenhance itsdesirability. Casein point:lnthe 195Os,mygrandfatherDuffyowned a Polynesian restaurant,Pub Xki.On every tablesatcrystal salt-and-pepper shakers shaped like tikifigures with the restaurant'snameetchedintothem . Asfastasthebusboysputouttheseelegantshakers,pa- tronswould stealthem .Boom!Gone!Slipped in apocket, stuffedinapurse. Butthesepetty theftsdidn'tannoymy grandfather.They delighted him .He wanted those shakersstolen,so thatthe name Pub X kiwasin frontofpeople,evenwhilethey salted theirfoodathome. Atonetime,heconsideredgivingpatronstheshakersasa promotion,buthelatercanned theidea.Hefigured thetheft anglemadetheshakersmorecoveted,liketrophies.
  • 132. TH EPOW ER OFFREE A TransformationMechanism: TheTrickThatFooled Houdini TheStene You'resitting onabench,soaking upthe Iunchtimesun,whenyou seeyourbossandseveralco-workershavingasmoke.Youiumpto yourfeetand raceovertothem. ''Jason''yousaytoyourboss,''Iheardyou/reabouttoturn downtheGreenwayproiect.'' zzThat'sright,''hesays,''ourdepartmentistoo busyto handleit. We/reatonehundredpercentcapacify.Anextraproiectwouldkillus.'' zzButI'm notatonehundred percentcapacity,''yousay.''Ifwe tookontheGreenwayproiectIcouldrunit,andwhat'smore,Icould turnitaroundfast,withqualiy'' zzYouruntheproiect?IIikeyourwork,butyou/veneverruna proiect,andIdon'twantyouexperimentingonGreenway.No,it's animpossiblesituation.I'm going topassonit.'' zzAnimpossiblesituationk''yousay.''Ispecializeindoing theim- ossible.Letmeshow you.''P Youtakeoffyoursuitiacket,rollupyoursleeves,andborrowa handkerchief.Youpickupa rockfrom theground,and hand itto yourbosstoinspect. zzA solidrockk''youask. zzA solidrock''hesays. Youtakeitback,placeitonyourIeftpalm,and slowlycoverit withthehandkerchief. zzNow,Jason,yousaythatI'm don'thaveenoughexperienceto handletheGreenwayproiect.Youcalleditzanimpossiblesituation.' Butimpossiblesituationscanbesolvedwithingenuity.'' Asyouspeak,youstarthefting thecovered rockinyourhand,as ifyouwerepreparing totossit.Suddenly,youstop,andaskyour bossanda coupleofyourofficematestofeeltherock. (continoed)
  • 133. TH E POW ER OFFREE (Continoed) ''It'sstillundertherek'' ''Itis''the say., y Youtakethreedeepbreaths,andhurlthehandkerchiefintotheair. The rockisgone. Yourhandsareempfy,exceptforthehandkerchief,whichyoure- turntoyourboss.Yourbossandofficematesapplaud,asdoesa crowd thathad gatheredaroundyou. ''W hatdoyouthinkk''youaskJason,asyourolldownyour sleeves.''W iIIyougive mea shotk'' ''W eII,thatthingwiththe rockwaspretfyclever.Ihave no idea how youdid it.Soyou'resmart.And youdo haveguts.Imean,I've beeninbusinesstwenty-threeyearsand I'veneverseensomeoneput themselvesoutthereIikethatto makea point.So,whatsayIgiveyou fwo hourstodraw upa roughplanforhow you'd handletheGreen- wayproiect.Ifit'ssound,1/11putyouinchargeoftheproiect.But hearme:Imakeno promiseslTheplanhasgotto begood.No tricks.'' zzAchancetoshowyouhow I'dhandletheproiectisaIIIask,'' yousay,asyousmileandsliponyoursuitiacket. Behlnd the Stene I'vecalled thismechanism TheTrickThatFooled Houdinibecause eighfyyearsagoitdidfoolthefamedescapologist.A magiciandid it forHarryHoudini,substituting a pocketwatchforthestone,and Hou- dinihad no ideaw herethewatchwent.Sincethen,magicianshave usedthesameroutinetovanishsaltshakers,shotglasses,carkeys, paperweights,rubberballs,andaIImannerofsmall,stubbyobiects. Thesecret?Anaccomplice.TheIastpersonfeeling underthe handkerchieftomakesuretheobiectisstilltherenonchalantlystealsit inhercupped hand.Therestisacting. Topersuadepeoplewhodon'twantto bepersuaded,prepara- tionisessential.Youcan'twingit.IntheGreenwayproiectexample, (continoed)
  • 134. TH EPOW ER OFFREE (Continoed) youhadalreadyheardthatyourboss,Jason,wasturning itdown. Youknew,though,thatyoucould handleit,andthatyoucould use thatsuccessasa stepping-stoneto biggersuccesses. Youalso knew thatyourbosstakesa Iunchtimesmokewithother officesmokers.Oneofthosesmokers,Janice,youknow.She'sin yourdepartment. Earlierintheday,youpulledJaniceasideand askedforher help.Youpromisedthatifshecooperated,you'd include heronthis high-visibilifyproiect.Sheagreed. Youexplainedthemechanicsofthemechanism to her,anddida few run-throughs. Attheperformancesite,youpretendthateverything hashap- pened innocently.You/ve beensunningyourselfaftera goodmeal, andIoand behold,there'sJason.Yousprintover. W henyoucan'tconvincehim withwords,youdipintoyourbag oftrickstoshow thatyou/reasspecialasyousayyouare. W henyougettothepointwheretherockiscovered,youask severalpeopleto reach,oneata time,underthe handkerchief,mak- ingsuretherockisthere. JanicegoesIast.She,too,reachesunder,stealsthe rock,with- drawsherhand,and dropsherarm atherside.There'sno heaton her.No onesuspectsthatshe'spartofthe mechanism,sosheneedn't sweatthesteal.AIIattentionisonyou. The heftinganddeepbreathsareshowmanship,a red herring. W hileyou/redoingthosethings,Janicecanpocketthestone. W henthetimecomesforthevanish,tossthehandkerchiefhigh intotheairwithyourIefthand,and,asit'sdescending,comeacross withyourrighthandandsnatchitdramatically. Backroom 'IlpsIortheTrickThatFooledHoudini + The obiectcanbesurprisingly Iarge because no onewillbe watchingyouraccompliceclosely. (continoed)
  • 135. TH E POW ER OFFREE (Continoed) # Onethingtheobiectshouldn'tbeisnoisy.Ifitcanmakenoise,it will,andyourconfederatewillbecaughtred-handed.Don'tvan- ish any smallbells,dangly earrings,orsugarbowlswith Ioose Iids.And ifyouwantto makea setofcarkeysgo poof/pullone keyfrom thering andvanishitinstead. # Thinkaboutthekindsofobiectyoumight''accidentally''findatthe performancesite.Considerpickingonethattiesintoyourpoint. Forinstance,youmightwriteasignificantword orphraseor numberonthefrontsheetofapadofFost-itnotes,and thenmake the pad disappear. # There'satIeastoneothertrickthat'scommonly referred toaszzl'he TrickThatFooled Houdini.''Thatoneismuchhardertodothanthe mechanismyouiustIearned,anditssecretiscloselyguarded,soI won'texplainthemethod,butIwillexplaintheeffect. A young Canadian magician named DaiVernon turned a deck'stopcard faceup,showeditsfaceto Houdini,turneditface down,and then openly placed itsecond from the top.W ith a snap ofVernon'sfingers,thecard reappearedontopofthedeck. AsfarasHoudinicouldtell,nosleightofhand orduplicatecards were used.Vernon repeated thistrickseveraltimesin a row for Houdini,fooling him eachtime. VernonIaterwentonto becomeknowninthe magiccommu- nifyaszzThe Frofessor''and isIargely acknowledged asthe man who pioneered making magictricksIooknatural. W henp agicmagazineconductedapollamongitssubscribers forthe mostinfluentialmagiciansofthe fwentiethcentury,Houdini placedfirstandVernonsecond.
  • 136. p1119$111 T H E PO W ER O F G IFT S n Chapter9,lsuggested you influence with a sample.ln Chapter1O,ltoldyoutohandoutthingsforfree.Thischap- ter,l'm advisingyoutogivegifts.Thepracticessoundsimilar, don'tthey?Buteachservesadistinctpurpose. A sam ple issomething you give asameansofovertproof. You'redemonstratingthatyouoryourproductcandothejob,by givingpeopleatasteofwhatthe/lleventuallybepayingfor. A freebieisamoreveiledpersuasiontactic.You'regivingitto the otherperson asa meansofattracting attention,creating a good impression,ormanufacturing an indebtednessto you.A freebiemayorm ay nothaveadirectrelationshiptoyouroffer. Now,gifts.A giftissomething you givewithoutexpecting any directbenefit.You do itbecauseitfeelsgood.Giving agift m ay ormay nothelp you in abusinesssituation.lt'sbestdone regularly evendaily. A man lknow namedAyeJayeisamasteratthis.Heeven wrote abook aboutit,T'/?eColijenR.g/eojScbmooziny:T'/?eAgt/geptfc PrtgctfceojïhatinyOtbersJ//J/.
  • 137. TI-IE Pow EltoyGly'rs Jayewalksaroundlookingforwaystohandoutsmallgifts.lf he'svisiting abookstorem anagerwho can'tleaveforlunch,he'll bringherasliceofpizza.lfhe'sgettinghiscarrepaired andhears hismechaniccurse becausehe doesn'thavetheproperwrench, Jayegoesoutandbuysitforhim. Jayealsokeepsaboxofpresentsinhiscartrunk.Hecallsit his''chatch''kit with''chatch''beingshortfortchotchke,theYid- dish word for''alittle something.''ln the kit,he stasheslottery ticketsand hangoverremedies,amongotherthings.H e'salways addingtohiskit,becausehe'salwayshandingoutitems. Sometimes,Jaye'sgiftmayjustbean appreciativeword or funny rem ark.lfabanktellerfeelsstressedbecauseherlineis20 peoplelong,whenJayereachesherhemightsmileandsay,''After you takecareofmy transaction,youcan taketherestofthe af- ternoonoff- withpay.'' Heevenusesjokesonhisoutgoingphonemessage:''W hatdoyou calltwothousandrabbitsrunninginrevelse?A recedinghareline.'' DoesJayegetspecialtreatmentbecauseofhisgifts?Oftenhe does.Theclerkatthecarrentalagencywillgivehim agratisup- grade.Thechefattherestaurantwillcuthim abiggersteak.But that'snotwhyhedoeswhathedoes. Plainly andsimply,Jayegivespeoplegiftsbecauseitmakes him happy.He lovesseeing thelook on people'sfaceswhen he handsthem an unexpected present;gif-t-giving also opensthe doorto spiritedconversationswhereverhegoes. 1,too,practice gift-giving.And while ldon'tgive gifts to strangersasfrequentlyasJayedoes,ltrynotto1etaweekgoby withoutgiving presents to my friends,associates,clients,and prospects.lenjoycelebratingourrelationships. My tworulesofgift-giving:(1)Givethebestgiftpossible, and(2)personalizethegiftasmuchasyoucan. G IVETH E BEST G IFT PO SSIBLE Perhapsbuying afriend aRolex isoverkill,butbuying him the Rolexofpastriesisn't!
  • 138. GlvE TI-IEBEST Gly'r POSSIBLE 127 W hen afriendinvitesmy family and meoverfordinner,we stop atthe bestbakery we can find and load ourcarwith the finestpiesand cakestheyhavein theshop.W henwepullup to myfriend'shome,itcanbequiteasight.M ycardoorsopen,and wefiveBauerspileout,each holdingaremarkablecheesecake,a keylimepie,oralinzertorte. Can my friend,hisfamily,and my family eata11thatpastry? M aybenot.Butthepastryisbesidethepoint.W ebringthesefine cakes to show my hiend thathe deserves the best.W e bring abundancetoshow anabundanceofcaringandgratitudeforhim . Thepastrieshecan alwaysgiveaway to neighbors.lt'swhat the quality ofthosepastriessymbolizesthat'simportant.W hen you'relookingforgifts,alwayslookforthebest,evenifyoudon't thinkyoucanafford it.Youmightbesurprised. 1'11givefriendsandassociatesgiftsfrom X ffanyk.lhandthem aX ffany'sbox,theyopen itand find agold pen oramoneyclip engravedwith theirinitials.Thegiftprobably costmeonehun- dreddollars,buttheX ffany'snameelevatesitintheireyes.W hen they seetheirgift,theyfeelgood aboutme,themselves,and our friendship. O fcourse,spendingheavy-duty money issom etimesappro- priate. A colleagueofmine,David Stahl,wantedto thank an execu- tive who had given him tensofthousandsofdollarsworth of business.Stahlheardthattheexecutiveandhisfamilyweregoing onvacationtoJamaica.W ithoutsayingaword,Stahlhiredapri- vatetourguideforthefamily. W hen theirplane landed,alimo metthem ,and the guide steppedoutandtoldthefamilythatStahlhadhiredhim forthe duration oftheirtrip.The family were stunned.During their stay on the island,the guide chauffeured them,pointed out sites,and broughtthem tothebestplaceson theisland known onlytolocals. (Somebusinessesfrownonsuchextravagantgifts,soifyou're goingtouseastrategysim ilarto Stahlk,it'sbesttocheckwiththe giftee'semployerfirst.)
  • 139. TH E POW ER OFGIFTS PERSO NALIZETH E G IFT ASM U CH ASYO U CAN ljustmentionedhow lgetfriends'initialsengravedonthepens and clipslbuy forthem .That'soneway to personalizeagift.lt showsthem thatyou puteffortand thoughtinto whatyougave them;therearem anyotherwaysto dothat. O ne of my favorites is to create a gift as the recipient watches.lalwayscarry sheetsoforigamipaper,and lcan fold a horse,alockingjewelrybox,orafunctioningjack-in-the-boxon thespot.Seeing thecraftsm anship lputinto thepiecemakesit special.Theperson understandsl'veinvested timeand effortto m akeherhappy,togivehersomethinglasting. O ncesheseesmem akeafigure,shem ay askifshecanlearn theskill.That'sanothergiftlgive.Assoonassheasks,wesitside by side,ltakeasheetofpaper,lhand heranother,and wecon- ductanimpromptufoldinglesson. lfthefigurel'vecreated istoo intricate forherto learn in a singlesitting,lgohomeandshootazo-minutevideo,givingher detailed instructionson how to fold the piece.ln the video,l makesuresheunderstandsthatlmadethetapejustforher.lcall herbynam e.lreferbacktothingswediscussed. Personalizationdoesn'tstopwith thegiftitself.Theway you presentthegiftisimportant. ln my briefcaselcarry asix-inch Lucitedisplay case.W hen l'm finished foldingapieceoforigamiforsomeone,lputitinthe displaycaseandgiveitto herasalittleworkofartinherhonor. lflshootavideo,ldon'tjustmailitin aplaincase.laffixa beautifulsnapshotofmy family to thecase andwrap itin silver tissuepaper,sealing itin asleek black box.The gift'scontainer saysasmuch aboutourfriendshipasthegiftitselfdoes. Sometimestheeleganceofthegiftandtheeffortyouputinto itaresecondarytothetimelinessofthegift.Youmustdevelopan earforpeople'sproblem sand acan-do attitudeon how tosolve thoseproblems. M yco-author,M arkLevy,hadaproblem withastiffdeadline. A TV show'sstaffercalled andsaidtheywanted to interview him
  • 140. H ow cAx Yo u APPLY TI-IESEPItlxclpLEs? thenextevening aboutoneofhisbooks.M arkhadneverbefore appeared ontelevision,knew lhad,and phoned to askmewhich colorsworkedoncamera. Rather than leaving anything to chance, l sent him an overnightpackagecontainingtheappropriatehandkerchief,cuff links,andshirt(ithelpstohavefriendsyoursize).A11hehadto do wasopen thebox,iron the cottons,and putthem on with a suit,andhewasTv-ready.lcould havespenta1otoftimetalking toM arkabouthow todressandnottodress,butlknew lhadthe answerforhim a11ready. Youmustbereadytohelpyourhiendsandcolleaguesin any way you can.Givethem theshirtoffyourback,thewatch off yourwrist,oracontactfrom yourRolodex.lfyou'renotprepared tohelpthem,youshouldn'tassociatewiththem . H O W CAN YO U APPLY TH ESE PRIN CIPLES? First,getinto thegift-giving habit.M akeitapointto givegifts two,three,fourtimesaweek.lt'11helpyouasmuchasithelpsthe peoplewho receiveyourgifts.You'llfeelbetteraboutyourlife because you'llbe focusing on other people and how to make them happy. Second,startsmall.You needn'tspend thousandsofdollals to buy the servicesofa private tourguide.A dozen bagelswould brightenupthedayatmostoffices,sowhynotbringthem youlself? Third,givegiftsto strangers.Youcan eitherdowhatJaye does,and givesmallitemsatrandom moments,ordo whatldo and useamechanism to changethemoment.Remember,atrick, ajoke,andakindwordaregifts,too.W henyoulookforwaysto bekindtostrangers,theworldseemsafriendlierplace. Y Backroom ''llpsIorGivingGilts + W henyougivegiftstoadults,remem berto bring something fortheirchildren,too:adoll,acoloring book,abaseballbat. Theparentswillappreciateit.
  • 141. TI-IE Pow EltoyGly'rs + Don'texpectto receiveanythingin return.You'regiving asa meansofcelebrating friendship and life.lfpeoplewantto giveyousomething inreturn,1etthem .Butdon'tmakethem feelobligated.lfyou do,the giftceasesto be agiftand in- steadbecomesatransaction. A TransformationMechanism: TheCorkintheBottle TheStene Yourunacallcenterandaretryingtowinbusinessfrom Tommy,the ownerofa health-club chain.Sofar,though,you/veused aIIyour usualstrategies,and nothingseemstowork. You/vetalkedwithhim abouthisproblem:how histelephone salespeopleareoverwhelmedand slipping.You/vetold him about yourservice'sfeaturesand benefits.You/vesmokedoutandan- sweredhisobiections.You/vewalkedhimthroughyourtestimonial book.Now,you/reshowinghim agraphshowingyourcall-loadca- pacifyasyouwineanddine him ataFrenchrestaurant.Stillnothing. Tommytellsyouhow hestartedthecompanywithasingleclub, builtitintoa 190-cIubgiant,and hasalwayssolved hisproblemsin- house.Outsourcing isneversomething heseriouslyconsidered.Time fora mechanism. YoupourtheIastofthewineintohisglassandputtheemptybot- tIeanditscorkinfrontofhim.Youaskhim ifhe/llplaya game:zzsee ifyoucanfitthecorkinsidethebottle.'' W itha Iittleeffort,Tommysucceeds. zzNow,extractthecorkwithoutbreakingthebottle.'' zzlsthatpossiblek''heasks. zzAbsolutely,''yousay.Tommy isgametotl'y. (continoed)
  • 142. H OW CAN YO U APPLY THESEPRINCIPLES? (Continoed) Heshakesandspinsthebottle;thecorkstaysput.Hesmacksit onitsbottom;still,thecorkremains.Heflicksthebottleasifhewere casting witha rodand reel;thecorkdoesn'tbudge. zzI iveup.''g zzl-laveyouexhaustedaIIthepossibilitiesk'' zzIhave'' ''Tommy,Ithinkyou/veexhaustedthepossibilitiesbased upon whatyouseeasyourresources.I'm heretotellyouthattheresources atyourdisposalaremuchgreaterthanyouthink.'' Sosaying,youremovethec10thnapkinfrom yourIapand fwistit intoatightlywound rope.Youthenpushitthroughtheneckofthe bottle,into themainchamber.Insidethebottle,theend ofthenapkin partiallyunwinds. Younow shakethebottleuntilthecorkgetscaughtinthefoldsat theend ofthenapkin,andthenyoustartto pullupthenapkin.The corkridesalong init,compresseswhenitreachesthebottle'sneck, andcomesfreewitha tug. ''Tommy,Ididn'tdothattoshow youuporshow off.Idid itto demonstratethatitisn'tcheating to usetoolsoutsideyournormal ones.Iknow youbuiltyourbusinessonyourown.Anditwillalways beyourbusiness.You'reincontrol.Butifyouignoretoolsthatcan helpyourrevenuesgrow painlessly,you'rehinderingyourselfand hurtingyourcompany.'' HeIooksatyou,the bottle,thecork,and smiles. Behlnd the Stene The methodworksasdescribedin''TheScene.''To recap:Takeyour napkin,hold itby itsends,and fwirlituntilitfwiststogetherIikethe strandsofa rope.Then,thread thenapkinthroughthebottle'sneck, intothe bottle'smainchamber,and shakethebottleuntilthecorkgets caughtinthenapkin(Figure11.1).Finally,withdrawthenapkinand thecorktogether(Figure11.2). (continoed)
  • 143. THEPOW EZ O FGIFTS (' . (' w ' C Figure 11.1 Shakebottled corkonto napkin. q + J #1*N v +. '/ h Figure 11.2 W ithdraw nap- kinand corktogether. (Continved) Y Backroom 'TlpsfortheCorkintheBottle * Togetthecorkintotheboltle spectqtorsmqytrytowedgeitpqst theneckwithclknifeorclspoonhclndle.Letthem.IfIxssible in. corrxxcltethisprclgmcltism intoyourpitch(''Youwereprclcticcll enoughtousetheknife eventhoughIclidn'tmentiontheknife. Thclt's gccd.Mclny m ople setup blccksforthemselves thclt shouldn'texist./') * Thenqpkinshouldbemcldeof(r10thclncll:xlstiff.Flimsynqpkins mclywork buttheyrequiregreclterpcltienceclncleffort * ThecorkneedstositIengthwiseonthenqpkin otherwiseitwillfclll whenyoupullitthroughtheneck.A fqiled qltemptorlwo will show youwhqtImeqn.
  • 144. SO LID PRO O F fpeoplealwaysbelievedwhatyousaid,persuasionwouldbe asnap.You'd m akean offer,and theotherpersonwould ac- ceptorrejectit,baseduponthemeritsoftheoffer.Butthat's notthewayoftheworld.Peoplearesuspicious. The/resuspiciousforanumberofreasons:Theydon'tknow you;theythinkyourjudgmentisoff;theydon'tbelieveyouhave theirinterestsatheart.W hateverthe reason behind theirsuspi- cions,youmustdealwith itoryou'llhaveno chanceofpersuad- ing them .Thewayto dealwithitisto proveyourclaimsasbest youcan.Proofcantakemanyforms. Asldiscussed in Chapter9,my favorite form ofproofisto allow peopletosamplemyoffer.W henyougivesam ples,there's littleconfusion.Theotherparty knowswhatit'sgetting andcan m akeadecisionbaseduponexperience. Sometimes,though,samplesaren'tpossible.lnthatcase,you needotherformsofprooftobackupyourarguments.
  • 145. SOLID Plko oy W hatarethebestformsofproof?Below aretwelve.Someof thesesubstantiatewho you are,and othersfocuson substantiat- ingyouroffer. C LIENT LISTS W e're known forwhom weassociatewith.lfyou associatewith prestigiousindividualsand companies,you should have alistof thoseindividualsandcompaniesathand.lfthatlistislong,putit in alphabeticalorderforeasy reading.lfthatlistisshort,forget alphabeticalorderandlead with yourbestnames.Youwantthe personyou'reinfluencing tothink,''lfhe'sgood enough forDis- ney and lntel,he'sgoodenough forme.'' Considerdividing yourlistinto clientclassifications.Forin- stance,ifyousellrealestate,youmighthavealistbrokendown intoresidentialandcommercialproperties.Youcouldevendivide the list further.Residential properties could be separated by neighborhood,and commercialpropertiescouldbeseparated by industrytype. W hygotothistrouble?Becauseyouwanttom akeanobvious point:H elpingyourprospectwillbeeasy becauseyoukehelped otherpeoplelikehim manytimesbefore.Yourclientlistgivesyour prospectconfidence.lfyoupresentanundifferentiatedlistto him, hem aynotgetyourpoint.Youmustspoon-feedhim . C LIENT TESTIM O N IALS W hen aclientappreciatesyourwork,ask herfora form alen- dorsement.Shecanwriteit,oryoucanjotdownherwordsand thoughts,writetheendorsementyourself,and senditto herfor approval. H ow shouldthefinished letterread?Trythisthree-partstory formula: Thefirstthird describesthe problem thatgotyourclientto hireyou.
  • 146. CLIEN T TESTIIVIO NIALS Thesecondthirdtalksaboutyouandyoursolution. Thefinalthirdshowstheclientbenefitingfrom yoursolution. H ere'sasampleletterusingthatform ula: Towhom itmay concern: Tw oyearsago,1wasa11butfinished with my consulting busi- ness.M y problem?1couldn'tfindtheproperbalancebetweenmar- ketingmyserviceand.doingtheworkclientshiredmetod0.W hen 1focusedonmarketing,myclientloadsuffered.W hen1focusedon my clientloadvmymarketing driedup.1wasread.y toreturntothe 9-to-5world.. Thenr1chanced upon an article by Harry Kellaron how to structuresm allbusinessesso ow nersdon'tfeeltrapped in them .1 likedwhathesaid.rso1hiredhim .W ithinam onthrhehad.my en- tireoperationsystem atized.1had.systemsforattractingcustomersr system sforgettingtheworkctonersystem sforbilling. The upshot? l've neverfeltm ore organized and.relaxed in my life.N owr1havetim eenough togetnew clientsrand.d.ow ork that's goodenough tokeepmyold.clientshappy.Since1adoptedH arry's systemsrmybusinesshaspulledinanadditional$31JOOOJwhichis 28percentoverwhat1pulled induringthisperiodlastyear. Anotherwaytostructureatestimonialistousewhatmarketer SeanD'Souzacallsa''reversetestimonial.''Thatis,youasktheen- dorsertobeginhisletterwith honestdoubtbeforepraisingyou: Towhom itmay concern: 1have hired severalso-called expertsto helpm estraighten out mybusiness.Theyusually havea few decenticteasrbutnothing to warranttheirexpenseormytim e. SoJwhen 1saw H arry Kellar'sarticleaboutsystematizingyour businessr1wasintriguedbyhisinsightsrbutwashesitanttocall.Fi- nallyrthoughr1relented.Thank goodness1did.... W hyusethisdoubtingformat?Becausepeoplearesuspicious! lfa11yourtestimonialsshow youdeliveringthemoon,noonewill
  • 147. soLlo Plto oy believeyou.Peoplewillthinkthattheendorsersareyourfriends andwillsay anythingtom akeyoulookgood. W hen the endorseropenswith doubt,itputshim and the readerin the sameplace.ln essence,theendorseristelling the reader,''Hey,l'm justlikeyou.l'vebeenbiton thebuttbefore, and ldidn'twantithappeningagain.''O nlyafterestablishingthis common ground doestheendorsermoveinto hisproblem ,your solution,andthebenefitsheenjoyed. Besides having written testimonials, consider having en- dorserstapeaudioorvideo testimonials.You can use eitherfor- m atonawebsiteorforapromotionalvideo thatyoum ailoutto prospects. CELEBRITY END O RSEM ENTS W henacelebrity endorsesyourwork,you'reborrowingfrom his orherprestige.lfhe'sknown forbeinginnovative,you,too,be- comeknown asinnovative.lfshe'sknown asabrilliantinvestor, youbecomeknownasamarketwizard. H ow doyougetacelebrity endorsement?Youcan payforit, asNikedoeswhenithiresDerekletertopitchitssneakers.Or,if yourworkwarrantsit,youcanapproach acelebrity yourselfand seeifhe'llgiveyouafreethum bsup. Ofcourse,ifyou approachacelebritylikeJeter,goodluck. H eno doubthasan army ofm anagers,publicrelationspeople, andofficestaffblockinghim from casualinquiries.Butcelebrities in less-visiblefields,such asatop scientistwhomightbewilling topraiseyourresearch paper,areeasierto reach. A SSO C IATIO N AND O RGAN IZATIO N M EM BERSH IPS An of-ficial-looking logo makeseveryonesitup and takenotice: ''Recommended by the American Hea1th Association/''''Sanc- tioned by theW orld Anim alSociety/''''Praised by the Leagueof
  • 148. sultvEàzItEsul--lag Union W orkers.''Even when wekeneverheard oftheorganiza- tion,weassumethatitdem andsacertainstandardofexcellence. lfyou are amem berofan association ororganization that's pertinenttoyourfield,paradethatmembershiponyourbusiness card,website,andinyourmarketingm aterials. lfyouaren'tamemberofanysuchorganization,considerjoin- ingonesothatyoucanborrow from itsperceivedrespectability. EXPERT O PIN IO N Seekoutexpertcommentary substantiatingyourclaims.lfyou're sellingadrugthatcuresinsomnia,findoutwhatthesurgeongen- eralsaysaboutyourdrug'sproperties.lfyou're pushing an er- gonomicofficechair,findoutwhattheW hartonBusinessSchool saysaboutcomfortandworkplaceperform ance. Scoutnewspapersandtradejournalsforquotes.W hen you findthem,m arkdownthenam eofthepeoplewhosaidthem and thesourcesthey camefrom.lfprospectsquestionyou aboutthe validityofastatement,youwanttobeableto steerthem toyour source . W hen you find one good expertopinion,don'tstop there. Build abacklogofevidence. Also,don'tjustfind expertstobackup oneortwo ofyour points.M ake alistofa11yourkey points,and find convincing quotesforeach. lfyourun acrossexpertopinion thatcontradictsyourclaims, record thatdissenting opinion,too.Then,think abouthow you willpunchholesinitifsomeonebringsituptoyou. SU RVEY RESULTS Peopletakesurveysandopinionpollsoneverysubject:W hoare youvotingfor?How hasthetaxhikeaffectedyou?W hichbrand ofshampoo doyouuse?How manypetsdoyouown?Find are- liablesurvey,and usethedatatosupportyourpointofview.
  • 149. soLlo Plto oy lfyoucan'tfindsuchasurvey,considerconductingyourown streetpoll.ltisn'tdifficult.Come up with five questionsabout youroffering,stoppeopleon thestreet,and firethequestionsat them.Recordthenumberofpeopleyoustopped,aswellastheir answ ers. W henyouuseyourfindingstobackupapointinyourpitch, don'ttrytohideyourmethod.Telltheotherpersonexactlywhat youdid:''M ystaffconductedastreetpoll.Theytookclipboards, and stopped people on 57th Street,between 5th and 6th Av- enues.They asked fivequestions.Two hundredand eightpeople responded.Herearetheresults.''Yourgumption and willingness totestyourideasshouldimpresstheotherperson. THE REAL REASO N W H Y Attimes,peoplewillbesuspiciousbecausetheydon'tunderstand how youstandtobenefitfrom aproposed deal.Theyreason:His ojjersoggkstoo.4/00;ttobetrge.Obviously llek-t/of'lg toyetsometbiny0gtoj tllfsijeal,/?gtJcan'tjèure0gtf.plltgt.Jtlog'tf.ptggttoijealf.pftllsorleogefz'/?o biijestllfelgs-fromrle. Yourjob,then,istotellthepersonwhyyou'redoingwhat ou'redoing.y lfyou'reselling $300 thermalcoatsfor$65,takeoutan ad thatsays:''These arethe warmestcoatsyou can find.lbought 150 ofthem atthe beginning ofthe season,figuring we were going tohaveawinterascold aslastyeark.Surprise!lt'sbeen50 degrees most days,which has saved my back from shoveling show buthashurtmy pocketbook.Here'syourchanceto grab a bargain.l'm selling these $300 coatsfor$65 so lcan freeup money formy springstock.'' O nthetrade-show floor,lregularlyprovidecrowdswith rea- sonswhy my client'sproductis priced orbuiltthe way it is: ''Ladiesand gentlemen,today lwantto giveyou afreecopy of oursoftware.ltsretailprice?$199.W hywould lwantto give away suchanexpensiveproduct?
  • 150. SPECIFICITY ''Frankly,ourmarketing stinks.W edon'tputenough money into thedepartment.lnstead,weputthelion'sshareofourfunds intoresearchanddevelopment.That'swhywemakesuch asupe- riorproduct. ''W egiveyoutheproduct,andwehopeitimpressesyou.lfit impressesyou,we'rebettingthatyou'lltellyourfriends. ''How m any ofyouwanttodealwith acompany thatdoesn't know how tomarketbutmakesthebestsoftwareoutthereand is willingtogiveitawaytocreateagrassrootsm arketingcampaign? Raiseyourhandsl'' You don'thave to be in a salessituation to use thereason whystrategy.lnfact,parentsuseita11thetim ewiththeirunruly children. Theotherday,lwassitting in arestaurantandsaw amother arguingwith herthree-year-old daughter.Thechild wasplaying inchesawayfrom theclosedkitchendoor. ''Getaway from there/''the mothersaid.The daughterig- noredher. ''Getaway/''themothercontinued ''orthe doorwillhityou and we'llhaveto takeyouto thedoctorforstitches.''Thechild moved. SPECIFIC ITY W hichofthesetwostatementssoundsmorecredible? A. ''Sendyourchildto ourhighschool.W ehavehigh academic standards.'' B. ''Sendyourchildtoourhigh school.Forthepastthreeyears, theBoard ofEducation hasranked usin the nation'stop fif- teen,intermsofSAT scores.'' Theobviousanswer:B.ThelanguageinB isspecificand tan- gible.ltcreatesapicturein people'smindsand hasfactsthatcan becorroborated.
  • 151. SOLID Plto oy People getsuspiciouswhen you speak in generalities.They think you're lying- or at the very least,you m ay not have thoughtthingsoutclearly.Try,then,to quantify. Don'tsay ''O urprocessorsarefast.''Say ''O urprocessorsare twenty-sevenpercentfasterthananyoneelse'sin theindustry.'' Don'tsay,''M yfinancialplanningservicecanhelpyougrow your money.''Say,''M yfinancialplanningservicehasgivenmyclientsan averageyearlyreturnontheirmoneyofseventeenpercent.'' Again,thisruledoesn'tjustapplytobusiness.Specificitymakes forpersuasivecommunication,nomatterwhatthesituation. Supposewekeagreed togo tolunch,and lwanttosteeryou towardeatingltalianfood.lmightsay:''W ehaveanumberofop- tions.W ecould go Greek,Chinese,deli.O rwecouldgoto this ltalianplace,Luigik,whichNewsijaysaidhasthebesthomemade pastaon thelsland,and ameatlasagnato die fon''Even ifyou didn'tnormally enjoy pastaorlasagna,you'd haveto consider Luigi'sasan optiongiventheweightofmy description. CASE STU D IES A casestudy isastory aboutoneofyoursuccesses.Youcande- liveritin minutesorseconds,depending upon the situation.ln fact,it'sagood ideato prepare 170th long and shortversionsof yourcasestudies,soyou'reabletopersuadein any circumstance. SayyousellaCD-RO M packagethatteachesbusinesspeople how to attractclients.Yourshortversion:''CharleneM illerowns ahairsalonthatserviced an averageofonehundredseventy-five clientsaweek.SheboughtmyCD packageandappliedjusttwo techniquesfrom it.W ithin thirty days,herweekly clientload jumped twelve percent,to onehundred ninety-eightclientsa week,andisholdingsteady.Thatjumpbringsheranadditional fourteenhundred andfiftydollarsaweek.'' A longversionwouldsound much thesam e,onlywith more detail.Perhapsyou'd discussM iller'sfrustration athaving astag- nantbusinessforfouryears.Thenyou'dsegueintohow sheused
  • 152. PI-IOTOG RAPI-IS yourtechniques.Finally,you'dtalkaboutthehouseshewasable to buy based upon the increased revenue yourproducthelped bringin. Case studiesfollow the same formatasa good testimonial. Beginwiththeproblem yourclientwasexperiencing.Discussthe solutionyouapplied.Endwiththebenefitstheclientnow enjoys. An importantpoint:Havedifferentstudiesforeach ofyour persuasionpoints.Forinstance,onestudymightfocusonthein- creased revenueyourproductcreated foryourclient,while an- otherstudy would highlighthow yourproductim proved your client'sstandingin herindustry. PH O TO GRAPH S Attradeshows,lcreatecrowdsof50 to 8OOpeoplefivetimesa day,and lhavebeen doing sofortwelveyears.Do them ath.l've createdmillionsofleadsformyclients. Still,whenlcold-callonanew company,lusuallyhavetostart from scratch.Thepersonl'm tryingtoinfluencedoesn'tknow me. Asfarashe'sconcerned,everything ltellhim ispuffery.That's whenlpulloutmy photographs;theyactasdevastatingproof. U sually,lcarryaminimum of20crowd shots.Som etimes,l packasm any as4O.O bviously,ldon'texpecthim tostudyeach shot.lnstead,luse the cum ulative numberofshotsto over- whelm him . A crowd thatlbuiltthreeyearsagoin lndiacanhelpmeland agigtoday in LasVegas,ifl'vecaptured iton film .lfyou'renot using photographsto proveyourpoints,you're missing outon oneofthemostconvincingpiecesofevidencepossible. Carryadigitalcamerawith you.W henaclientishappywith yourservice,takehispicture.lfyou'reahairdresser,takebefore and afterpicturesofyourclients.lfyou'reanintellectualproperty lawyer,takepicturesofyourclient'sbook in thewindow ofthe localbookstore.lfyou're apolitician,takepicturesofthe new roadsyouhelped togetbuilt.
  • 153. soLlo Plto oy N aturally,you can also use photographsasameansofper- suadingsomeoneayainstfollowing acourseofaction. For instance,ifyour firm m anufactures industrial-strength steel,and you're fighting fora contract,carry picturesofwhat your competitor's lower-grade steel looks like after it's been stressed. G UARAN TEES M any businesspeople don'tgive guaranteesbecause they don't understand them .Your guarantee isn'toffered foryourclient's sake.lt'sforyoursake.lfyou have astrong guarantee foryour productorservice,youwillmake more money.W hy?Because prospectsarelessaptto siton thefencewhen they know thata wrongdecisionwon'tcostthem . H ere'smytrade-show guarantee: lf1don'tdeliverforyouryoudon'towemeadime.That'saprom ise no oneelseinmy industrym akes. 1willcometoyourtrad.eshom jam theaisleswith peoplerde- liveryourmain messagerand.com pelthecrowdtoleavetheircon- tact inform ation at your 1700th. l)y the time 1 finish my first performanceryou willbe awash with prospectswho desperately wantyoutocontactthem .ltw illbeanembarrassmentofrichesfor you. And.ifJforwhateverreasonryou'redispleasedw iththeresultsof my firstperformancergivemeahugand.sendmeonmyway.That firstperformancewillhavebeenmy gifttoyou. That'show confident1am that1candeliveronmy prom ise. Pretty powerful,don'tyou think?W hen peoplehearit,the dealisdone.They'rewillingtorisktensofthousandsofdollarsto bringmeinbecauseintheendtheirriskisnil. Ofcourse,givingbacka11themoneyisjustoneform ofguar- antee.You can also refund partofthe money,redo yourwork untiltheclientissatisfied,andso forth.
  • 154. PRO PS and thatwould beFind aguarantee thatyou can live with meaningfultoyourclients,anduseit. PRO PS Propshelpprovideproofbygivingthree-dimensionalsubstanceto aclaim .Supposeyouproduceanewsletterthatcondensesbusiness booksforexecutives.Eachmonth,youtakethreeimportantbooks, abstracttheirmainconcepts,andsendthoseabstractstoyourread- ership in a lo-page newsletter.Yourclaim? ''Get 1,000 pagesof businessideasin 10pagesl''How doyoushow proof?Simple. During yourpresentation,remove three fatbusinessbooks from yourcaseandslam them downonthetableasastack.Then, rem ove one ofyourskinny newsletters and putitnextto the books.The difference in size willbe startling,and itwillgive youraudiencean imagethey'llremember. H ow elsecouldyouusepropswithyournewsletter?lm agine this:Afteryou show the fatbooksand yourskinny newsletter, you could passthem outforexamination.The audiencewould discoverthateachwashighlightedinyellow m arker. You'd explain thatmonthsbefore,you had clientshighlight the concepts they found important.As your audience paged through thebooks,they'd seethattherewererelatively few pas- sageshighlighted.lnfact,nomorethan 2percentofthetextwas inyellow.Butwhataboutyournewsletter?That'sadifferentstory. Yournewsletterissodensewithvaluableinformation that90 percentofitishighlighted in yellow.The paperlookslike it's glowing. Asafurtherproof,youcould havemem bersofthe audience readafew highlightedpassagesfrom abook,andthenreadasim - ilarsection from yournewsletter.Thiswould show them that there'sno lossofcomprehensionfrom onetotheother. Using propsasproofisa1otlikegiving samples,only there can bea1otmore dramainvolved.Forinstance,M ark Levy,my co-author,onceheard aspeakertellthefollowingstory:
  • 155. SOLID Plko oy lnthe196Os,N ew YorkCitywasplaguedbysmashedparking meters.Vandalswould breaktheglasswindowsatopeach meter, justforkicks.Fixingthemeterscostthecityafortune. Atthattime,thick,unbreakableplasticwasarelatively new invention.However,the speaker had a friend who m anufac- tured it,and he had apiecem ade thatmimicked the parking- meterglass. The speaker booked an appointmentwith a city official, walked into hisofficewith asackoverhisshoulder,opened the sack,andpulledoutaplasticwindow.Thenheremovedasledge- hammer from the sack and hammered away atthe plastic.lt wouldn'tbreak.Thespeakereven gavethe hamm erto the offi- cial,and askedhim totrytobreaktheplastic. Becauseofthatdemonstration,thespeakergotacontractto putplasticwindowsinto everycity parking meter.Hisprops- a sack,asledgehamm er,and aplasticwindow- helped dram atize and provewhatwouldhavebeentepidclaimswithoutthem . Y Backroom ''llpsIorProvidingProol + W hileyoushouldcollectabundantproofsubstantiatingyour claims,it'snotagoodideatoparadeitall.Beselective. Show prooffor claims that make a difference to your prospect.lfyousellcarsand theprospectdoesn'tcareabout trunk space,you needn'ttalk aboutthe cubic unitsofspace yourcar'strunkholds,orbrandish aphotograph ofitloaded foratwo-weekcampingtrip. H owever,ifhe'sconcernedaboutthedurabilityofthecar, supportthoseclaimswith proof.H and him lettersfrom cus- tomerswhoke driven the same car250,000 miles,and take him toan industrywatchdog'swebsitethatdiscussesthecar's toughness. + Remember,youneedproofsubstantiatingyouandyouroffer- ing.lfthe prospectthinksyou're okay,butyouroffering is weak,shewon'ttakeyouuponyourproposition.Theinverse
  • 156. PIAO PS isalso true:lfyourofferinglooksgood,butyoucomeacross asshadowy,shewon'tdealwithyou. Theprospectmustknow thatyouareanupstanding citi- zen,thatyourofferisstrongandethical,andthatyou'repro- posingawin/wintransaction. # Showing proofestablishesyourtrustworthiness.Anotherway to establish trustworthiness is by admitting to some small deficitinyourproductorservice.Thisisaparticularlyeffective strategy,whenyoucontrastyourweaknesswithyourstrength. An example,foraJeep salesperson:''lfyouwantspeed, theJeepisnotthecarforyou.Takealookatitsspeedometer. ltonly goesup to eighty-five milesperhour.lfyouwantto blow by people on the highway,you'llbe miserable.H ow - ever,ifyouwantadurablecar,acarthatthearmy trustswith soldiersand suppliesduring wartime,then thisiswhatyou w antto ow n.'' A TransformationMechanism: The Needlethroughthe Balloon TheStene Youareanoutsideconsultant,andanorganizationhashiredyouto teachtheirmanagersaspecificproblem-solvingmethodology at whichyou'reexpert.From thestart,though,youcantellthattheman- agershaveunrealisticexpectations. They/ve hearda Iotaboutyourmethodology,andtheythinkthat oncetheyIearnit,the hardworkisover- theirorganizationalprob- Iemswillvanishwithouteffortorfollow-up.Thatkind ofbeliefspells disaster.Youwanttobreakthem ofitfrom theget-go. From yourbriefcase,youremoveand inflatea red balloon.You alsopulloutablackmarker. (continoed)
  • 157. SOLID PRO OF (Continoed) Yousay:zzBeforewegettoo deepinto thisproblem-solving method,Iwanttoknow whatsomeofyouaregoingto useitfor. Don'tbeshy.Yelloutyouranswers.'' O nemanagersays,zzIwantto useittodevelopasystem that/ll curtailemployeeIatenessinmydepartment.''O ntheballoon,you writezzEm Ioyee Lateness.''P Feopleyelloutotherproblems:zzcostOverruns,''Sloppy Code,'' zzhxlo New M arkets.''YouwriteeachontheballooninboldIetters. zzThesearesomeofyourorganizationalproblems,''yousayas youtossthe balloonintotheair.zzAnd hereisyourstarting pointfor solutions....''Beforethe ballooncomesdown,youreachintoyour caseand producea Iong,silverneedle. Youcontinue:zzThisneedlerepresentstheproblem-solving meth- odology.Now,it'snotacure-all.Onceyou/veIearned it,thatdoesn't meanyourproblemswillwashawaydownthedrain,nofuss,no muss.Using thismethodologyrequiresthoughtandcreativify.Italso requirespersistence.Youcanapplyitonce ...'' Asyouspeak,yougentlypushtheneedlethroughonesideofthe balloonand outtheother.Amazingly,itdoesn'tpop. '' . . . and nothing happens.Youcanapply ittwice...'' Again,youpushtheneedlethroughtheballoon.Again,no pop. '' . . . and stillnothinghappens.Yourproblemsdon'tseem to change.Butit'sthesteady,continuousapplicationofthemethodthat showsresults.'' Sosaying,youtosstheballoonhighintheairandallow itto de- scend onto thepointofthe needle.Instantly,itbursts. The managersIaughand clap.They Ioveyourtrick.M oreimpor- tant,they'reina differentframeofmind.A frameofmind thatpre. paresthem forthehardworkahead. (continoed)
  • 158. PZO PS (Continved) Behind 'lve scene How cltxsitwork?Thebclllcxx hclsfcvrsecretone.inchpiecesoftrclns. pclrenttcllx clffixecltoit(Figure12.1).'rhesepiecesqren'tplqcedqtop oneclnother.Instecld eclchisstucktocldifferentpclrtofthebclllcon. . side yougothroughcl - differentpieceoftclm . Thebcllloonwon't breclkbecclusethe ' tclpeclutomclticcllly / -' Istheholesbehindsecl *' theneedle. W henm u/re v. roajyfor(asoconcl ' . ' enetrcltion stclbthep , needlethroughthere. mclining unhclrmedFi gure 12.1 A secretpieceofclear ' piecesoftclpe.t ape. T ofinishthemechcl. nism,tossthebcllloon upintheclirclnclIetit descendontotheneedle.Chclncesclretheneedle'spointwillcomein contclctwithclnuntclm clsectionofthebclllooncclusingirtoburst (continved) W henm uplunge theneedlein(Figure 12.2),yougothrough onepieceoftclm . W henyoupushthe needleouttheother
  • 159. SOLID P2OOF w k. .! e! Figure 12.2 Flungethe needle into the balloon. (Continved) Y Backroom 'llpsfortheNeedlethrough the Balloon * To prepqrethebqllcon inflqte itqpplythetqpe,qnd deflqte it. Youmclywclntto pclckitinclbclgofpclrlybcllloons soitseems thcltyou/vegrclbbedclbclllooncltrclndom.Becclrefulthough not toIosetrclckofyourgimmickedbcllloon. * Ifyourneedlehclsclneyeletcltoneend youcclnclltclchclthin col. oredriblxm to itwhichclclclsvisibililyclnclcltouchofclclsstothe m netrcltions. * Ifm uonlywclnttosticktheneedlethroughonce thenyouonly needclffixtwopiecesoftcllx tothebcllloon. * Youccln cllso m rform thismechqnism withone piece oftclpe. Merely stclbthe needle into the tcllx clnclwithdrclw itwithout goingcl11thewclythroughthebqlloon. (continved)
  • 160. PRO PS (Continoed) + How manytimescanyousticktheneedlethroughapieceoftape? O nce.One push weakensthe integrity ofthe tape.Two pushes andyou'llusuallypoptheballoon. Thetapedoesn'tmaketheballoonIeakproof.W hatitdoesis dramaticallyslow theIeak.Thetapeallowsthe balloontogradu- allydeflateoverthecourseofhours. + How canyouspotthetapewhenyouneedto?Upclose,thetape isrelatively easytosee.From a distanceofa coupleofyardsor more,it'sinvisible. Ifyou/reconcernedaboutspottingthetape,though,realizethe writing ontheballoonwillhelpyouIocateit.W henyouprintover thetape,theinkinyourmarkerwillhaveaslightlydifferentIook. # It'spossible thatthe balloon willbreak,even ifyouhitthe tape perfectly.Ifthathappens,rememberyourtraining:Keepgoing. Incorporate whathappensinto yourpatter:''You can apply theproblem-solvingmethodologyonce...(Pop/)...andIookat thatlAIIyourproblemsdissipate into thinair.Butthat'sonly one way to Iookatit.Youalso need to Iookatwhatdid the popping. The needle,orinourcase,theproblem-solving methodology.You mustfirstunderstandthemethodology insideand out,then...'' W henyoupresent,don'tadmitmistakes.Take yourmistake andmakeitwork.
  • 161. D YN AM IC C LA RITY 1can teach anybod.y how to getwhatthey wantoutoflife. The problem is that 1can't find anybod.y who can tellme w hatthey want. M arkTwain eingclearaboutwhatyouwantisoneofthemostpersua- sivequalitiesthereis.lfyouknow whatyou'reafterand arepassionateaboutgettingit,yourbattleishalfwon. O ne ofthe reasonsl'm successfulattradeshowsisbecause whatl'm afterissocleartome,it'sasiftheim ageswerepaintedin burningcolorsonabillboard athousand feethigh. lwantto create crowdsthatspillinto otherbooths.lwant thosecrowdsentertained.lwantmyclienttodominatetheshow. Thatkindofclarityhelpsmem akethosethingshappen.-.r'/?: Ilfctgresinm.')rrlfgt:t(gct(gsterlll/tgtes.lftherealcrowdisn'tasbig asthe crowdinmyhead,lworkuntilitis.lfthepeoplestandingbefore me aren'tentertained,lswitch whatl'm doing untilthey are.lf myclientisn'tdom inatingtheshow,lturnuptheenergyuntilthe crowdisbeggingformyclient'sproductsamples.
  • 162. H ow D o You GET CLEAP.? Thatkindofclarity helpsmetobeaninfluentialpresenceto others.A leader. O n the trade-show floor,llead.ltellstrangers where to stand,how to spend theirtime,whatto think aboutmy client's product.Doesthismakemearrogant?N o,itmakesm earealist. Everyone wants to be led.That'swhy organizations have CEO s,filmshavedirectors,andworkcrewshaveforemen.That's why governmentsexist.L fe can becomplexand daunting.W e can'teach beexpertin a11things.lnstead,wecountonleadersto actforus. Atthetradeshow,nooneproclaimsmeleader.lassumethe role.People listen because l'm notafraid to show thatlknow whatl'm talkingabout,andthatwhatl'm talking aboutisintheir bestinterest.lyell.leducate.lchallenge. Everyone wants to follow someone who can inspire them with a picture ofwhatcould be.Everyone wantsto be 1ed by som eone who can show them how to gettherewithoutdying alongtheway. ln yourcareer,you mustbecome a leader.W hatyou want mustbecomesoclearthat,likeamystic,youhavenotroublesee- ingit.W hatyouwantmustbecomesoclearthat,likeapoet,you haveno troubledescribing it.lfwhatyouseeexcitesyou,itwill exciteothers.Youwillbecomepersuasivebecauseofyourvision and energy. H O W D O YO U GET CLEAR? O neway isto write aboutwhatyouwantin detail.ln thebook DretgmsfgtoActfog,authorand actingteacherM ilton Katselastells hisstudents: lt'shardtofacespecificsrbutyoumust.Defineeverythingrnomat- terhow smallitseem s.W rite dow n every detail...lfyou're an actor and.want a 7V seriesrwhattype? ...Don'tgetinto this vagueideaaboutwanting tobeasuccessfulactorrasuccessfulbusi-
  • 163. DYNAIVIIC CLARITY nessperson,asuccessfularchitect.Thatdoesn'tcutit.lt'slikesay- ing,''1justwantacar.Youknow,acar,anykind..''No,makeitclear. W hatmake?W hatyear?W hatmodel?W hatcolor? Know what youwant.M akeitreal. Detailshelpyousee.Gettingspecificaboutaconceptpushes youtoexperiencethatconcept.Youmusttakewhatitisyouwant outoftheworld ofthe abstractand renderitin steeland glass, flesh and bone.As Katselassays,''M ake itreal.''O nly then can you actupon it. Anotherwaytogetclearisto considerwhatyouwantfrom a new perspective. lnstead ofbasing whatyou wanton yourcurrentsituation and assum ptions,discoverwhatyou mightreally wantifyour life were better.Ask yourself:W hatwould lwantiflhad no constraints?W hatwould lwantto do iflcould do itforfree? W here'smy passion? Thesequestionsmightsound frivolous.Aftera11,youproba- b1yhaveafamily,amortgage,carpaym ents,andotherreal-world responsibilities.Butifyou don'tfityourpassion into yourlife, you'llregretit. Youmustfollow yourpassion,becauseyouhavenochoice.A lifewithoutpassion isaliving death.M any peoplewalk around dead.Theydon'tknowwhatthe/redoing.They'resickandde- pressed.Yougetdepressedwhenyou a11youreffortscomefrom duty and reflex.Don'tm ake thatm istake.Don'tthink survival whenyoucould bethinking aboutcreating akingdom foryour- selfandyourfam ily. lfyousayyoudon'tknow whatyouwant,you'relying.You're lyingoryou'remakingthingshard foryourself.Gettingclearon whatyouwantiseasierthanyouthink.ltjustmeansaskingyour- selfquestionsaboutcontributionsyou'dliketomake,phenomena you'dliketoexperience,peopleyou'dliketo meet,andthenact- ing upon youransw ers. Somequestionstohelpyougetclear:
  • 164. H ow D o You GET CLEAR? W hatprojectsdoyouwanttotakeon?Doyouwanttowrite books?Build steelsuspension bridges? Curtailfamine in Africa? Think aboutyourpotentialprojects in detail. M akethem live.Staywiththeimagesuntilyoufeelthem . W hodoyouwanttoworkwith?Brains?Go-getters?People whodowhatthey'resupposedtodowithoutbeing asked twice? W heredo youwantto work?lfit'sin anew office,describe thatofficetoyourselfindetail.Seethecherrydesk.Smell the green,leather-backed chair.Look outyourwindow overlookingwhere?M anhattan?London?Yourbackyard? W hereveryouwanttobe,putyourofficethere. O nce youke deeply thoughtaboutwhatyouwantin busi- ness,think abouttheotherpartsofyourlife.W hatdoyouwant foryourfamily life?Financiallife?W hatwouldyouliketo see? W hatwould you like to experience? How do you seeyourself contributingto theworld? Don'tlook atthisasgoalsetting.l'm notasking you to set goals,makedeadlines,writetimelines.There'snoform alityhere. l'm askingyoutodream aboutwhatyouloveandareprepared todo.l'm nottellingyou to bebalanced inyourwishing.lfany- thing,l'm urgingyoutofallheadlongintoyourobsessions. Doing whatexcitesyou willmake you persuasive quicker than any othermethodyou'lleverread about.lfyou know what youwantandwhyyouwantit,peoplewillbedrawntoyou.Any tacticsyou'llneedtoinfluencethem you'llpickupwithouteffort. You'llpickthem up andusethem becausetheresultofusingthem willbesogreat. A11thistalkofspiritedclarity remindsmeofastoryfrom my co-authorM ark'sbookAccfkeattg/(legfgs.ln it,M arkwritesabouta businessman who wastrying to win pay raisesforhisentirede- partment.Theproblem ?H ehadtopitchtoahigh-poweredboard ofdirectorsthatincluded FederalReserve Board Chairm an Alan Greenspan.Asyoucan imagine,thethoughtofpresentingbefore
  • 165. DYNAM IC CLARITY oneofthemostpowerfulmen intheworld hadthisbusinessman shakingin hiswingtips.Buthewasalsothrilledby thechallenge. To prepareforthemeeting,heboughtatabletand apencil, and forthreeweekshepracticed pitching in itevery night,a1- mostasifhewerewritingasceneforaplay. H e'dwriteabouttheroom thepitchwouldtakeplacein,the argumentshe'duse,andtheobjectionshe'dface.lnhiswriting, thisbusinessman pullednopunches.H ehad Greenspan firethe toughestobjectionshecouldthinkof,andhepracticed hisan- swers.By thetimethemeetingrolledaround,hefeltasifhehad already lived itdozensoftimes,and he had contingenciesfor anythingthatcould happen. Theupshot,ofcourse,isthatthebusinessm anwon raisesfor everyone in hisdepartment.The reason? He wasclearabout whathe wanted and how to getit.Hisfire and hispractical preparation madehim persuasive. To persuade people who don'twantto be persuaded,you mustknow whatresultyou wantwith stark clarity.You must know whatbrecisely you'regoing afterinany given situation,and inyourcareerasawhole. Y Backroom ''llp IorGettingClear + W hen laskpeopleto tellm ewhattheywant,theyoften tell meaboutwhattheywantandwbytheywantit.lnmostcases, thewhyisunnecessary. W hen itcomes to the things you're passionate about, knowingwhy (ifthat'spossible)isn'tgoing to do you any good. lfyouke alwaysdreamed ofwriting anovel,you write yournovel.Period.Yougetconcreteaboutthetypeofnovel you wantto write,itscharacters,itsplot.You getdetailed aboutthetim esofday you're going to write it,and where. You getclearaboutwho you'regoing to submititto when you'redone,and how you'regoingto increaseitschancesof beingaccepted.Youwriteit.lfitstinks,yourewriteit.
  • 166. H ow D o You GE'rCLEAP.? L feisaboutaction.W hat'sinyourheaddoesn'thelpany- one,unlessyoutakethatthought,m akeitphysical,andshow ittotheworld. lfa11yourlife you wanted to write anovel,whatgood woulditdotodiscoverthatyouwantedtowriteitinorderto be popular,oras away ofgetting back atthatbully who knockedyoudownin firstgrade?lsthatknowledgegoingto changeyourprose? W i11italterthelistofpublishersyou'll sendthefinished manuscriptto? People spend fartoo much timeon whys,asameansof puttingoffaction.Theybelievethataslong asthey'rethink- ing about whys, they're doing productive work.ln fact, the/rescaredandtheywon'tadmitit.Orthey'rescaredand they thinkthatdigging up motivationswillsomehow make everything alright.Don'tfallforthosetraps.Getclearabout whatyou wantand do itwithoutdelay.Youbecom ehappy and persuasivewhenyou'removingforward. A TransformationMechanism: The ImmovableFinger TheStene Youarea sixth-gradehistoryteacher,andyourclassisbeggingyou nottoassignthem weekend homeworkabouttheAmericanRevolu- tion.Ofcourse,youknow thattheassignmentisessentialtofurther theirunderstanding,soyoudecideto havesomefunwiththem. ''Iwillnotgiveyouhomeworkifyoucanpassmyspecialfour- questionquiz.Butifanyofyoumissesevenonequestion,thewhole classfails.Doyouwanttotakethequizk'' ThechildrenIookatoneanotherwithconcern,buttheytellyou to goaheadwithit.Afterall,they havenothing to Iose.Theybegin opening notebooksandtaking outpens. (continoed)
  • 167. DYNAMIC CLAPJTY (Continved) ''No'' ouscly.''Thisisn'tthcltkindofquiz.Ifsnotwrilten.And, y , clctucllly it'snotorclleither.Youscoreitonyourhclncls.''Thechildren Iookmoreconcernedthclnbefore ''Iwclnteclchofm utoplqcem urrighthclndflcltonthedesk.Now curlmurmiddlefingerin soitrestsunderyourpcllm''(Figure13.1). Oncetheyhclvetheirhclndsm sitionedprom rly youcontinue: ''Firstquestion:TheBostonTeqPqrlytcokplqceinAmericq.If youthinkthcltstcltementistrue Iiftyourrightthumb.ButE)ecclrefullIf youIiftclnyofyourotherfingertipswhilem uIiftyourthumb you/ve fcliled.AIIrightgivemeyourclnswers.'' (continved) Figure 13.1 Curlmiddlefingerunder hand.
  • 168. H OW D O YOU GET CLEAR? (Continoed) AIIthechildrenproudlyIifttheirthumbsaninchoffthedeskand arecarefulnotto movetheirotherfingers.Youcongratulatethem on theirscholarship.TheBostonTea Farfydidtake placeinAmerica, and 100 percentoftheclassgottheanswerright.Youaskthem to puttheirthumbsdown. ''Secondquestion.FaulReverecried,'TheBritisharecominglThe Britisharecomingl'Ifthatstatementistrue,raiseyourpinky.''Again, aIIthechildrencomply.They raisetheirpinkiesand placethem back onthetable. ''Thirdquestion.TheContinentalCongresswasheldinFhiladel- phia.Ifthatstatementistrue,raiseyourindexfingen''Thechildren can'tbelievetheirgoodfortune.SucheasyquestionslEverychild raisesanindexfinger,and Iowersittothetable. ''Thisfourthquestionisforthemoney.Ifyougetitright,no home- work.Thequestion:GeorgeW ashingtonwasthefirstpresidentofthe UnitedStates.Ifyouthinkthatstatementistrue,raiseyourring fingen'' Thechildrenthinkthisfinalquestionisaslam dunk,butwaitl: Theycan'tmovetheirfingers.Eachchild triestoIifthisorherringfin- ger,buttheyaIIfind itimpossiblewithoutIiftingtheirotherfingers.It's asiftheirringfingersareIockedinplace. Theyknow they/vebeenhad,buttheexperienceofbeing unable to Iifttheirfingerisamindblower.Theystruggleto Iiftit,simultane- ouslygrunting and Iaughing. Ofcourse,theynow havetodo theirhomework.Butratherthan feeling scammed byyourmechanism,theyfeelasifthey'vegaineda neattrickthey canpullontheirfriendsfortherestoftheirIife.They completetheirhomeworkgladly. Behlnd the Stene Thereisnotrick.Becauseofbiomechanics,humansfind itimpossible to movetheirringfingerswhentheirmiddlefingersarecurled in.Is (continoed)
  • 169. DYNAIVIIC CLARITY (Continoed) thereanevolutionaryadvantageto this?Ifyouknow ofone,e-mail meaboutit. Backroom ''llp Iorthe Imm ovable Finger + Thisand some ofthe othermechanismsare challenges.You/re challenging spectatorstodosomething inordertowina reward. Youneed tobecautiousabouthow youperform sucha mech- anism.You don'twantto do itwith an airofsuperiorify.That would backfire.Instead,perform itwithatwinkleinyoureye. Towardthatend,youwantto makesureyouraudienceknows how to do the mechanism themselveswhenyou're through.You giveittothem asa gift,assomethingthattheycanalwayspullout to changethemoment,whenevertheyfeelitnecessary.
  • 170. BE D IST IN C T hen ltold acolleaguelhad written thisbook,he asked ifitwashard to decidewhich persuasion techniquestoinclude.ltoldhim itwasn'thard at all.W hen lconductbusiness,luse only a few simpletechniques;thosearetheoneslincluded. Thetechniqueslusearetheonlyoneslneed.Theygetme jobs,wow mycrowds,makemesevenfiguresayear.Becauseof them ,l'm leading alifellove.H ow m any m oretechniquesdo lneed? Any oneofmy techniquescould make ahuge difference in yourlife.lmentionthis,reader,becausel'm concerned. l'm concerned you mightstartreading aboutthenextstrat- egy,thinkJalrea?y 7tgofzqt/gtgtone,andskipthechapter.Thatwould beamistake. You may already know the following strategy,butyou may notbeusingitfully.Thisnextonehasdonea1otforme.lthas,in fact,mademedistinctin acrowded field.Thestrategy iscalled positioning.
  • 171. BE DISTIN CT W H AT IS PO SITIO N IN G? lt'samarketingterm coinedbyA1RiesandlackTroutintheearly 197Os,anditreferstothepublic'sperceptionofaproductorser- vice.An example:M ostpeopleperceiveVolvo as''thesafe can'' Thatis,when consumerswantan auto that'llkeep them safe in diresituations,Volvopopsintototheirminds. ln marketingterms,Volvoofz'gsthesafetyposition.lfyouhad acarcompany and youwanted to competein the marketplace, toutingyourcaras''thesafecar''would besuicide,becauseyour claim would go againstthe imageyouraudience already hasin theirmind.And people don'tchange theirmindseasily.You'd havetopickanotherattributetopush,andusethatasyourprod- uct'sposition. W hatotherpositionsarethere?Hereareafew: BM W is positioned as ''the ultimate driving m achine/'' which meansthecarrunslikeclockwork and givesyou asm00th ride. Dodgetrucksare''ram tough/''whichmeanstheycantakethe kindofabusepickuptrucksaresupposedtotake. JeepsaretheoriginalSUVS,whichmeanstheysetthestan- dard fora11theSU VSthatfollowed. Each car'spositionin thepublic'smind isdefined anddistinct. W henthecompaniesthatmakethesevehiclespromotethem ,they dosobyplayingupfeaturesthatfallwithintheircars'attribute. W H Y PICK A PO SITIO N ? Companies adoptpositions because having a focused position givesthem abetterchance ofbeing noticed and rem embered. W hen acompany positionsitsproducts,itrecognizesthatin a crowded,m edia-drivenworld likeours,theirproductscan'tbea11 thingstoa11people. Sure,Volvocouldexpanditsimageandclaim otherattributes asitsstrongpoints.ltcoulddesignasnazzynew body foroneof
  • 172. w n Y Plclt./tPosl-rlox? 161 itscars,andmarketitasaroadster.Butwhatwouldhappen?That image would confusethepublic.They'd see acarwhoseim age suggestsspeed,coming from acompany whose im agesuggests safety.Those imagesdon'tmatch.The roadsterwould failbe- cause itwould confusepeople,and thecompany'soverallsafety imagewould suffer.lnstead ofmuddyingthewaters,Volvo stays with safety andstickswithbeingabigfish inasm allpond. Positioning aproductshowsthata company isrealistic.lts nottryingtoruletheworld.ltshappy to claim apieceofit. Positioningisn'tjustforcompanies.lndividualsuseit,too. W henM arktalkstoclientsaboutpositioningforindividuals, my co-authortellsthestory abouthow heended up reviewing sportsbooksforT'/?etiewJ'or/t'fves. Hemeta'fveseditor,senthim awritingsample,andwasin- vitedtoreview abook. ''W hatkindofbooksdoyoureview?''theeditorasked. ''Anykind/''saidM ark.''lkeworkedinthebookfieldforade- cade,and lcanwriteaboutany bookyousendme.'' The editorthen gaveM ark astrong lesson in the powerof positioning forindividuals.Hesaid:''lhave acard filewith the namesofpeoplewhowritereviewsforme.lhaveacardherefor you.lflputthephrase'Reviewsanykindofbook'onyourcard,l willnevercallyou.lwillnevereven t/gfg/taboutyou.W hy?Be- causepublishersdon'tpublish booksthatfitin acategory called 'Any L nd''' M arkquicklychangedhisapproach:''W hichcategorydoyou havethe/fzqestreviewersfor?'' Theeditorstarted tickingoffalist:''Sports...'' ''Stoprightthere!''saidM ark.''lreview sportsbooks.'' From thatpositioning,M arkgotintoT'/?etiewJ'or/t'fvesasa sports-bookreviewer. Finding the properspotforyourselfneedn'tbe harderthan that.lstarted using positioning before lhad even heard ofthe strategy.lthoughtofitasa m eansofm aking myselfdistinct withinacrowded field- thefieldofm agic.
  • 173. 162 BE Dls-rlx c'r Through themidtolate197Os,lwasateenagecruise-shipma- gician.W hen lwasn'tin school,lwasaboard ship,entertaining guests.ln thatenvironment,lthrived.Every day lknew whatwas requiredofme:lhadtowearthesametypeofclothesandperform thesametypeoftricks,beforethesametypeofaudience. Eventually,though,lgrew tired ofthediscipline,so lleftto pursuewhatlthoughtofasabroadermagiccareer.ln pointof fact,llefttopursueafuzzy,ill-definedcareer. lknew lwasamagician,butthetypeofm agic ldid andthe venueswherelperform edchangedfrom nighttonight. M y showsbecameahodgepodge ofstyles.Some nights,l'd perform grand illusions,likeTheFloating Lady.O thernights,l performedsm allertricks,using amanic,RobinW illiams-inspired comedy approach.Stillothernights,lfilledmyshow with brutal physicalstunts,likebreaking rockson my head with a sledge- hammer. M y performance venues also had no rhyme orreason.O n M onday lmightgive a show ata community fund-raiser.O n Tuesday,abar.O n W ednesday,asociety party.On Thursday,a stripclub. lwasm aking agoodliving,butldidn'tknow wheretofocus. Atonepoint,lactually gaveup magic asaprofession.M y wifeand lhad ourfirstchild,andlthoughtitagoodideato get setiousaboutlife.lopenedacomic-bookshop.lhadneverreada comicbookinmy life,soinhindsightthatwasn'tthebestidea.l closed theshop in ayear.lfigured iflwasgoing to succeed in supportingmyfamily,m agicwasmybestchanceofdoingit. W hen lagain startedperformingm agicfulltime,lgravitated toward trade-show gigs. Corporations would hire magicians, clowns,jugglers,dancers,runway models,andtalkingrobotsto stand infrontoftheirboothsanddraw attention. lhad donetrade-show jobsbefore,butlhadneverfocused exclusively on them .Now,though,targeting them seemed like commonsense.M yreasoning:CorllortgtfogslJtgperloreploge. ' .yrt/gtgg.Jtgrl- iliesfz'/?ofzugtrletobetjonn(gtlurmftzptg/gs.Ijacorllortgtfogbiresrle,Jctgg cbaryerloreploge. ' .yrt/gtggJctggcbaryejor(glurmftzptg/?.
  • 174. w n Y Plclt./tPosl-rlox? 163 lam nota deep thinker,butin m any instancesmy shallow thinkingbenefitsme. Targeting thecorporatemarketgotmewondering aboutmy positioning.To attract more companies, l knew l'd have to changemy lookandmy act. Foronething,lstarteddressingsharp.No morecheap suits. No more fake-leathershoes.The people lwasrubbing elbows with lookedlike amilliondollars.lfthey lookedlikeamillion,l hadtolookliketwomillion. Foranother,lthrew away my garish magicprops.Theprops, such aslacquered m agicboxeswith dragonsstenciled on them, were signaling to the audience thatthere wasnothing unique aboutwhatlwasdoing.Thepropswereobviously store-bought, which meantthatotherm agicianswereperform ing with them, and,perhaps,even theaudiencem embersthemselvescouldper- form them ifthey had interestenoughtofind am agicshop. A lacquered box,amagicwand,atop hat- allthose things would brand me asrun-of-the-mill,asmall-timer,ajester.W ho wouldstoptohearwhatlhadtosayiflwerenomorethanaclown? M y act also became edgier.W hereasmost performers were afraidofoffending,lusedanin-your-faceapproach asacome-on.lt happenedforDarwinianreasons.lfldidn'tdemandthatpeoplestop, they'd walkrightby into acompetitor'sbooth- onewith flashing lights,womeninbikinis,andcelebrityspokespeoplewhohadjustre- turnedfrom aspacelaunchorthrownfiveSuperBowltouchdowns. Myrequests,then,becamechallenges:''Sir,joinushereinthe 1700th andseeifwecanim proveyourlifethisvery afternoon.lf youdon'tstop,youwillbesorry later.Lfeturnson decisionsas simpleasthisone.'' Thisnew approach worked.Atthe trade shows,crowdsof 100,200,400,even8OOpeoplewereformingaroundmetolisten to my pitches.W hat'sm ore,thesepeoplewereheading intothe 1700thwhenlaskedthem to,somy clientcouldcollecttheircon- tactinformation. W hatlwasdoing began to seem farremoved from m agic. True,lwasstillusing tricks,buttheclimaxofthetricksbecame
  • 175. 164 BE Dls-rlx c'r secondary.ltwas the ideas behind the tricks- whatthe tricks stood for- thatseemedto begettingandholdingpeople'satten- tion.lsoon wasm aking aconsciouseffortatturning my tricks intoTransformationM echanisms,aswaysofalteringthemom ent metaphoricallyforthepeoplewho stopped. M yclientslookedatmeaslessam agicianandmoreanenter- taining company spokesm an.From a businessstandpoint,that changesuitedme.M ostmagiciansmadeonly$300-$1,000aday attradeshows,becausetheywerelookeduponassomethingnice tohavein a1700thbutbynomeansessentialtothesuccessofthe show.lwanted substantiallym ore. To play up theentertainingspokesm an angle,lstartedlabel- ingmyselfan''infotainen'' W hen lvisitedprospectsand they asked iflwasam agician, l'd say:''No.ldon'tlikem agicians.They foolme,and wholikes to befooled? No,whatldo isn'tordinary magic.lt's'infotain- ment.'ltakeyourproductandcombineitwithmyuniqueform of persuasion- parthypnosisdemonstration,partm ind-controlpre- sentation,partpitch.Fivetimesaday,lwillhaveyour1700th in- undated with prospects.W ith me pitching,the only problem you'llhaveatthetradeshow isfindingenough stafftohandlethe crush ofpeoplewho'llbem akingtheirway intoyourbooth.'' W ithmynew positioning,lwasabletochargeandreceiveafee 20timesgreaterthanmycompetitors'.Andmyclientsdidn'tseeme asanexpense.Tothem,lwasanasset.M yserviceswererecordedin adifferentpartoftheledger.lwasn'tamagicianwhogotpaidfrom themoney reservedforthecard-trickguys;lwasthemagnetwho pulled in prospects.ln essence,lwasthe head ofthe company's trade-show salesteam- andthat'show lwascompensated. Thesedayslstillreferto myselfasan infotainer,butl'vere- fined my identityevenfurther. To myclients,thebenefitin hiringmeisthatldraw crowds. Crofzqks,then,ismynew position.lt'stheword lown in theminds ofthepeoplewho stageandexhibitattradeshows.lt'stheim age l'm associatedwith.
  • 176. x o Sw EA'I- To strengthen my position,a11my materialsrevolve around crowds.M ytag lineis''CrowdsGuaranteedl''M ysalesguarantee focusesonmy abilitytodraw acrowd.M ywebsitehascrowdson everypageandevencontainstime-lapsefootageofmebuildinga crowd.W hen you open my portfolio,an oversized crowd pops up.Thesamegoesformy bifoldbusinesscard:lhavestaffwho glue a two-inch tallpop-up crowd to my cards,justso my prospects willopen them,laugh,and associate me with fast- appearingcrowds. W henlcold-callonbooths,lpushmycrowd associationfur- ther.Aslspeakwith the1700th m anager,lpullabillfold-sized, accordion-pleateddisplaycasefrom myjacket,snapitopen,and reveal20 colorphotographsofme commanding crowds.lfthe 1700thisconnectedtothelnternet,lcontinuemypitch aslaccess mywebsiteandpointouttheshotsofandtestimonialsaboutmy workwith crowds.lpaintaword pictureofwhatthecrowdwill looklikeasitfilesintotheprospect's1700th.Attimes,levenbuild acrowdwhilel'm pitchingmyservices;ldon'taskifshe'll1etme doit;ljustdoit.Afterall,whatdemonstratesmy claimsabout crowdsbetterthancreating acrowdrightthere,outofnothing? l'vegoneinto detailaboutmy position andwhatldotopush itsoyoucanunderstandthesingle-mindedfocusittakestomake yourselfknown for a particular attribute.W hen you com e up with yourown attribute,you wantthe people you're trying to persuadetothinkofyou astheobviouschoiceinyourfield. Betteryet,youwantto bepositionedastheonly onein your field.N exttoyou,everyoneelseisminorleague. N O SW EAT ln amoment,1'11teach youhow to go aboutpositioning,orper- hapsrepositioning,soyoubecom emorepersuasiveinyourbusi- ness.Before l do,though, lwant to m ake one thing clear: Positioning needn'tbe some grand careerstrategy.You needn't waittodo ituntilyouhavea11yourducksinarow.
  • 177. BE DISTIN CT lfind thatwhen some people think abouthow to position themselves,theyfreeze.Theythink,''lflpickthewrongposition, l'm sunk.''That'sunrealistic.You can m akemistakes.Youcan be known fordifferenttraitsamongdifferentpeople.Youjusthave to be sure thatwhatyou're offering isofquality,thatyou can truly solveyouraudience'sneeds,and thatyourmessageto your audienceisstronglyfocused. W H Y D O ES PO SITIO N IN G W O RK? AccordingtoSethGodinandJayConradLevinsonintheirbook CetJ///gtgtJ'ogDeserve,positioningworksbecauseitfollowstheway ourmindnaturallyfunctions.W epigeonhole.W ereduceanddis- tort.W eputpeopleintoconceptualboxes. W edon'tdo any ofthispurposefully ormaliciously.W edoit because theworld firesso much inform ation atusthatmaking snapjudgmentshelpsuscope.lfwehadtostopandponderthe meaningofeverywordwehearandeverysmilewesee,we'dbere- ducedto ababblingmess.M akingfastassumptionshelpsuslive. Aslong asyouundelstandhow pigeonholingworks,youcan useittoyouradvantage.lnfact,Godin andLevinsonwrite,''Posi- tioningisnothingmorethanpigeonholingyourselfonpurpose.'' W H AT ARE SO M E SLANTS TO PO SITIO N YO U RSELFBY? By Feature H ere,you takean elementofwhatyoudo,and become known forthat.Perhapsyou'reaplumber,andyouwanttopersuadethe peopleto hireyouoverthefourhundredotherplum bersinyour area.How wouldyoum akeyourselfdistinctthroughafeature? lfyouworka1otonnewlyconstructedhomes,youcouldcall yourself''TheNew ConstructionPlumber.''Youspecializeinhan- dlingjobsinhomeslessthantwoyearsold.
  • 178. K 'I-IAT AlkE SOM E SLAN'I'S'ro Po sl-rlox Yo ultsEl-yBY? W ouldthatlimityouraudience?Yes.Peoplewithhomesbuilt inthe1920sprobablywouldn'tcallyou.Butl'dwagerthatpeople wholivedinnew homeswouldfloodyourphonewithcalls.Your targetm arketwould besmaller,buta1otofpeoplewithin that m arketwouldbemotivatedtocontactyou. lf''The New Construction Plum ber''didn't suityou,you could position yourselfasaplumberwho specializesin servic- ing olderhouses.O rhistoric homes.O rapartmentbuildings. O rskyscrapers. You could even positionyourselfasdoing acertain segm ent ofplumbing:unclogging drains,installing sinks,replacing steel pipeswith sturdieralloy models. Thequestionsyoushould askyourselfare:W hatam lselling? lsitaproduct,aservice,an opinion?W hatare the featuresof whatl'm tryingtosell?lsonefeaturemoreimportanttomy audi- encethan another?lsonefeaturemoreuniquethan another?lfl highlightedonefeature,wouldtherebealargeenough audience forit?H ow wouldlreach thisaudience? By Benelit A benefitiswhatpeoplegetfrom usingyourproduct'sorservice's feature.To makethatclearer,1etmegiveyouanexam ple. Suppose you're selling apen.The interesting thing about thepen?ltdoesn'tloseink-flow when youwriteupside down. That'soneofitsfeatures.W hat'sthebenefitofthatfeature? ln otherwords,why would writing upside down beim portantto customers? You can keep thepen and apad ofpapernextto yourbed, and in themiddleofthenightwhen yougetan idea,you don't have to turn on the lightorgetoutofbed to record theidea. Now,you'llneverlosethoseflashesofinspiration. H ow,then,mightthatpenbepositioned?As''Thelnspiration Recorder.''O r,''The M illion-Dollar Pen/''since you don'tlose yourm illion-dollarideas.O r,''The Dream Pen/''sinceyou can recordyourdreamswhilethe/restillfreshinyourmind.
  • 179. BE Dls-rlx c'r Now thatyou see how positioning by benefitm ightwork with apen,let'sseehow itwouldworkforyou.Supposeyou'rea banker.W hatare the featuresofyour service? You save your clientsm oney.You help them m akedecisionson how to grow theirmoney.Youcounselthem onhow toplanforretirement. W hat,then,arethebenefitsofyourfeatures?Therearesev- eral,butoneobviousbenefitisthatby dealingwith you,clients havepeaceofmind.They know theirmoney'ssafe,theirfuture's safe,theirfamilyiscaredfor. Should you position yourselfaround the concept''peace of mind''?Perhaps,ifyoufeelthat'simportanttoyourclientsandif noneofyourcom petitorsalreadyownsthatpositioning. Questionsyoushouldaskyourselfare:W hatarethebenefits to my features? W hich benefits seem m ostimportant? W hich benefitist/?emostimportant? H ow can ltestmy assumption? H ow canlusethatbenefitasthebasisofeverythingldo? IN A NU TSHELL To usepositioning,dothefollowing: Getclearaboutwhoyou'retryingtopersuadeandaboutwhat you'retryingtopersuadethem . Find outwhatyouraudience mostvalueswhen itcomesto youroffering. Takean attributefrom youroffering,onethatyouraudience would closelyassociatewithwhattheyvalue. M akesureno oneelseinyourfield isdefinitively associated with thatattribute.lfthey are,find away to altertheat- tributesoit'suniquetoyou. Pushthatattribute thatbosition fora11it'sworth.Buildyour presentations, m echanisms, and marketing m aterials around it.Becomesingle-minded.
  • 180. IN A NUTSHELL Y Backroom ''llpsIorBeingDistinct + Youcanpositionyourself,yourbusiness,oraparticularoffer- ing.Justmakesurethatoneposition doesn'tclash with an- other.lfyou own ahigh-end mortuary,you probably don't wanttopositionyourselfasaneasygoingjoker. + W hatdolmeanbypositioning''youlself''?lfyouhaveaquality thatyou and youraudience particularly value,you can stress thatqualityineverythingyoudo.Forinstance,ifyou'readetail person andyou'reinabusinessthatwarrantscloseattentionto detail,stressthatim age.To do so,you'd dressimm aculately; have neatly combed hair and m anicured nails;keep a neat briefcase;haveawebsitefeaturing lotsofarticlesyoukewrit- ten,showingthatyouknow yoursubjectfrom everyangle. O bviously,if your defining attribute was confidence, you'dstressdifferentbehaviors.Youcould stilldresswelland keep aneatbriefcase,butyou'd makeaconsciousefforttobe moreforcefulinexpressingyouropinions,andsoforth. lsthispracticeartificial?Yes.Butremember,theworld is pigeonholing you.They'refitting you into aconceptualbox whetheryou likeitornot.Therearewinnerboxesandloser boxes,soyoumightaswellsuggestthebestboxforyou. # H ow do you findoutwhatyouraudiencevalues?Askthem . Question them abouttheirproblems,theirpains,theirtri- umphs,theirdaily struggles. Also,study whatyourcompetitorsaredoing.W hatposi- tionsdo they already own,ifany?Arethosepositionswork- ing forthem ? lfyou werethem,how mightyou altertheir positionsto work better?Doesaltering theirpositionssug- gestanew positionforyou? + O ften,you'llneedtoalteryourbusinesssoitfitsastrongpo- sition.Say you own apetshop,and apet-supply superstore opensablock away.Thesuperstore'spricesarecheaperthan
  • 181. BE Dls-rlx c'r yours,and theirstockislarger.H ead tohead,it'simpossible foryoutocompete. W hatdo you do? Look forwaysto distinguish yourself from thesuperstore,andpushthatdistinctionfora11it'sworth. O newayyou'redifferentisthatyousellanimals,andthe superstoredoesn't.Selling animals,in fact,hasalwaysbeen them ostlucrativepartofyourbusiness.Youadoptthat,then, asyourposition.Theotherstoresellsproducts,butyourstore specializesintheanimalsthemselves.Youreduceyoursupply sectionbythree-quarters,andstockthesavedspacewithcats, dogs,birds,rabbits,rodents,and reptiles.You parade your new approach in thewindow ofyourstore,onyourwebsite, in thenewspapers.You even talk aboutselecting and caring foran animalatlocalevents. Doesitwork?Youmakeitwork. + Youcanhaveadifferentposition foreachm arketyouserve. Tothebusinessworld,lam aninfotainer.However,tothe restoftheworld lam somethingdifferent,a''perceptionist.'' A perceptionistissomeonewhoreadspeoplebystudying theirbody language and physiologicalreactions.There'sno m agic ormetaphysicsinvolved.lt'smore likebeing apoker playerwhoknowswhenanopponentisbluffing becausethe opponentsweatsand nervously playswith hischips.lfyou know whattolookfor,aperson'sbodyandbehaviorwillgive him awaymoreoftenthannot. ldeveloped my perceptionisttalentfrom my work asa m agician.There are many tricksthatdepend upon theper- former'sabilitytopickup avolunteer'sunintentionalclues. Forinstance,ifyou asksomeoneto hide acoin in either hand whileherarm sare behind herback,you'llbe able to dopeoutwhich hand thecoinisinwhen shebringsherarms forward.How?She'lltipyouoffby turning herheadtoward thefistwiththecoin.H ertip,ofcourse,isn'tconscious.And itisn'tobvious.Still,ifyou know whatto look for,and you
  • 182. Ix A NLITSI-IELL couplethatwithothertelltalesigns(likepupildilation),the methodisreliable.Afterawhile,youdevelop aknackforit. W henlappearon television it'susuallyasaperceptionist. W hy?Becausereading peopleiswhatintereststheTV audi- ence.On atalk show,no onecaresthatldraw crowdsand furnish companieswithsalesleads.W hatthetalk-show audi- ence isconcerned aboutisunderstanding how we connect with one anotherin rem arkable ways,and how we can use moreofoursensesto lead abetterlife.On theshows,that's whatlteach.That'swhytheyaskmeon. Think aboutestablishing multiplepositionsforyourself. Sure,youwantto be focused.Butyou also wanteach audi- encetohavewhat'smostvaluabletoit. A TransformationMechanism: TheLightand HeavyFerson TheStene It'stherolloutparfyforyourfirm'snew CD-ROM game,andyou/re surroundedby reportersfrom industryandentertainmentnewspapers andmagazines.They/vecometoyou,the headofthedesignteam, hoping foracolorfulanecdote. Youtellthem storiesaboutrowdydevelopmentsessionsthat Iastedthree daysstraight,and how youresearched human anatomy soyoucouldadd realism to thegame'sviolence.The re- portersIoveit.Yourcandorisiustwhattheyneedfortheirarticles. Thingsaregoingsowell,youdecidetogofortheiugular.You Iauncha mechanism. Yousay:''I'm sureyou/veaIIheard how muchmoreourgame,Ex- plosionl,hasinitthanourcompetitor'sgame,Killfest30001W e packeditwithmoregraphics,morestrategies,moreblood.Ourgame isheavywithbonuses.Butdon'ttakemyword.Letmeproveit.'' (continoed)
  • 183. BEDISTINCT (Continved) From clExxlkcclse m u grqbqcopyofyourcommti. ' tor'sCD,whichm udisplqy L lweenm urpqlmswith yourelbowscltm ursides (Figure1zt.1). Youclskonererxxterto holdyourIeftclrm clnclcln. othertoholdyourrightclrm (Figure1:.2).Onthecountof three,youclskthem toIiftm u slrclightupintheclirwhich * .8K'vx theydo.Thereportershoist> k; '.-'' clndholdyouclfcotoffthet.49.72....- ground.''Noticeourcomm ti. tor'sgqme,k'illkstJ000/is Figure 1zt.1 DisplayCD. jjjinhassoIitrletoit,IIIcltso , itoffersnoresistclncetothesegentlemen''Therem rtersputyou down,clnclyoutossyourcomm titor'sgclmetothefloor (continved) % 1'. A,. .l ,. J Figure 1:.2 Armsheld oneachside.
  • 184. IN A NLITSHELL (Continved) ''Now forourCD '' ouscly.Youholdclcopyofyourgclmebe., ,y lweenyourpcllmsclnclclskthesclmelworerxxterstoIiftm u.Amclz. ingly,theyccln/t.Yourlxdywon'tbucbe.Thephdcxgrclphersinthe crowdfbhttogetclnunobstructedshotfortheirpublicqtions. ''Incqseyouthinktheseguysccln'tIiftmeLcclusethe/retired from hclvingIiftedmethefirsttime Iet'sgetlwomorereporterstotry.'' Twomorestepforwqrd grclbyourclrmsclnclclltempttoIiftyou. Agqin m udon'tmove eventhoughyouseem tol:xlstqndingexqcdy clsyoustooclthefirsttime. Youscly:''Lclcliesclnclgentlemen Exposionlhclssomuchinit kidswillhclvetocclrryitinclwheelbqrrow togetithome.''There. portersclreIclughingclstheywritedownyoureveryword. Behind 'he A ene Fk)w dtxsthismechqnism ' work?Ithqstodowiththe t- wqyyouplqceycvrqrms. Fklldthem onewqyqnd m u/reeqsytoIift.Holdthem / qndherwqy qndyou/re tough.Thelxstpqrf 80lll wqysIookneqrlyidenticql. l-bre'sthemethod indetqil: stclnclwirhm urclrms hclngingslrclightdown.Now Icckycvrelbowsclgclinst m ursidesclnclbringm ur hclndsup,sothcltm urfore. clrmsclrepclrcllleltotheflcor (Figure1.4.3).Yot/reinmsi. Figure 1zt.3 ElbowsIocked tiontoE)eIifted. againstsides. (continved)
  • 185. BEDISTINCT (Continved) From clExxlkcclse m u grqbqcopyofyourcommti. ' tor'sCD,whichm udisplqy L lweenm urpqlmswith yourelbowscltm ursides (Figure1zt.1). Youclskonererxxterto holdyourIeftclrm clnclcln. othertoholdyourrightclrm (Figure1:.2).Onthecountof three,youclskthem toIiftm u slrclightupintheclirwhich * .8K'vx theydo.Thereportershoist> k; '.-'' clndholdyouclfcotoffthet.49.72....- ground.''Noticeourcomm ti. tor'sgqme,k'illkstJ000/is Figure 1zt.1 DisplayCD. jjjinhassoIitrletoit,IIIcltso , itoffersnoresistclncetothesegentlemen''Therem rtersputyou down,clnclyoutossyourcomm titor'sgclmetothefloor (continved) v.x j . . à vv ) t'/ ' g. .)... . J Figure 1:.2 Armsheld oneachside.
  • 186. IN A NUTSHELL (Continoed) + A versionofthismechanism once prevented a war.In 1856,AI- geria threatenedto splitofffrom France.NapoléonIIIcould have respondedwithforce,butinsteadhesentconiurorJean-Eugene Robert-l-loudintointimidatetheAlgerianswithmagic. W hile in Algeria,Robert-l-loudin performed hisfullevening show,duringwhichhe produced coinsandcannonballsfrom out ofnowhere.Forhisfinale,he broughtforthhismostmemorableiI- Iusion,theLightand HeavyChest. The magicianplaced a smallwooden box onthe stageand challenged a powerfulaudience memberto Iiftit.A strongAlge- riansteppedforwardand Iiftediteasily. Robert-l-loudinthenmadesome magicalgestures,and asked him to try again.Thistimethe man pulled withaIIhismight;he pulled so hard,infact,thathecried outinpainorfearand ran from thestage.Theboxnevermoved. The uprisingwasstoppedbeforeitbegan.
  • 187. O V ERC O M E RESISTA N C E sgood asyourofferingsare,youwillencounterresis- tance.Peoplewillobject,sometimesstrongly.Notto worry. Objectionsareopinions,andopinionscanbechanged.Even staunch opinion:Legaldecisionsgetreversed;liberalsbecome conservatives;''bad''films becom e recognized as m asterpieces. Nothingiswritten in stone.Behind every law,politicaldecision, andartisticjudgmentarepeople.Peoplewhochangetheirminds baseduponnew circumstances,fresh evaluation,andwhim . lfmeeting resistancescaresyou,you'reunrealistically elevat- ingtheconsequences.Objectionscan'tcrippleyou.They'renot toxic.They needn'tscrew upyourlife,unlessyou1etthem . Youke heard itsaid before:An objection justmeansthe prospectneedsmoreinform ation.Forthemostpart,that'strue. Thepersonyou'retryingtopersuademaynott/gfg/tthe/reasking for more inform ation,or for a different perspective on what youkesaid,/?gtt/gtgfs/90:7youlJtggtl/eft.Theirresistanceisjustpartof theconversation- andit'snomoreimportantthan anyotherpart oftheconversation.
  • 188. SIDEAPPROACH ES THE STRAIGH TFO RW ARD APPRO ACH Preparetomeetresistance. lfyou'resellingaproductorservice,listthecommonobjec- tionsyou'regoingtohear.They'llfallintointwocategories.One isabouttheproductorserviceitself(''notenoughfunctions/''''in- convenientdelivelx''''too expensive'').Theotherisaboutthe person'sability to dealwiththeproductorservice (''notinter- ested''''don'thavethefunds''''don'thavetheroom''). O nceyouknow whatkindsofresistanceyou'llbefacing,re- search thefactssurroundingeach objection.lfyou'regoing to hear about price,have your pricing information down cold. Know a11yourprices,aswellasthose ofyourcompetitors.lf you'llbehearingaboutinconvenientdelivery,findouteverything you can abouthow you and yourcom petitorsdeliver.Research otherdeliveroptions,too. Researchingthefactsincludeshavingarationale- a''reason why''- for each ofyour propositions.Forinstance,ifyou're priceis10 percenthigherthan anyoneelsek,perhapsthat'sbe- causeyourproductgeneratesa 20 percentgreaterresultthan lse'sanyonee . Armedwith thisinformation,youm aybeableto answerpeo- ple'sconcernsjustby knowing whatthey'regoing to say,and thenconfidentlypresentingthefactstothem . That'sthefirstwaylhandleobjections.That'smypreferred way.ldon'tspinorsellorgetdefensive.lgiveinform ation.After a11,we'rejusthavingaconversation,andl'm answeringtheirques- tionsthe same way l'd answertheirquestionsifthey asked me wherelwentforlunchandwhatmyfavoritebookis. SID E APPRO ACH ES O fcourse,sometimesthedirectapproachdoesn'twork.lfso,that doesn'tmaketheobjectorrightormewrong.ltsuredoesn'tmean lstop.Rem ember,we're dealing in opinions.Thisisn'tmoving
  • 189. 178 ovEltcolvlERESISTANCE mountains,it'schangingthoughts.lhaveanumberofsidestrate- gieslrely onwhen lmeetcontinued resistance: Preten?.'y.0gtlog'tggkersttggt:tt/?eobjection.Evenifit'sastandardob- jection,askhertoclarifyit:''Yousaymypriceistwiceashighas you'rewilling to pay.Explain whatyou mean.''W hen shestarts talking,shemayhavetroubleexplainingthegroundsforherob- jection.Shealsomay,withalittlehelpfrom you,talkherselfout ofherobjection.Usethistechniquetouncoverwhatyoucon- siderfalseobjections. Asê/?erf.plltgtsbereallyf.ptggtstoêgofz?.W henyourpersuadeeraises whatsoundslikeaphonyobjection,don'ttryovercomingit.ln- stead,askherto comeclean:''Look,lcantellthat'snotwhat'sre- ally botheringyou.Tellme,whatreally hasyou concerned?''A variation isto insertsome guiltinto the technique to makeher objectionseem absurd,giventhecircumstances:''Look,lcantell that'snotwhat'sbotheringyou.Afterall,yourcompanyisoneof the richestmanufacturersofcomputerchipson theplanet.So, whenyoutellmemyfeeistoohigh,lknow that'snotthewhole story.W hat'sreally botheringyou?'' Rehrtooneojyourc/featsfz'/?o/?tgtltllestgrleobjection.Thisissimilarto thatsaleschestnut,the''Fee1,Felt,Found''technique:''lknow how you/l.Someofmyotherclientsoriginally-fltthatway.Butwhen theystarted usingmy service,theyy'oggt:t...''Youcanusethe sameformula,butifyou'remorespecific,youm akeitmorebeliev- able.W henyourprospectraisesanobjection,laughandsay:''You remindmeofJeff,theownerofAcmeTrucking.BeforeJeffhired me,hesaidexactlythesamethingyousaid.1'11tellyouwhatltold him....So,he hired me.Thatwasfouryeals ago.W ekebeen doing businesseversince.Thanksto theworkwekebeen doing together,his firm's productivity hasrisen by twenty-three per- cent.''Youkenotonlyansweredtheobjection,youkeputitwithin apotentcontextby aligningyourprospectwith aclientwhohas beensuccessfulusingthesameserviceyou'reofferingher. kkltgêe/?erobjectionintoajointobjective.lreadthisapproachinJef- freyJ.Fox'sexcellentbook,.H'of.ptol-lecorle(gRwfgrltgêer.Sincethen,
  • 190. SIDEAPPROACH ES 179 l'veuseditdozensoftimes.Thetechnique:Youtaketheobjec- tion andmakeitintoamutually agreed uponobjective.Forex- ample ifshesays,''Yourserviceistooexpensive''yousay,''Soour objectiveisto makeourserviceaffordableforyou?''lfshesays yesto yourquestion,she'ssaid yesto youroffering;thetwo of youthenworktoreach thatobjectivetogether.lfshesaysno, youkeuncoveredafalseobjectiveandcanmoveforwardtoun- covertherealreason. kkltgêe/?erobjectiont/?everyreasontoJ0(glletgt:tf.pftllt/?eijeal.Forthis approach,youtakewhattheobjectorsaysandtwistitintoaben- efitstrongerthanherobjection:''Youdon'twanttobuythisair conditionerbecauseit'stoo noisy?Do you know why it'snoisy? Becauseinsidethisairconditioneristhemostpowerfulengineon the market.Thatenginewillcoolathree-thousand-square-foot housetosixty-fivedegreesinnineminutes.A quietenginemeans aweakengine,whichm akesforahot,stuffyhouse.'' Ayreef.pftllt/?eobjection(ggt:tretg-f-ffrplyourrltgf.lïbenejits.Thisissimilar totheprevioustechnique.Attimes,yourobjector'sreasoningwill besound.lfso,there'sno reason to debateheraboutit.lnstead, agree,andthen tellherwhy sheshouldstillgo aheadwith your suggestion:''You'reright,wedon'thaveany red dressesin stock. Butyoudidn'treally come in hereforared dress,did you?You cam einforanArmanidress.AnArmanidresswillmakeyoulook beautiful,willm akeyoustandout,willputeveryeyeintheroom on you.... Cet/?ertoseet/?ecogset/gegceso.Jgotusin.lyourservices.lfshe'sclosing the dooron yourservices,throw herinto afuturewithoutyou. This is a favorite ofmine:''lfyou didn'thave me generating crowdsatyournexttradeshow,whatwouldyou dothat'sdif-fer- entfrom whatyoukealreadyfailedwith?''You'retryingtogether toverbalizethedireconsequences. O fcourse,you can alwayspaintthe bleak picture yourself: ''W ithoutme,here'swhat lsee happening,based upon what youketoldme:Youwillhavea1700th with a1otofstaffstanding around and eatingthefreecandy.Everyfew minutes,ashow at-
  • 191. ovEltcolvlEP-ESISTANCE tendeewillwanderby,stopinthe1700th,andtenstafferswillde- scendupon him,frighteninghim off.'' You can also become somewhatbelligerentwith thistech- nique,aslong asthepersonyou're pitching to knowsyou have herbestinterestatheart:''lcanseewhyyouwouldn'twanttohire me,aperformerwhohasbetweenonehundred andfivehundred peoplesurroundinghim attheshow atany giventime,and who hasgenerated three million leadsforhisclients.ltm akessense thatyou'd wanttogo along doingexactlywhatitisyoukebeen doing,putting outbowlsofcandy,handing outballoonswith yourcompany'slogo,and getting forty-two leadsaday.M akes sense.M akessensethatyoukespentonepointtwo milliondol- larsonyour1700thconstruction,andyetyou'respendingadollar seventy-nineon abagofcandy toattractpeople.'' A LTERN ATEW AYS O FD EALIN G W ITH RESISTANCE Although getting resistance is natural,you obviously wantto striveforaslittleresistanceaspossible.Thebestwayofachieving thatisto bring up the resistance pointsyourselfwhen you're pitching.How doyoudothat?Twoways. Thefirstwayistobeupfrontaboutit,and tellyouraudience thatyoukeheardaspecificobjectionbefore.W henyouusethis approach,you show you're honestasyou're preempting what peoplearethinking:''Youcanpurchaseourseasonticketpackage fora11eighty-one home games.O fcourse,somepeople tellus thateighty-onegamesisn'tforthem .Theycouldn'tpossibly find thetimeto attendthem all.That'sreasonable.W hocan attendso m any gamesthem selves?That'swhy many businessesbuy this package.Theirpeoplegotoasmanygamesastheylike,andthen they use theirseatsasareward forgood clients,areminderfor lapsedclients,andanenticementforhotprospects.'' The second way,you knitthe same inform ation into your pitch,withoutraising itasared flag:''You can usethiseighty-
  • 192. ALTERNATEW AYS OFDEALING W ITH RESISTANCE one-game package foryourself,oras a business developm ent tool '' Y Backroom ''llpsIorOvercomingResistance + lfyou'regettinga1otofresistance,lwouldn'tfocusonsnappy waysofovercomingobjections.lnstead,l'dtrytostrengthen my presentations.lnparticular,makesureyou'regivingyour prospectasampleofyourwork;sufficientsupporting proof, including aguarantee;and,aTransform ationM echanism de- signedtothrow herconcernsinanew light. Also,m akesureshe appreciatesthevalueofwhatyou're offering.Askher,''W hatdoyoulikebestaboutmyoffer,and why?''You may discoverthatshe'sleftoutfeatures,orthat therearebenefitsshedoesn'tfully understand.lfso,workon thosepointswith her.Gethertoappreciatethem by dem on- strating thatpartoftheoffering,orby painting aword pic- tureofherfullyenjoyingthebenefit. # Attitude isimportantin handling resistance.Approach the peopleyou'retryingtopersuadeinwhatlcall''TheGift-shift M indset.''Attradeshows,ldonotpitchmy servicestocom - paniesfrom apositionofsubservience.ldoitfrom strength.l am theanswertotheirproblems. Asl'm walking into theconvention center,l'm thinking: ''W aituntilthesepeopleseewhatlcan do forthem .They havenoideathegiftthey'reabouttoreceive.lwillmaketheir show.lwillm ake them theirbonuses and earn them their raises.Theywillthanktheirluckystarsthatlhappenedupon them,andthatthey hiredme.'' That'sthe mindset.You are notan expense oran intru- sion.Youareagift.That'show you mustapproach yourper- suasion situations. Sell yourself on yourself. Convince yourselfthatwhatyou'reofferingisworthfarmorethanwhat you'reaskingforit.From thatmindset,overcomingresistance iseasy.
  • 193. OVERCOIVIERESISTANCE A TransformationMechanism: TheReappearingM atch TheStene AstheheadofHumanResources,it'syouriobtoseethattheright peoplearebroughtintothecompany.Thosepeoplemustbehighpro. ducers,and they mustknow how toworkaspartofa team. Sharon,theheadofSales,haspresentedyouwithaproblem. Shewantsto hireTim,who hasprovenhimselfatop-notchproducer forothercompanies,butwhohasshownthathe'sa maverick.Hehas a historyofbullying hisco-workers,ofmaking hisowndeals,of beingargumentativewithcustomers. Becausehecanproduce,Sharoniswilling totakea chanceon him.Youare not.You/reafraid thatTim'spresence mightdamagethe entireSalesDivision.Todemonstrateyourposition,youperform a mechanism. Sharonandyouareata restaurantdiscussing thematter.You holdupa bookofmatchesandsay,zzThisistheSalesDivision.'' Youopenthebookandpointtothe matchesinside.zzThese,''you say,zzareyoursalespeople.Seethisone inthemiddle?That'sTim. 8uIIhim out.''Sosaying,youhold thebookandSharontearsoutthe match.Youclosethe book,takethematch,andstrike it. Asitburns,yousay:''W eknow Tim isfiery.Thegoodpartishis passionhelpsclosesales.Hehasalwaysbeenatopproducerwher- everhe'sworked.Thebad partishehasbeenfiredfrom wherever he'sworked,because heendsuptreating peopleIikegarbage.Tim's aIIaboutmakingfastsales,andscrew theconsequences.Intheend, healwaysburnsout.''Sosayingyoublow outthematchanddropit intoyourcoffeecup,whereitsizzles. Youcontinue:zzNow youmightbewillingtotakea chanceon him,becauseyoucanalwayscanhim.Butbringing someone Iike thatintoyourdivisionhasaIasting effectontheothersalespeople. (continoed)
  • 194. ALTEPNATEWAYSOFDEALING W ITH PESISTANCE (Continved) W hensomeoneisthcltselfish thcltdisruptive,theiIIeffectofhis beingthereIclstsIongclfterhe'sIeft.TclkeclI(x)k.'' Youhclnclshclronthemcltchlxok sheom nsitclnclthere bclck initsspot,istheTim mcltchlItshecldisburned butit'sclffixedinthe bcokclsifitneverIeft.YoutclketheExx)kbclckfrom her. ''OnceyouinvitesomeoneIikethcltin'' ouscly ''hisinfluence, y , cclnhurtthingsinwclysyouccln'tevendreclm cllxlut''As ouspeclk. Y , youripouttheburnedmcltch strikeitclgclinsttheExx)k clnclitre. Iighls.Youuseittosettheentirebookclflclme clnclthenyoudumpit intoyourcoffeecup. Youclnclshclroncontinueyourtcllk sheismuchIesssureofher rxlsitionthqnwhenyoustqrted Behind 'I'- scene BeforeIexplqinhow tom rformthismechclnism understclndthcltdur. ingityou/llbeburningquiteclfew mcltches.Don'tclltemptthisunless you/recertclinm ucclndoitsqfely.Ifyouhclveclnydoubtskipthis mechclnism'thereclreothers intheExx)kwithoutthe downside. Toprepqre,findcl mcltchlxokthclfsrelqtively full.Pickclmcltchneclrthe centerclnclIeveritup soit's . stillclltclchecltotheExx)kbut ' stclndserect(Figure15.1). Teqrclnothermcltchout - oftheExxlk.UseittoIight theclltclcheclmcltch. Blow outthetorn . mcltch thentheclltclchecl Figure15.1 Erectmatch. (continved)
  • 195. OVEZCOMEZESISTANCE mcltch wclitclfew minutes fortheclltclcheclmcltchto coolclnclpushitbclck down,soitresumesitsnor. mcllpositionintheExxlk. W hcltycvnow hclveiscl EXG J mcltcheswirhone mcltchrxeburnedclnclstillclt. tclchedintheExxlk.You/reset. Atthem rformclncesite tclkeoutthemcltchlxokclncl openthecovertowqrdyou. Figure 15.2 M atchhiddenE,y W ithyourthumb,lxndthe thumb. burnedmcltchdownsoyour thumbcoversithidingit fromview (Figure15.2). Don'toutofguiltornervestrytoprovethcltthemcltchbookis normcll.It'sclmcltchlxx)k'm opleqssumeit'snormqlunlessyougive them clreclsontodoubt.JustholdtheExx)kinclnordinqrywcly. Extendthemcltchlxoktowclrdyourspectqtorclndclskhertoteclr outclmcltch:Eitherpointtoclmcltchinthemiddle orscly ''some. whereinthemiddle.''Gripthebcokfirmlywhilesheteclrsitout. Asyousm clk,bringthemcltchbcoktowclrdyou clnclIeverthe hiddenmcltchbclckintotheExxlk.Closethecover. W henyouwclnttovclnishthesmctcltor'smcltch tclkeitfrom her Iightitclncldropitintoyourcup. Relightingtheburnedmcltchisclfclke.out.HoldtheExx)ktowclrd you,gripclfreshmcltchnexltotheburnedone clnclteclritout.Light it.Ifyouplclyyourpclrtnonchcllclntlyclnclyourmovementsclrerelcl. tivelyquick noonewillnoticeyou/veusedclfreshone.Iftheydo (continved)
  • 196. ALTERNATEW AYS OFDEALING W ITH RESISTANCE (Continoed) well,you're using themechanism todramatizea point.It'snotatrick. Sodon'tsweatit. Backroom ''llp Iorthe ReappearingM atch + The bestway to perform thismechanism isto make itseem im- promptu,asifyouiustthoughttodoitthenandthere.Thewayto make itseem spontaneous,then,istograba matchbookfrom the restaurantahead oftimeand prepareitathome.Then,whenyou havea Iunchtime meeting,suggestthatyoumeetinyourspecial eatery.W henyouarrive,it'llbeeasytoswitchanordinarymatch- bookforyourgimmickedone.
  • 197. T H E LO O K hischaptercontainsthebook'smostimportantpersua- sion lesson.Butlwarn you,you m ay notlikeit.The lesson?J-fof.pyouloo;ctg'lïsbellt/?e?ijjerencebetweenJettf'lg yourIlrollosftfo.lï(gccelltet:torrçjecteij. Peoplejudgeabookby itscover.Theyrespectordiscount you instantly based on yourappearance.You can have thebest servicein theworld,butifyoulooksloppy,peopleassumeyour serviceissloppy. lt'sunfair,lknow.Yourcontentshouldruletheday.Yourideas andworkethicshouldbetheonlythingpeopleconsider.Butthey don't.People respectthosewho look like they deserve respect. Theyspendmoneyonthosewholooklikethe/reworthmoney. W henyoulookwellputtogether,theassumptionisthatyour abilitiesareasgood asyourappearance.Taketheearlytwentieth- centuryconjurorM axM alini. h/lalini made his reputation by performing worldwide for kingsand queensand otherheadsofstate.W ashe theworld's bestentertainer?No.W ashethebestlooking?Farfrom it.
  • 198. TI--IE4,4,4PP-INCIPL,E H ewasatinyfatm anwithahorribleaccentwhodidpeculiar m agic.But he dressed impeccably.l've heard he changed his clothestwoorthreetimesaday.Thefinestclothingintheworld. A cane,amonocle,apocketwatch.H ewasugly,yetbeautiful. Nlaliniperformedworldwideforroyalty andheadsofstatein largepartbecausebelooke?likebesllog/t:tbeIler-forplfelg-fortlltwl. lflifeisn'tfair,youwantto beoneofthepeoplegettingthe unfairadvantages.Getting those advantagesisn'tashard asyou think- ifyou dresswell.Dressing wellgivesyou rapportwith othersin afraction ofthenormaltime. W henlapproachpeopleattradeshows,themainreasonthey listento meisthatlhavethelook and bearing ofsomeonewho shouldbelistened to.l'm wearing adarksuit,darkshoes,adark tie,adarkbelt,awhiteshirt,andcufflinks.A powerlook.Very highfashion.M y hairiscombedandsprayed.M ynailsaremani- cured.llookasifl'dstepped offthepagesofam agazine. W hy do ltakesuch pains?BecauseJfzugttorltg/tem.')rlijeeasier.l wanttogivemyselfeveryopportunity. lflapproachedpeopleinaT-shirtandjeans,they wouldn't takemeseriously.lflapproachedthem inarumpled,mismatched sportsjacketandslacks,l'dhavetogivethepitchoftheagesbe- forethey'devenconsiderwhatlwassaying. By dressing well,lsetacontextofsuccess.They listen to whatlsaywith differentears.O fcourse,oncel'm hired lhaveto deliver.Butwithoutlookingpolished,lwould neverhavegotten thechancetoprovemyself. THE 4,4,4PRIN CIPLE lfirstlearned aboutdressingasapersuaderfrom my grandfather Duffy.Beingsomethingofashowm an himself,hecalledhisfash- ion advice ''The 4,4,4 Principle.''Duffy told me ittakesfour minutesmoretoputyourselftogetherinthemorningthanitdoes to throw on whatever'slying in a pile;you'llfeelfourdegrees
  • 199. TH E LOO K warmerin ablazer;andyou'llcreatefourthousand timestheim - pressionwhenyoulookgood. Perhapsl'vetaken Duffy'sadviceto an extreme,butitworks forme.Today,lam almostalwaysdressedforperformance.That meansifyou seeme on a Saturday morning shopping in Sears, chancesarel'm wearing asuitandtie.W hydoldothat?Because lam mybusiness,and lneverknow whom 1'11runinto.l'veunex- pectedly metCEO Sinm alls,and reporterswhilel'm getting my car'soi1changed.W henthesepeopleseeme,llooklikeasuccess, and peoplegravitatetowardsuccess. W H Y D O N T ALL BU SIN ESSPEO PLE D RESS W ELL? H ereareafew reasons: T'llelrkog't7tgof,p/9of,17.W etruly areproductsofourenvironment, and ifsomeonecomesfrom abackground in which dresswasn't stressed,heprobablywon'tpickituponhisown.Orifhedoes, hemayonly dressupforspecialoccasions,likeweddingsandfu- nerals. 'rbeynevertllfg/t(glpogtft.Tocareaboutdress,apersonmustfirst understand thatpeoplearesizing him up a11day long,based on hisappearance.lfhedoesn'trealizethat,he'llthinkwearing gag T-shirtstotheofficeischarming. 'rbeytllfg/ttbeyalreaijy?o.Thebigreasonbehinddressingwellis tocreateanimpressiononothers.W hatsomeonethinksabouther own look isimportant,butsheneedsto balance self-satisfaction with how othersseeher. 'rbeytllfg/tit'sjustjor''lookersv''lfsomeonehasanattractiveface andbody,he'saheadofthegame.Butphysicalbeautyisn'tneces- sary to becom manding and persuasive.lam no moviestar,butl gettreatedlikeonebecausellook and actlikeam an ofachieve- ment.Goodclothingmakesanyonelookbetter. 'rbey'reajrai?ojstan?inyogt.Manypeopleareterrifiedofstand- ingoutbecausethey haveanunrealisticideaaboutwhatitmeans
  • 200. TH ERLILESOFG O OD DRESS 189 tobehuman.Beinghumandoesn'tmeanbeingperfect.Pethctionis g0t(glJgrltggolltfog.O ncethey takethatideato heart,itbecom es easierforthem toputthemselvesoutthereinawaythatgetsoth- erslooking atthem .Anyone can command aroom despitehis flaws,insecurities,andweaknesses,forthesimplereason thatev- eryoneintheroom hasflaws,insecuritiesandweaknesses.W hen wepitch,we'repitchingtootherhum ans,nottodeities. THE RU LES O FG O O D D RESS O n any given day,lstand on ariserbeforethousandsofpeople who arewatching my every move.lcan'tafford lousy looksor bad-hairdays.W hatl'vedone,then,istocreatemyowneasy-to- repeatrulesthatenablemeto consistently looklike aperson of influence.lwillsharethoseruleswithyou.Considerthem abase onwhichyoucan build- ano-brainerguidetopowerdressing. DressJ/ettert/gtggeveryoneelse.The conventionalwisdom isto fit in.Butthat'snotwhatyou should bedoing.Youwantto stand out.My advice:A/fzqtgyskress(gsijyou'reJofg.pto(gtveijijiny.That doesn'tmeanyouwearatuxedo oragown with aflowing train. W hatitdoesmean isthatyou wearevening clothes,day and night,weekdaysandweekends. T'fz7ot/gogstgg;t?ollatsrltg/tesyous/gtgr!lenouybjorIlrfrletfrle.Dressing wellcostsmoney,butnotasmuch asyou'd think.Aninvestm ent oftwograndwillgiveyou awardrobethatwillkeepyoulooking goodforyears. J'sitgrJ//tgc/t(gg;tyray.M ostpeople don'tknow whatcolorsto wearorhow tom atchcontrasting colors.They wearshadesthat clashwiththeirskintoneandm akethem appeari11.Saveyourself theheadache.Black and gray look cool.A blacksuitand agray suitare essentialformen and women.Those dark colorsactas yourpersonalproscenium arch,framing yourface and hands- themostexpressivepartsofyourbody.Youcanwearthecom po- nents ofeach suit interchangeably.Black and gray also make peoplelookslim .
  • 201. 190 THELOO K J't-turlèbt-coloreilshfrtsanil blouses.Youwantsomesepara. tionbetweenyourdarkframe and your shirt or blouse. Light colors work best.You can'tgowrong with whiteor lightblue.Forsweaters/stick with rich colors/ like deep red.A half.dozenshirtsanda couple of mock turtleneck sweaterswilldothetrick. J'to r Jurk ties JAJJ uscots. W hatyou weararound your neck helpsto actasabridge betweenyourjacketandyour shirt or blouse.Look sharp with a black/gras blue/or maroontie.Stripeswork too (Figure16.1).Xv/onaencanuse Figure 16.1 Changeyourtie, changeyourIife. contrastingascotsandneckscanresasaccents. Another choice:atie the same color as your lightshirt- whiteonwhite/blueonblue/grayongray. J'tlrilijkrenttextures=Jbues.Buyoneshirtthat'sbrushedcot. ton/onethat'ssilk/and so on.Same strateorforyourties:lvlix weaves.Bycombiningshirtsandtiesofdifferentfabricsandfeels/ yourlladdrefinementtoyouroutfit. J'tlrtbejinestsboesyouca ajjoril.Scuffed shoeswithworn. downheelscanturn amillion.dollarlookinto adime.storelook. Buyblack/ofcourse.(Andwearblacksocks/too.) Ymraccessorks.Youwantasubstantialbeltwithasilver/platinum / orwhite.gold buckle.Skip yellow gold- it makesitseem that yourretnringtoohard.Youalsowantsilver/platinum/orwhite.gold cufflinks.Samething foryourwatch.A watchistheonlypieceof jewelnrlwear/becauseit'spractical.Anythingelsedetractsfrom my
  • 202. /.@ L. ,f' o y . THE Itul-Es oy co oo Dll ss 191 handsand face/which iswhere l wantpeoplelooking. Azlu/rzojj-tbe-racksTTvbanilmaile. lvlost off.the.rack suits were manufactured using glue and havesleeveswithbuttonsthatare purely ornamental.To givethese suitsamoredignified look/pay a tailorto add some single.needle stitching around the lapels and collarsandmakeyourphonybut. tonholesintotherealthing.Your suitswillnow lookasiftheycost tripletheirprice. Hireaconsultantorbejrienilastore saksckrk lfyourre nenrousabout making a wrong fashion choice youcan hireaconsultanttoshop with yow or ask a well.dressed storesalesclerkforadvice. LookgooloutojyourpxggigT. W henyoutravel/forgetthehotel iron and carry a powerful portablesteamerinstead.Youcan pack your Figure16.2 Reverseiacket so Iiningshows. r a4 -I .. ,t'w x / ... I#' N't Figure16.3 Nestoneshoul- derinsidetheother. jacket and pants to minimize their creases. H ere's how:Turn the jacket inside out (Figure16.2),andnestoneshoul. derinsidetheother(Figure16.3). Now fold thejacketin half.L y the pantson a flat surface/then placethejacketoverthem atthe knee.Fold the pants over the jacket (Figure 16.4).The puffy
  • 203. TH ELOO K 1 K Figure 16.: Fold pantsover iacket. bulk ofthejacketwillkeep the antsfrom creasingbadly.P Ouruniformstellpeoplea1ot aboutwhoweare.lfyourreasci- entist,you wear a 1ab coat.lf ou'reaconstructionworkeryouy , wear work boots. lf your job hinges on persuasion,youruni- form should show thatyouthink thingsoutand prepare.Theout- fitsl'vejustdescribedprovethat. Good dress,then,ismore than surface decoration. lt's an out- wardexpressionthatyourreaper- son ofdetailand care. Y Backroom 'llpsfortheLook * Besides dressing well, you must also be immaculately groomed.Boostyour appearance by getting regular mani- cures,pedicures,and haircuts.lfyourteeth areyellowed,be- lieve me,theyrredetracting from your look even ifno one tellsyou so.Getthem whitened. Speakingofgrooming,llikeatannedlook,butldon'tlike sitting inthesun (forobvioushealth reasons).Therefore,l useabronzer.ltevensoutmyskintoneduringthedas andit washesoffatnight. * W henyoupitch,you neverknow whatstrayinformationyou canusetoattractattention.Forinstance whenpeopleaskme aboutmy clothes,lusemyoutfitasaTransformationlvlecha- nism,educatingpeopleaboutwhatl'm wearingan1theprod- uctl'm pushing.
  • 204. TH ERULESOFG O OD DRESS A TransformationMechanism: TheM igrating Fepper TheStene You'vebeenIocking hornswithJeremyforaweek,soyou'veinvited him foramealattheIocaldinertotl'y andworkoutyourdifferences. Youtellhim youunderstandthathe'susedtoresearching alone, buttheheadofthedepartmentwantsyouinvolved becauseofyour specialized knowledge.Jeremy,though,hasfoughtyouaIItheway. HeIooksatyourinvolvementasaslapinhisface. W hileyou'rewaiting foryourentréestocome,youtrystartinga conversationaboutsomethingotherthanwork,iusttoIightenthe mood.ButJeremywon'tbudge.He'sclosemouthed. Youdecidethatamechanism isinorder. Youwalkovertothecash register,takeatoothpick,andtossit ontothetable.''Jeremy,''yousay,''Ietmeshow yousomething Ithink you'llfindodd,butinteresting.'' Yougrabthepeppershaker,twistoffthecap,andpourathin Iayerofpepperintoyourglassofwater. ''Idofindthatodd''saysJeremy. ''blb$'(,itit:;irtsE)irttirr.'' Youhand him a toothpick,and askhim to dip ithalM ay intothe water.HeIooksatyouIikeyou/re nuts,buthecomplies.Nothing hap- pens,though.Fepperstillblanketsthewater'ssurface. zzW hatareyoutryingtoprovek''hesays. zzl'm tryingto provethatwhenweworktogether,coolthingscan ha en''PP . Yougrip hishand bythewristand askhim todipthetoothpick again.Hedoes,onlythistime he'sdelighted bywhathesees.The momentthetoothpicktouchesthewater,thepepperstartsrushing awayfrom it,almostasifby magic. zzl-low didyoudo thatk''heasks. (continoed)
  • 205. TH E LOO K (Continoed) ''Ididn'tdoit.W edid it.W orkingtogetherwecanmaketheseas part...movemountains...or,getsomepeppertoshiftina glass.'' Hesmiles,thefirsttime he'ssmiledsinceyou'veknownhim. ''Now ''hesays ''canyouIetgoofmywristk'' Behlnd the Stene Toprepare,youneedtosecretlysmearyourindexfingerwithIiquid soap.A coupleofdropswilldo.Ikeepsomeinasmallziplockbag, whichIkeep inmy pocketorbriefcase;thatway,Idon'thaveto Ieavethetableanddraw suspicion.W henIwanttoperform this mechanism,Iopenthebaganddip myfingerinthesoapwhile I'm searching fora penora pieceofpaper.Ittakesonlyafew seconds. Ifyoudon'twanttogo tothetroubleofcarl-ying soap,youcan putsomeonyourfingerwhenyouvisitthe bathroom,orifyou/re home,whilewashinga dish.Infact,dishwashing Iiquid isanideal substituteforIiquidhandsoap.(Beforewarned,though:Onceyou/ve soaped thepad ofyourfingertip,don'ttouchitto anything,otherwise you/llruboffthesecret.) Howeveryou/veaccomplishedit,younow havesoaponyour indexfinger;the personyou/retryingto persuadeissitting across from you;you/vetosseda toothpickinfrontofhim;youhaveaglass ofwaterbetweenyou;andyou/reholdinga peppershaker. Dustthewaterwithpepper.Nottoo much.Justenoughtodarken thewater'ssurface. AskthepersuadeetodipthetoothpickhalM ayintothewater. Nothingwillhappen. Takethetoothpickfrom him,usingthehandwiththesoapyfinger. Askhim to holdhishandstraightabovethewater.Ashedoes this,casuallyrubtheedgeofthetoothpickwithyourfinger. Flacethetoothpickbackinhishand,and useb0thyourhandsto grab onto hiswrist. (continoed)
  • 206. TH ERULESOFG O OD DRESS (Continoed) Guidehishand so thesoapedtipofthetoothpickbreaksthe water'ssurface. W henitdoes,thesoapwillrushoffthetoothpick,intothewater, carrying thepepperwithit. Ferhapsnota miraclefortheages,butit'swondroustoseeifyou don'tknow thesecretl Backroom 'IlpsIortheM igrating Pepper # O bviously,you/llwantto soapyourfingerasclose aspossibleto performancetime;otherwise,thesoapwilldry. # Anotherway oftransferring the soap isto grab two toothpicks. Hand one to the spectator,and apply the soap to the second toothpickwhilehiseyesareonthe first.Then,afterhisfails,ask him totryitwithyourtoothpick. # Youhavethespectatordipthe toothpickinto thewaterfirsttoes- tablish the conditionsthatthe pepperisunderbefore the magic happens.Ifyouperformedthismechanism withoutIettingthespec- tatortry itfirst,he mightthinkit'snaturalforthe pepperto rush awayfrom thetoothpick. Thesamedynamiccomesinto play anytimeyou/retrying toseIIsomeone onan idea.Unlessthey understand what''nor- mal'' is- w hatthe baseline is- they'llnever understand the benefitofapplying yoursolution. Make sure they understand theirsituation.M ake sure they know iusthow muchtheircurrentapproachesarehinderingthem. Tbenpresentyoursolution. + Stillanotherway to perform thismechanism isto skip the tooth- pick,andstickyourfingerdirectlyinthewater.Ofcourse,thisap- proach givesa differentfeelto the mechanism because it'syou (continoed)
  • 207. TH E LOO K (Continoed) making the magic happen.So zzwhen we work together,cool thingscanhappen''wouldn'tbethepropertheme.O nethemethat cou/dworkwiththisapproachwouldbezzifyouknow iustwhere to attacka problem,youcansolveitquicklyand easily.'' # Don'tperform thismechanism underbrightsunlight,wheretheIiq- uid soapmightshineinthewater. # W hynotusea barofsoap?Becausesoapscrapedfrom a baris difficultto transferfrom fingertotoothpick.Also,barsoap iseas- ierto spotbecauseittendstoadhere toyourfingerinnoticeable slivers.
  • 208. T H E PLATFO RM PIT C H didnotwritethisbooktoturnyouintoapitchm an orpitch- woman.lwroteitso thatyou could learn pitch-persuasion strategiesto usein everyday life.lhopethatasyoukebeen reading,youkebeen usingthestrategies.lfnot,lurgeyouto pick the three orfourthatappealto you most,and take the plunge.Practicethem briefly andthen go live.Usethem in the superm arket,them ovietheater,theboardroom ,wherever.These persuasion strategiesm ay bebased upon principlesoftheatrical entertainment,butthe/remeantforcommon,dailyuse. Thischapter,however,isnotaboutcomm on,daily use.lt's aboutusing thestrategiesin platform settings.lt'sabouthow to influencepeopleasyoupitch,present,orgiveaspeech. lwillnotspeaktheoryinthischapter.lwilltellyouwhatl've done forthe past24 years and offersuggestionson how you mightapplythephilosophiesandtechniquesinyoursituation.
  • 209. TH E PLATFO RNIPITCH THE AUD IEN CE lperform beforetwodistinctgroups.Oneisaseated audience.l startwith people in an auditorium whokecome specifically to hearmespeak.Typically,acorporationhashiredmetotalkabout sales,persuasion,orpersonalexcellence.Everyonein theroom is quietandontheirbestbehavior. Theotherisatrade-show audience.lstartwith no one.This grouplmustbuildinthemidstofafrenetic,competitiveenviron- ment,fullofpulsingmusic,flashinglights,andscantilycladm od- els.lmustattractacrowd,pullthem into myclient's1700th,and sellthem onmyclient'sproducts. THE STRU CTURE The two audiencesseem wildly different,yetparadoxically,the sam e pitch structure iseffective with 170th.lcallitmy ''Build, H old,M oveProcess.''Theprocesslookslikethis: TheBuildStep getstheirattention. TheHoldSteptalksabouttheirproblemsandmysolutions. TheM oveStep tellsthem how to immediately benefitfrom mysolutions. THE BU ILD STEP W hethertheaudienceisquietlyseatedwithfoldedhandsorwalk- ingthroughchaos,thefirstthinglmustdoiswin theirattention. lneverassumethe/reinterestedinmeorinwhatlhaveto say.Even ifthey appearattentive,they m ay in factbethinking aboutfiveo'clockortheraisetheywerejustscrewedoutof.Their bodiesm aybemine,butnottheirm inds.lwant170th. M y favoriteway to gaintheirattentioniswith aprop.lwalk theplatform whileholding afifty-dollarbillandsay:''W ea1th is whatyoubelieveittobe.lknow someonewhothoughtfiftydol- larsm adehim arichman.
  • 210. TI--IEBLIIL,D S'T'EP 199 ''M ygrandfatherAlbertcarriedafifty-dollarbillwithhim,be- causehisfathersaid afiftyinyourpocketiswealth.Albertnever spentit.He'djustlookatit. ''N ow,lknow fifty dollarswasworth a1otmorebackwhen Albertcarriedit,buttomeafifty-dollarbillisn'twealth.'' Asldelivertheline,lballupthebillandtossit,likeapieceof garbage,into theaudience.Thatgetstheirattention.lfwe'rein an auditorium,peoplesitup.lfwe're atatradeshow,passersby congregate.lcontinueon,movingfrom mygrandfather'sconcept ofwealth to my conceptofwealth.lthen tie my conceptof wealth totheproductl'm pitching. Thefifty-dollarbillstory isanexampleofhow touseaprop to lead into the body ofapresentation.Aftera11,you can talk aboutanysubjectonceyoukebroughtupwealth,becausewealth isanencompassingterm.Anysubjectcanbemadetofitit.Some- times,though,yourprop andwhatitrepresentsdon'thavetofit yourtopicsoseamlessly. W hen lwantto build atrade-show audience,loften use a prop-based Transform ation M echanism thathasno bearing on theproductl'vebeenhiredtopitch.ldoitpurelyto createm ass, nOttodeliverasalesmessage. 1'11leap from thestageand standin theaisle.W hy?Because waitingforpeopleto cometo meisslow.lgo to them to speed thingsup. W hen l'm in the aisle,lcommandeerafew people one to actasavolunteer,therestto actasan audience.Thissm allaudi- encebringsmorepeopletogether,becausetheyknow something unusualisafoot.A sm allcrowd attractsalargerone. lthen borrow an item from thevolunteer awatch,acredit card,ashoe.lfmyvolunteerisayoungm an,lmightaskhim to removehisshirtso lcan perform amechanism withit.(1only taketheshirtifhe'swearingaT-shirtunderneath;ldon'twantmy performanceturninginto afleshshow.)lusetheitem asafocal point,whichintensifiestheinterestofpassersby. Then,with a1otofshowm anship,lperform themechanism . ltmightbeonefrom thisbook,oronerequiringgreaterpractice
  • 211. TH E PLATFO P.IVIPITCH (forinstance,shootingarubberbandone-handedacrossthefloor sothatthebandjetsahundredfeet,reversesdirection,andscoots backtome). W hen theyke seen m e do whatlooks to be im possible,l promiseothermiraclesiftheyfollow mebackto''thegiftdeploy- mentarea''(alsoknownasthestage). lm akeno attempttotiethemechanism to my client'soffer- ing.W hatldidwastotallyforthecrowd'senjoyment.ltwasen- tertainm ent. M y perform ance istransactional:lwillcontinueto intrigue and delightthem,ifthey stay around formy messages.lfthey don'tstay around,theywon'tbeentertained. W hen the people crowd around my stage,lask them to squeezeintightly.lfthe/reintight,the/remorefocusedonmy message.lfthey'reintight,theywon'tthinkaboutleaving.lfyou lose1personinfrontyoulose30inback,and lcan't1etthathap- pen.lgrabtheirattentionandhold it. H ow W ould You U se the Build Step? Considergainingthe attention ofyouraudiencein oneofthese energizingw ays: J//ft/g(gT'rtggs-forpltgtfogkklec/gtggfsm.Remember,amechanism isa trickwith apoint.ltm akesan ideaclearand compelling by ex- plainingitthroughthelensofmetaphor.Youcreateamechanism by taking akey pointfrom yourspeech,combining itwith atal- entorstunt,andseeingwhatcomesfrom it. lfyou'reaplumberwhosingsopera,binyolYou haveyourself them akingsofamem orablemechanism .W henyouwalk outto giveaprospectingtalk to localbusinessleaders,you can sing an aria.That'llm ake them take notice.W hen you're finished,you can discuss the similarities between opera and the plumbing problemsyousolve. J//ft/g(ggogsyplôo/fcrlec/gtggfsrl.Attimes,youcanperform amech- anism thatdoesn'thavemuchsignificanceotherthanbeingenjoy- abletowatch.Youuseittoentertainandputthefocusonyou.
  • 212. TI-IEI-IO LD STEP Again,supposeyou're thatsinging plumber.You open with the aria,people clap enthusiastically,you thank them and head intoyourtalk.Done. J//ft/g(gcballove.A dangerousyeteffectivetechnique.ltsdown- side:Youcancomeacrossasm anipulative.ltsupside:A challenge gripspeopleand invitestheiractiveresponse. You can createachallengeby taking oneofyourkey points and couching itsupside assomething frightening:''lmustwarn you.M y productivity system isgoing to allow you to achieve som e heavy gains.But here's the snag.You're not Superman. Somepeoplegetsointoxicatedby completing aweek'sworth of workintwo-and-a-halfdaysthattheybecomegreedy.Theystart takingonmore,andittaxesthem .Theycan'tsleep,theybecome irritable,theybarkatthepeoplewholovethem .Youdonotwant to go there!Think carefully before investing in my system ,be- causeiftwicethepersonalproductivity isn'tenoughforyou,you mightgetyourselfintotremendoustrouble.'' You can also challengepeople by daring them towithstand thebenefitsofwhatyou'repitching:''lfyouvisitYellowstoneNa- tionalPark,ldareyounotto standin aweofthemajesticred- woods.ldareyou notto shed atearasyou watch abald eagle flash acrossthesky.ldareyounotto havethevacationtowhich you compare a11othervacations.ldon'tthink you can do it.l would beteverydollarinmypocketthatifyouvisitYellowstone thisyear,youwillbecalledbacktoit,yearafteryear.Youwillbe addicted.ltwillbeanaddictionyoucannotbreak.'' THE H O LD STEP ldividetheH oldStep intotwostages:PainandSolution. Pain O nce lhavethe audience'sattention,lwork to keep it.Because peoplelivein theirproblems,that'swherelgo.lstarttheHold Step by makingtheirpainrealtothem.lopenwounds.
  • 213. TI-IE PLATFO I?.M PITCI-I W hatldoistearthem down.lidentifyandharponwhatisn't working for them .lbring up fam iliar obstacles:not enough money,notenough productivity,notenough time,notenough freedom,notenoughcontributiontotheworld. lintroducethe Law oflnsanity,which isdoing whatyouke alwaysdoneand expecting differentresults.''H ow many ofyou regularly follow that1aw?''lask.Everyoneraisestheirhand. lentertheirworldand1etthem know thatlhavesufferedev- erythingtheykesuffered- onlyl'veidentifiedwhatwasn'twork- ing and changed it.l am not sm arter than they are.lonly changed earlier.lam notspecial.Butlam doingwhattheylong todo. Becauselso accuratelytellthem abouttheirproblems,some peoplethinktheyarelisteningto afriend.lcorrecttheirassump- tion.''lam notyourfriend''lsay.''lam abusinesspersonpresent- ingyouwith anopportunity.Youcan'thangoutwith me,andthe only timeyou getto hearmeisnow.That'swhyyou should be takingnotes.Thesolutionsl'm goingtogiveyoucostmemillions tofigureout.'' Bythetimel'm finished,they'rea11ears. H ow W ould You Create Pain in YourAudience? lknow thatcreatingpainsoundsnasty,butifyouhaveaproduct, service,oropinion thatwould genuinely benefityouraudience, youshouldn'tthinktwiceaboutsellingitto them ashard asyou can.Creatingpainisonly mean-spiritedifyoudon'thaveasolu- tion,orifyoursolution stinks.lfthat'sthecase,don'tevengetup tospeak. Youdon'thaveto foam atthemouth togetpeopletoexperi- encepain.A low-key approachisjustaseffective.Anexample: ''Lookingforajobintoday'smarketcanbeadispiritingtask.First, you have to write a résumé,which isa documentthatreduces yourlifetoasinglepagewith lotsofwhitespace.Thesadthing is,many ofuscan'teven find enough worthwhile thingsto fill thatpage.W ehavetopaditwith hype,wemakeoneproject
  • 214. TH EH O LD STEP 203 soundlikesix,wetakecreditforresultsthatwebarelyhad ahand in creating.Even with a11that,wesometimeshaveto buy aré- sumébookand appropriatebulletpointsfrom it,justtofleshout ourdocument.'' Solution O ncetheaudienceknowslunderstand theirdeepestproblems,l moveon tothesolution.lflam sellingacar,thecaristhesolu- tion.lflam teachingpeoplehow tosell,mysalesapproachisthe solution. Thisistheeducation partofmypresentation.Thisiswherel talk to peopleaboutfactsand methodsand substantiatewhatl saywith proofand samples.H ere,lcolorwhatlsaywithslogans and by handingoutfreebies. l've already gone into detailaboutthissolution stage in a largepartofthisbook,solwon'trehashthatinform ation.W hatl willdo,though,iselucidateonsomeparticulars. Duringthisstage,lkeeptheentertainmentlevelhigh.W hile ltalk,lcontinue to usemechanismsto hold attention and give my conceptsoomph.W iththemechanisms,ltrynottofallinto predictable patterns. l m ay perform a mechanism straight through to the end before presenting the audience with new pitch information.Or,lmay string outthe mechanism for20 minutes,insertingpitchinform ationwithinitaslgo. lm akecertain to givepeople atechniqueortwo specificto theirfields,which willblow them away regardlessofwhether they buy whatl'm pitching.Forinstance,ifl'm speakingbefore Realtors,lsuggestthatwhen theyke sold a home,they m ark downtheprojecteddatebywhich thebuyerswillhavepaidoff 20 percentoftheirmortgage.W hen thatdate arrives,theReal- torsshould callthebuyersand advisethem to canceltheexpen- sivePM linsurancethey wererequiredto buywhen they bought theirhomes.Thatphone callsavesthe buyers thousands and givestheRealtorsafriendly way ofreestablishing contactwith peoplewhom ightbeinterested inmoving again.
  • 215. TI--IE PLATFO R.M PITCI.-I Building value forthe audienceisforem ostin my mind.ln otherwords,ldon'tjustplopinformationinfrontofthem.lhelp them see,hear,smell,taste,and feelthatinform ation.lpaint scenesofwhattheirliveswouldbelikeusingit,andlunderscore thosesceneswithpicturesofwhatwould happen ifthey contin- uedon theirpresentroute. H ow W ould You O llerYourAudience Solutions? Remember,whateveryoursolution,youneedto sellitto people. Evenifitsimportanceisobvioustoyou,itmaynotbeapparentto youraudience.Buildingvalueiscritical. No productisexpensiveifitsperceivedvalueishighenough. To theprospect,a$10,000 pricetag feelslike 10 cents,ifthe priceyoptionwillbringtheproperresult. Thesamedynamicappliestopitchinginnoncomm ercialsitu- ations.lfyou're proposing thatneighbors form trash pick-up teamstoclean thelocalpark,you'd betterbuild valuelikecrazy, otherwiseyoursolutionwilljustseem anannoyance. W hentheparkisclean,whatwillitdo forpeople?M akethe neighborhood prettier.Raiseproperty values.H eighten commu- nityspirit.M akeitsafeforfamiliestopicnic,childrentorun,and dogstoromp.That'sbuildingvalue.Yousay it,andyougetpeo- p1eto feelit. Ofcourse,ifyoujustmakeclaimsabouthow thecommunity willbe better,no one willlisten.You mustshow them.That's whattheSolution Stageisfor.lfaclean parkraisespropertyval- ues,show theaudiencehow high andwhereyougotthatinfor- m ation.Perhapsyou asked a city planner,ordid a realestate checkofsurrounding parkcommunities.Quoteyoursources. Display photographs.Brandishdocumentssigned by experts. THE M O VE STEP TheM oveStepisaboutaction.lnsalesparlance,itis''theclose.'' The audiencehasbeen educated and entertained,and they un-
  • 216. THEM OVE STEP derstandhow theofferingwillmaketheirlivesbetter.N ow they m ustm ove. W henl'm pitching,ltellthem thatiftheyhaveanyhesitation about accepting my proposal,that'snorm al.Changing forthe betterneednotbecomfortable. ldon'tgivepeoplem any options,becauseoptionsdilutemy message.l'm clearandpreciseaboutwhatlwantthem todo. ltellthem thateveryonehastheabilitytoacceptmyoffer,but few willtakeit.M ostpeoplefollow the path ofleastresistance, becausethatpathhasdoneokayforthem .lfokay isenough,then they should stickwith it.lfthey arelooking forbetter,though,l havealreadyproved tothem thatlknow abetterway. lgivethem an advantageforbuyingtodaybecauseifldonot, they willnot.They willdeliberate.They willprocrastinate.O ur mindsarelikelawyers,andwecanfindreasonsfororagainstany position wewant.By tomorrow,they willhavethoughtof137 reasonsnotto buy,evenifbuyingisin theirbestinterest. Theadvantagelgive?A longerguarantee.A pricebreak.Free technicalsupport.Som ething.Some reward thatvanisheswhen myshow isover. lalsoremovetheriskforbuying:'Tryourproductonforsize. lfyoudon'tlikeit,weinsiston givingyouyourmoneyback.W e can'taffordunhappycustomers.''ldon'twantremorsefulbuyers.l wantpeople to have faith in the company l'm pitching and in theirowndecisions. Evenwhen l'm teaching anaudiencehow tosellorpersuade, lincludethisM ove Step.lpush them .loverwhelm them with value.There isno option.lfthey don'tuse the strategies l've taughtthem ,theywillgetthesameresulttheyhavebeengetting, and thatresultsentthem to meinthefirstplace.l1etno oneoff thehook. H ow W ould You U se theM ove Step? To be effectivein thisstep,you mustbe clearaboutthe result you'relookingfor.W hen you'refinished speaking,do youwant
  • 217. TH E PLATFO RNIPITCH people to leavetheircontactinform ation,buy yourtapeset,or sign acontract?W hateveryoudecide,that'swhatyoubaseyour close on.Your''Buy todayl''advantage stemsfrom that,asdoes yourguarantee. TheM oveStepisalsoagoodtim eforyoutotellpeoplewhat it'scostingthem to ignoreyourmessage.lfthey leftwithouttak- ingyouuponyouroffer,how wouldtheybeworseoff? M ake sureyouke answered the audience'squestionsbefore proceedingtothisstep.Youwanttohavethelastword.Youwant toendwith fireand acallto action.Youdon'twanttheconcerns ofone ortwo audience membersto stand in the way ofyour strong m essage. Y Backroom ''llpsIorPlatlorm Pitching + Be prepared to expand orcontractyourpresentation,based upon what'shappening intheroom .lfonepartisgoing par- ticularlywell,harponit.lfanotherpartisslow,cutit. + lnvolveyouraudience,butdon't1etthem takeover.laskpeo- p1e to participate in m echanisms and to raise their hands when they agree with my points.H owever,lam alwaysin controlofthe presentation'sflow.lfavolunteerisn'tdoing whatlwant,lthinknothingofsittinghim downabruptly. W henyoupitch,thinkofyourselfasamoviedirector.lt's yourjobtotellpeoplewhattodo,sothatsomethingwonder- fu1happens.Youneedn'tbeabusive.Justfirm. # Doyouuseslides?lfso,youshouldonlyprojectanew slide onto thewallafteryouke started talking aboutit.Also,the imageontheslideshouldbeassimpleandcrispaspossible:a two-word sentence;acolorphotograph;aridiculously easy- to-follow graph. lfyou starttalking aboutthe slide too early oryousplit yourfocusbetween whatyou're saying and whatthe slide shows,peoplewilltuneyououtand attendtotheslide.
  • 218. TI-IElvlovE STEP + Doespublic speaking m akeyou nervous?ltneedn't.Speak- ing,in andofitself,isn'tinherently stressful.lfyou'reexces- sively nervous,itmeansyou're som ehow being unrealistic. Perhapsyou're expecting perfection from yourself,oryou're elevatingtheconsequencesofyourpitch.Thebestwayoutof thattrap istospeakoften.You'llseethatnothinglife-threat- eninghappenswhenyoumakemistakes. A TransformationMechanism: Cutting aFersoninHalfwith Ropes TheStene You/rechairingthecommitteewhoseiobitistoraisefundstoreelect the mayor. Thecommitteeishardworking,butyou/reconcernedaboutthe strategiesthey/reproposing.Forthemostpart,thosestrategiesare dulland uninspired. Yourealizethatyoucan'tdemandthattheythinkmorecreatively, moreenthusiastically.So,youdecidetoopenthisweek'smeeting witha mechanism designed to inspirenew thinking inthem.Youask Nick,Emma,andSarahtoioinyouatthefrontoftheroom. ''Toopentonight'smeeting,''yousay,''IthoughtI'ddosomething different.A magictrick.ButnotsomeIametrick.Iwanttoperform the greatesttrickofall,Sawinga FersoninHalf.Nick,pleasestand here.'' ThecommitteemembersIaugh.Theydon'tknow whatyou/re going todo,butthey Iovewhatyou/redoing. Youcontinue:''Now,Idon'thavethemoneyfora fancyboxand a buzzsaw,becauseIsinkmostofmy moneyintothemayor'scam- paignlSo,forgiveme.Iwantto dothepoorman'sversionofSawing a FersoninHalf.SinceIdon'thaveanygimmickedpropsto dothe trick,1/11haveto usetheseropes.Itmay beabitmorebloodythan normal.Ifso,Nick,forgiveme.'' (continoed)
  • 219. THEPLATFOP.M PITCH ) .'e' ' j(., .. 1 . I . u L Figure 1Z.1 Ropesbehind the back. (Continved) Inyourhclnd m uholdtworom seclchcllxlutfivefeetIong.You hclveEmmqclndSclrclhstclndoneithersideofNickclstheygripthe rom s(Figure17.1).YouencircleNick'swqistwiththeoneoftheroms clncltieitstwoendstcxgetherthusstrclppinghim in(Fbure17.2). ''Onthecountofthree'' ouscly ''IwclntyoulwoIclcliestoyclnk,y , theyourrom .enclsforwclrd.Ifthisworkstheywillm nelrclteNick's bodyclnclhe/llbenonetheworseforweclr.Ifitcltxsn'tNick Iknow how tousemysuitiqcketclscltourniquet.Everyone reclcly.'' On''Threel''thewomenpullhclrd clndtherom sseem toslice rightthroughNick'sbodywithno iIIeffects.W hclt'smore youinvite thewomentopclssclroundtherom stoeveryoneintheroom.They trulyclrenormql.Everyone isimpressed. Youstclrtthemeetingclnclwhenclnideclseemsuninspired you referbclcktotheom ningmechqnism clnclclskpeoplehow theymight (continved)
  • 220. THE M O VE STEP 209 r ' r $t / t 1 : : Figure 1Z.2 Tieone ropearoundwaist. (Continved) mqketheideclunderconsiderqtion''Iclybiggen''Yougetspiritedre.P sponses. Behind 'he scene Toprepqre,cutlwopiecesoffive.fcot.longrope foldeclchonein hcllfclnclbindthemtcxgetherwithclsmclllpieceofwhitethrecld(Fig. ure17.3). W henyou/rerecldytoperform thetrick pickuptheropessothclt yourhclnclconceqlsthecenterTothequdience you/reholdinglwo Iongpiecesofrom . W henyouhclveyourvolunteeronstclge,plclcetheropesL hincl himsohisboclyobscurestheirgimmickedmiddle(Figure17.:). Then infrontofhislxdy grclbclnendfromeitherside clncltiethem together. /continved)
  • 221. THEPLATFOP.M PITCH ? w.!?/ Figure 1Z.3 Bind centerstogetherw iththread. < x - - /-.s .; r Figure 17.4 Ropegimmickbehind the back.
  • 222. THEIVIOVE STEP (Continoed) Havefwo morevolunteersstand onoppositesides,and make surethey'reafootorsoclosertotheaudiencethanheis(otherwise they'llseebehindhim). O nthecountofthree,havethem tug forward ontheirrope-ends. W hentheydo,thewhitethreadwillsnap,fallunnoticed to thefloor, andtheropesthemselveswillstraightenoutinthevolunteers'hands. The illusionisperfect. Backroom ''llpsIorCutting aPerson in H all with Ropes + The thread should snap easily,butnotearly.Depending on its strength,considerwrapping itaroundtheropestwoorthreetimes beforetying itoff. + Ifyoudon'thavethread handy,youcanuseathinrubberband.A warning,though:W hentherubberband shootsofftheropesdur- ingthezzsawing,''peoplesittingclosemay noticeit.Ifyouusethe rubberband,youwantyouraudience nocloserthan20 feetfrom theaction. + Ifyouuse a rubberband,willthespectatorsassisting younotice it?No.Being infrontofanaudienceisan uncomfortableexperi- ence formostpeople,particularly ifyou/re asking them to do something unusual.Yourhelperswillbetoo busy pulling to notice theflying rubberband. + Thisropetrickobviously hasparallelsto thefamed stage illusion SawingaW omaninHalf.Ifyoustudythe manyversionsof''Saw- ing''performed through the years,you can geta vivid under- standingofthe manywaysa singleideacanbe presented. Sawing has been staged in a straightfolw ard way:The womanslipsintothe box;themagiciansawstheboxin* 0,.the (continoed)
  • 223. TH E PLATFO RNIPITCH (Continoed) halvesarepulledapartand putbacktogether;thewomanIeaves the boxunharmed. Sawinghasalso beenplayed forcomedy:Thewoman'sbare feetprotrude from the box,and the magicianticklesthem,even aftershe'sbeensliced infwo. Sawing has been performed with greatathleticism:Forin- stance,the contemporary performersknown asthe Fendragons Ieapand dancearound aslim,clearboxinadisplayofelegance andpower. It'salso beenperformedasa demonstrationofthemacabre: Anyone who eversaw the illusionistRichiardiperform itin the 1960sand 1970swillknow whatImean. Richiardiwould come outin a Iab coat,and his teenaged daughterwould follow him outina patient'sgown.Shewould Iie acrossa slab,and anoversized buz.z saw would descend upon her,apparentlycuttingthroughhermidsection.Bloodwouldspray outofthe girl,and severalof herorganswould tumble out. Richiardithen asked the audience to file up on stage one ata time,sothey could geta close-upIookatthecarnage.W henthe Iastaudience memberIeftthe stage,Richiardiwould then ''re- store''his daughter- orIeave hermutilated,depending on his artisticmood. Onetrick:fourtotallydifferentsfyles.W hichisrightandwhich iswrong?W ecandraw nosuchdistinction.AIIwecansayisthat onesfylemightworkbetterorworsefora performer,giventhe in- dividual'spersona,theshow,and thecompositionoftheaudience. RememberthatIesson asyou persuade:How you chose to presentan idea hasa Iotto dowithwho you are,whatpeople haveseenfrom you,andwhoyou/retryingto persuade.Thesame pointcanbemadestraightforward,aswellasthroughfunny,dra- matic,oreven disturbing means.Try aIIapproaches.Use what works.
  • 224. T H E M EC H A N ISM EM ERG EN C Y K lT he Transformation M echanism is a rem arkable tool. Therightmechanism putsasmileonpeople'sfacesand openstheirmindstoyourproposal. lfyouketriedthemechanismsattheendofeachchapter,you now haveanimpressivearsenalofwaystochangethemoment.lf youkealsotaken yourown entertainmentinventory,aslrecom - mendin Chapter3,youhaveadditionalmechanismsthatreflect youruniquetalents. Thesearchforbettermechanism sisalifelongsearch.lmyself willspend almostany sum and take any routeto find new ones. Recently,lflew to Germ anytolearnamechanism called''contact mind-reading.'' Contactmind-readingisasclosetoextrasensoryperceptionas anythingthat'severbeen studied,yetthere'snothingsupernatural aboutit.W hathappens?Theperformerleavestheauditorium so he can'tseeorhearwhat'saboutto takeplace.Severalaudience membersaccompanyhim toensurethathedoesn'tcheat.
  • 225. TI-IEM ECI-IAN ISM EM EP-GEN CY itI'I- lnside the auditorium ,avolunteerhidesafreely chosen ob- jectanywhereshewants.Sayshechoosesanecklace.Shemight hideitinanaudiencem ember'sshoe,orunderatoupee,orinside apiano. Once theobjectisoutofsight,theperformerreturns.He cautionsthe audiencenotto say aword orgivehintsaboutthe object'shidingplace. H easksthevolunteerto takehim bythewrist.Theperformer startsmovingaroundtheauditorium,withthevolunteerfollowing intow.Sheiswarnednottomakeanyphysicalefforttoguidehim towardtheobject.Theonlyinstructionshe'sgivenis:''lfl'm draw- ingclosertotheobject,thinkyes.lfl'm movingaway,thinkno.'' Theensuing sceneisan oddone.ln theend,theoutcomeis astonishing:Theperformerlocatesthehidden objectwithouta wordbeingspoken. Doesitworkthrough m ind-reading?Actually,theperformer '' reads''thevolunteer,butit'snothermind he'sreading.lt'sher body'sresponsestoherthoughts. W hen she thinksyes,her body reacts in distinct,telltale ways.W hen shethinksno,herbody reactswith equallydistinct yetoppositetells.Shedoesn'tconsciously tip offtheperformer; it'sa11involuntary.Hermuscles,blood flow,andfluctuating skin colorcluetheperformerastowheretheobjectishidden. A good contactmind-readercanfind asinglepin hiddenina sprawlingcity. W hen lwasin Germ any,lstudiedwithoneofthelegendary readers.H eran methrough aseriesoftests:lfound abanknote underatelephone,andlpickedoutthephotographhewasthink- ing ofasheheld mywristand lwaved my hand over10 photo- graphs. Am lready tofind apin in acity?Notyet.Butl'm working on it. Forthoseofyouwhodon'thavethetimeorinclinationtof1y to Germany and learn contactmind-reading,l've included four moremechanismsinthischapter,asagift. Doyourselfafavor:Practiceandusethem .
  • 226. TH EIVIECHAN ISIVIS THE M ECH AN ISM S A TransformationMechanism:TheW ork-Flow Knot Thestene You'rethehead ofoperationsfora manufacturer,andDan,the man inchargeoftheshippingdepartment,isn'tdoinghisiobproperly. He'striedto streamlinetheshipping process,butmostofhisefforts haveonlycauseddelays.Youcould firehim,butyoudecideto give him anotherchance. zzDan,''youask,zzwhydoyoufeelitnecessarytotinkerwithyour department'swork-flow processk'' zzW henIsignedonhere,thatwasoneofmymainobiectives. JustbecausewhatI'vedonehasn'tworkedyet,thatdoesn'tmeanI can'tgetittowork.I'vegotto makesomecorrections,that'saII.'' zzButyouobviouslydothingstoo fast.Youcutoutpartsofthepro. cessthatbiteyouIater.Youend upredoingeightpercentofyour work.That'stotallyunacceptable.'' zzIknow that'sa pooraverage,butit'snotaIIme.IfIgotthemer- chandiseearlierfrom theotherdepartments,Iwouldn'thaveto try getting itoutthedooratbreakneckspeed.'' Yourealizehe'sgraspingatstraws.Youdecideto Iauncha mechanism. Ashetalks,youunthreadyourshoelacefrom yourshoe.Heasks whatyou/redoing. Youhold uptheIace,Iikea fisherholding upacatch.Ithangs downfrom thetipsofyourrightfingers.zzDan,thisshoelaceisthe company'sworkprocess.Here'sSales.Here'sResearch.Here'sM an- ufacturing.Here'sAccounting.Here'sShipping.''Asyounameeach division,youpointtoa differentpartoftheIace. Youcontinue,talkingabouteachdepartment'sdeadlinesand how efficientthehandoffsareamong them.Youtalkfacts,figures, andquantifiableevidence.YouthengettoShipping. (continoed)
  • 227. TH EIVIECH AN ISIVIEIVIERGEN CY KIT (Continoed) ''Dan,here'swhatIseehappeningfartoooftenwhenthepro. cesshitsyourdepartment.'' W ithyourIefthand,youpickuptheIow end oftheshoelaceand placeitinyourrightfingertips.Almostinstantly,yousnapyourwrist anddroptheend oftheIaceagain.Thistime,though,the Iace isno Iongersm00th.Instead,there'sa knotinit.You/veapparentlyknotted yourshoelacewithone hand,inIessthanasecond. W hiletheknotdangles,youpointtoitand talkaboutShipping's processingtimes,andwhatthedepartmentneedstoachieve.''Any- thingIess,''yousay,asyouworkthetightknotoutwithyourteeth,''is totally unacceptable.DoyouunderstandwhatImeank'' Dansayshedoes. ''Good''yousay,..1/11bedocumentingwhatwe/vetalked about. Iwantyouto succeed.Believeme,theentirecompanydoes.That's whywehad thismeeting.1/11checkbackwithyouinfivedaysand seehow thingsareprogressing.'' Behlnd the Stene Toprepare,removeoneofyourshoelaces,andmakea knotnearthe end.Ifthe Iace isthinandthe knotsmall,considermaking adouble ortripleknot,soitIooksmore impressive.Now,rethreadtheIace backintoyourshoe.You/reset. W henyou/rereadyto perform thismechanism,unthread your Iaceandholditup.Becarefulto hidethe knotbehindyourfingers (Figure18.1). Bring upthebottom partoftheIaceand hold itnexttotheknot- tedsection(Figure18.2). W henyousnapyourwrist,releasetheknottedhalfandIetitdangle. Tothespectator,itIooksasthougha knothasappeared inanor- maIshoelace.W hatyoudid,though,wasexchangeoneendforthe other.Youplaced theunknotted endbehindyourrightfingersand droppedthe knottedoneinitsstead. (continoed)
  • 228. THEMECHANISMS J Figure 18.1 Concealknot Figure 18.2 Bring endsto- behindfingers. gether. (Continued) h@ Backroom 'llpsfortheW ork-Flow Knot * W illpeople noticethcltyou/rewcllkingclroundwithclpreknolted shtxlclce?Ifspossible butunlikely.Ifsomeonem intsitout sim. pIyskipthismechclnism clnclgoontoclnother * Obviously youcclndo thismechqnism withobiectsotherthclncl shtxlclce.Useclrope clpieceoflwine clIengthofcoloredyclrn or whclteverfclllstohclnd.Ashtxlclceiseffectivelxccluseitheightens theimclgethcltyou/reperformingthisonthespurofthemoment
  • 229. TH EIVIECH AN ISIVIEIVIERGEN CY KIT A TransformationM echanism:StickingYourHead througha BusinessCard Tlw stene Thirfyyearsago,yourcompanywasthe numberonesoap manu- facturerinthecountry.Itproduced barsofsoap,and thatwasit. Butsuccesswentto itshead.Itwantedto grow itsmarketand push into new ones. Thecompanybeganproducing Iaundrydetergent.Thenitex- panded intobathroom cleanser.Thenasecond bathroom cleanserto competewiththeoId one. AIItheseproductsmademoneyatfirst,buttheyweakened the company'sinfrastructureandfocus.Employeeswerespread thin. Managementwasn'tcertainwhatto makea priority. Thecustomerswereevenmoreconfused.Theyassociatedyour companywithsoap,butnow theywereseeing itsnamebehind aII mannerofitems,including afour-bladed razorandfive kindsofdis- posableairfresheners. Lastyearyoutookoverasthe head ofcompanywide market- ing,and youknew yourworkwascutoutforyou.Butyoudidn't know itwasthisbad.Youhadn'tseenthecompany'smostprivate revenuereports. You/vecalled ameetingwiththeCEO becauseyou/vedecided totakeastand-evenifitcostsyouyouriob.Youfigureyou'drather Ieavenow ofyourownvolition,ratherthanwaitayear,whilemarket conditionsmakeyourdecisionforyou. You/reintheCEO 'soffice,andyou/vemadeyourrecommenda- tions.You/vetoldherthatunlessthecompanygetsbacktothething it'sknownfor- making soap- itprobablywon'tIastmorethanfive years. (continoed)
  • 230. THEMECHANISMS 219 (Continved) Tomclkeyourpointm u/veuseclspreqdsheelsclndctxnputerproiec. tions.Now you/regoinginforthekill.YcvclsktheCEO ftxoneofher businesscclrds.shehclndsittoycv clnclm utclkeoutclpclirJ scissors ''ThiscclrdisIikeourcompqnylwenlyyeclrsclgo/''youscly ''smclllbutfocused.Firstweclclclecldetergenttoourproductmix thenweclclcleclcleqnser ''ForeclchIineextensionyoucite you mclkeclcutinthecclrd Aftercllxlut25culsyouputthescissorsdown.YoutelltheCEO thcltcl11thosecutscl11thoseexpqnsions weclkenthecompqny'siden. tily.''W henyoutrytopleclseeverymclrket'' ouscly ''ouendup, y , y beingclcompqnywithnomiddle'onethcltpleqsesno mclrkels''As yousclytheseIines youpullom nthecclrd clnclitexpclndsoulwclrd intoclcircleclfcotwide.Youslipitoveryourheclcl(Figure18.3). ''Imclyhclvemclcleclncoseformyself'' ousclyclsyoutugon, y thecclrd ''butIwclntedto mclkemypointinclwclythclt sclidmorethclnthecomputer e printoutsd0. ''bble'veexpclndedwith '. thelxstintentions butnow it'stimetoconsolidqteclncl u-a getstrong clgclin.A compqny withclstrong shclrpfocusis' z ' k'.'x clcompqnyIcclnpushinthe mclrketplclce.Onethclthclscl ' footintwodozenvirtucllly unrelcltedmclrketsisn'toneI A cclnmclkefly.'' Figure 18.3 Ta-da1 (continved)
  • 231. THEMECHANISM EMEZGENCYKIT Figure 18.: Fold card Iengthw ise. Figure 18.5 M akecuts acrosscard. (Continved) TheCEO isclbittclkenclbclckbyyourtheqtrics butsheqppreci. cltesyourcclndor.sheisgoingtocclllclmeetingoftheexecutive boclrd clnclshewclnlsyoutopresentm urideclstothem Behind 'he A ene Tomqkeqbusinesscqrdyoucqnputyourheqdthrough dothefol. Iowing: FoldthecclrdIengthwise(Figure18.:). Useclscissorstomclkeclseriesofcutsthcltgothroughthedou. bled-overcclrd MclkeclsmclnycutsclsyoucclndowntheIengthofthe cclrd(Figure18.5).Yourcutsshouldstclrtcltthebclseofthefoldclncl runupthecclrduntilyougettoclbout1/1&hofclninchfromthetop. Now lurnthecclrdendforend clnclclclclnew cutsinbetweentbe cvtsyov'veakeadymade(Figure18.6). (continved)
  • 232. THEMECHANISMS gxy(Continved)spreclclomnthecclrdclnclcutitdownthemiddlewitbovtsnippinytbefffslundIustcon.nections(Figure18.7).Pullthecclrdopen.Figure 18.6 Turncard end forendandmakecuts. N ' % . x .e Figure 18.Z Cutdownthe middle,Ieaving top and bot- tom bordersintact.
  • 233. TH EIVIECH AN ISIVIEIVIERGEN CY KIT (Continoed) Y Backroom 'IlpsIorStickingYourHead through aBusinessCard + A business card willfitoveryourhead,foot,orhands.Larger cardsfitoverIargerobiects.Forinstance,an81,4-by-1l-inchpiece ofpaperwillfitaround many people'swaists. + YoucanfirstcutaIItheslitsdownonesideofthecard,so itIooks Iikeacomb,andthenflipthecardendforendandmakethenew cutsbefweentheoId cuts,oryoucanalternatemaking cutsinthe card.Inotherwords,youmake the firstcutstarting atthe base, flipthecard,makeanothercut,flipthecard,makea cut,flipthe card,andsoforth.Fracticeb0thmethods,and seewhichappeals toyoumost. + Youwillwantto practicethismechanism anumberoftimesbefore trying itoutinpublic,becausealmosteveryone cutsthroughthe entire card atfirst.Ifyou cutcompletely through the card,you/ll end upwithaIong danglingcard,ratherthana necklace. # Asyou know,Transformation M echanismsare metaphorsmade physicaland Iively.AsIong asthe mechanism youchoosefitsthe pointyouwanttostress useit. In the preceding scenario,Ihad you use the business-card necklaceasasymbolforanunfocused companyandasa noose. Those are pretfy heavy,negative concepts.Butthe mechanism couldiustaseasilybeusedtosymbolizeagrandhappening.For instance,how a Iimited understanding canturnintoanexpansive one,or,more concretely,how a smallroom can turn into a big, gloriousone,ifyouknow whatyou'redoing.
  • 234. TH EIVIECHAN ISIVIS A TransformationMechanism:AllowanceM oney Thestene Your1z-year-old daughterasksyouto raiseherweeklyallowance. ''W hatdoyoudowithaIIthemoneyIgiveyouk''youask. ''IE)tl :;ttlff''Y . zzIknow youbuystuff.Yourstuffistaking overthehouse.You/ve gotCDs,clothes,andvideoseverywhere.Youdon'tneed more money.Youneed tounderstand how to handletheallowanceyou/re getting now.'' zzM om,youhaveno ideawhatitcoststo beakidtoday.This isn'tthe nineteenseventies.'' Yougetanidea:zzLook,Iwantto giveyouaverysimplemoney- handlingtest.It'sonequestion.Ifyoupass,1/11giveyouanextra fwenfydollarsaweek.Ifnot,Igettogiveyouafwenfpminute Iesson onhow tospend yourmoney,so itgoesfurtherand makesyouhap- pier.W illingtotakethetestk''Yourdaughteragrees. zzDoyouhaveanypocketchangek''youask. Yourdaughterdigsintoherpocket,and removesa handfulof change.YouIookoverwhatshe'sdug out,and askherto handyoua pennyanda dime. zzo kay,''yousay,''o penny anda dime.Thinkyouknow thedif- ference betweenthetwok'' zzDuhIIthinksoI'' zzLet'ssee,''yousay.80thcoinsareinyourIefthand,whichdis- appearsbelow thetabletop.Youaskforyourdaughter'shand under thetable,andyoudropthefwocoinsinto it. zzl-lere'sthetest:Keepingyourhand underthetable,feelthe coinsandhand methe penny.'' (continoed)
  • 235. TH EIVIECH AN ISIVIEIVIERGEN CY KIT (Continoed) ''And forthatIgetanextrafwenfydollarsk'' zzYoubet'' YourdaughterIaughsanddropsthecoinshekrlow'stobethepenny inyourhand.Youbringyourhand,now closedintoafist,intoview. ''Lastchancetochangeyourmind,''yousay.''You'vehanded me the pennyandyou'reholding thedime,rightk'' Justto makesure,yourdaughterrubsthe unseencoinoneIasttime. ''Yes,I'm certain.Ihandedyouthe penny,andI'm holdingthedime.'' Yousmileandopenyourhand.There,sittinginthemiddleof yourpalm,isthedime. Yourdaughterpullsherhand from underthetable,and opens herfist.Theresitsthepenny. ''How didyoumakethecoinschangeplacesk''sheasks. ''Itrickedyou.'' ''Iknew itI'' ''Look,Ididn'twinandyoudidn'twin.It'sIikeyourbuying sprees.Believe me,we'reb0thIosing.Tellyouwhat,1/11raiseyour weeklyallowancetendollarsifyouIistento myfwenfy-minute happiness-through-money-managementspeech.'' ''DeaII'' ''ButyouhavetoreallyIistentowhatIsay,and thinkabouthow youcanapplywhatItellyoutoyoursituation.Fromisek'' ''Fromise'' That'saIIyoucould hopefor. Behlnd the Stene Thismechanism wasinventedinthe 1960sbya magiciannamed Johnny Benzais.To makeitwork,youneed asecretcoin.Here'sthein- triguing part:Thesecretcoinisneithera pennyoradime.It'sanickel. (Beforeyouperformthismechanism,you'llneedtobeseated, andyou'llneedtogetthe nickelontoyourthighwithoutanyone's (continoed)
  • 236. THEMECHANISMS (Continved) susm cting.Youcclnqccomplishthisinoneoflwowclys:Eitherbcll. clncethenickelthereclheclcloftime orclqndestinelyslipthenickel ontom urIegwhenyouclnclthespectcltorclrecheckingforrxxiket chclnge.You/rerecldytoperform. Askto lxvrow clpennyclnclcldime.Displqythelwocoinsinthe turnecl.uppcllm ofyourhclnd.W hileyou/resm clking positionthe coinsclsyouseethem inFigure18.8 withthedimecltthebqseof yourfingersclnclthepennysetbclckinyourpcllm. Askthespectcltortoextendherrighthclnclunderthetclble.As shecompliescloseyourhclnclIooselyclncldropyourfistL low the tclbletop. Themomentyourhclndisoutofsightpickupthenickelwith yourthumbclnclindexfinger(Figure18.9)withclsIiltlehesitqtioncls possible clnclmoveyourhclnclclbovehers (continved) . s # . Rl .77 . 1 ï ' . x'.'. g. ! . , ' 1 # t ''e' y.. k.'; , t. x*';' Figure 18.8 Displaycoins. Figure 18.9 Hand secretly grabsnickelfrom Iap.
  • 237. TH EIVIECH AN ISIVIEIVIERGEN CY KIT (Continoed) Dropthepennyandthenickelintoherhand.Keepholdofthedime. Now,thefunbegins. Askherto handyouthe penny.She/llhandyouthebiggestcoin sheholds,thinking it'sthe penny.Actually,it'sthenickel. Takethenickelinyourfingertips,andbringyourhand backto- wardyourIap.Leavethenickelthere,and bring yourfistintoview. Younow holdthedime,althoughshebelievesyouholdthepenny. Sheholdsthepenny,thinking it'sthedime. Finish. Backroom 'IlpsIorAllowance M oney + Allowance M oney isn't difficult, but if you don'texecute it smoothly,itwillbe painfully obviousthatsomething'sup.There are fourhairy points to rehearse:getting the nickelonto your thigh,holdingthecoinsproperly,picking upthenickel,andditch- ingthenickel.Fractice. + Ifthe money-switching sequence seemsconfusing,rememberthis dominantprinciple:The dime neverIeaves your hand.It's the pennyandthenickelthatdoaIIthe moving. # Theallowancescenarioraisesa moralquestion:Shouldyouadmit thata mechanism isa trick?That'ssticky. Speaking formyself,attrade shows,I'm hired asan enter- tainerand a prospectmagnet.As Iong as Idon'tmake false claimsaboutproducts,Idon'tfeelitnecessaryto prefacewhatI'm doingwith''thisisreaI''and ''thisisfalse.'' Afterall,whenIgotothemovies,Idon'texpectRobertDeNiro tocomeoutofcharacterandadmithe'sacting.W henIreadanovel, Idon'texpectStephenKingtoreassuremethatit'siustastoly In instanceswhere you/re obviously entertaining,don'tsay anything.In more real-lifeinstances,though,I'd telltheaudience you/reusinga mechanism tomakea point.
  • 238. TH EIVIECHAN ISIVIS A TransformationMechanism: TheCorporate Butterfly TheStene Lynn,who isconsultingtoa utilifycompany,isina meeting witha dozenmanagers,debating resourceallocationforeachdivision. Duringa stalemate inthetalks,heattractsattentionbypulling a 5-by-5-inchsquareofpaperfrom hisiacketpocket. zzM ayIshow everyonesomethingintriguingk''heasks.''Itinvolves thispaperscrap.Butyouknow what?BythetimeI'm finishedwithmy presentation,thisscrapmaybecomethemostimportantbusinessdocu- mentinthecompany.''Thecuriousmanagersgivehim thefloor. zzFirst,''saysLynn,zzweknow companiesareinbusinessto make a profit,and profitsarecalculated during thefiscalyear'sfourquar- ters.''Sosaying,hefoldsthepaperinto fourths. zzsecond,inordertomakea profit,companiesoftenresortto cost-cutting,trimming marketing,distribution,support,andqualifyini- tiatives.''W itheachsel-vicenamed,Lynnfoldsbackadifferentcorner ofthepaper,makingitintoanelongateddiamond. zzThird,oncecompanieshavecutcosts,theythinkthemselves sharp,cutting-edge.''AshedeliverstheIine,Lynnfoldsthepaperin half,turning thediamondintoa thinrectanglewithpoinfyends,and usesittoplayfullyiabathisfingers. zzThoseare importantrealitiesofbusiness.Butonethingwe should neverforget...''hesays,sticking hisforefingerintheairto emphasizethe numberone,andwrapping thepaperaroundit. '' . . . isthatfora companyto thrive,itmustsupportitsemploy- ees.Onlybydoing thatwillproductivitysoarl''DuringthisIastIine, Lynnremoveshisforefingerfrom thepaper,causing itszzwings''to snap intoview.Hethengrabstheundersideofthepaperbefweenhis thumband middlefingerand usesa pinchingmotionthatcausesthe wingsto flap,bringing hiswhimsical,paperbutterflytoIife. (continoed)
  • 239. TH EIVIECH AN ISIVIEIVIERGEN CY KIT (Continoed) Theothermanagers,atfirstuncertainofwhattheywerewatch- ingand how toreact,arenow delighted.Infact,theydemand that Lynnteachthem thebutterflyfold,completewithstory.Lynngladly obliges. Hismessage- thatemployeesmustcomefirst,no mattertheeco- nomicclimate- isnow repeatedthroughoutthecorporation'shalls andmeeting rooms. Behlnd the Stene TheCorporate Butterflyfoldwascreated byorigamiartistDeg Far- relli,and thestoryyouread isreal.ConsultantLynnHodgesdevel- opedthatpatterduringoneofhisassignmentsatamultibillion-dollar utility,andthehard-nosed managershewaspitching Iovedit.Ibring thisupincaseyouthinkfolding paperbutterfliesistoogentlea mech- anism toworkintherealworld. Tocreatethe butterfly: Takea squarepieceofpaper,fold itdownthemiddle,and unfoldit(Figure18.10). Fold inthesidesofthepaperuntilthey meetattheperpendi- cularcreaserunningdownthecenter(Figure18.11).In essence,you/vemadethepaperintoa setofdouble doors,withtherightdoorhingedonitsrightside,and the Ieftdoorhinged onitsIeftside. Fold downthefourcornerssothetopand bottom endsof yourpaperarepointyandthesidesarestraight.(Figure 18.12). Fold thepaperinhalf,so thecornerfoldsrestinsidethe bodyofthepaper(Figure18.13). Turntheentirepaperupsidedown,so itIooksIikea row boat (Figure18.1.t.). (continoed)
  • 240. THEMECHANISMS % .' R o /. ' j Figure 18.10 Fold paperin Figure 18.11 Fold Iong half. sidestocenter. *. + . . '. $. .;. - < .. e Figure18.12 Foldfourcor- Figure18.13 Foldinhalf. nersinward.
  • 241. THEMECHANISM EMEZGENCY KIT + p X . Figure 18.1zt Display''row- boat.'' (Continved) Foldthebocltinhcllf horizontqlly.Howeverdon't creclsethefullIengthofthe bclse.Pinchitinthecenter only,clnclpinchithclrcl(Fig. ure18.15). Reopenthepqpertoils laxtshclpe. Scissorthepclrx)rwith yourrightfingers,(Figure 18.16)clndwrqpittclut clroundyourIeftindexfin. ger(Figure18.17). #+ v ' , . # w Figure 18.15 Fold horizon- tally and pinchclosed. Fiure18.16 Scissorcenter@ w lthfingers.
  • 242. THEMECHANISMS iiFigure 18.17 ?uIItaut aroundfinger. ure18.18). Pinchthepclm r'sbclse L lweenyourIeftthumbclncl indexfinger(Figure18.19). Letgoofthepclrx)rwith yourrighthclnclclnclclllow yourIefthclncltoconlrolthe flclppingofthe''wings''through smclllcontinuoussqueezes (Figure18.20). ? Figure 18.18 Bevelatbase. Figure 18.19 Finch base.
  • 243. THEMECHANISM EMEZGENCY KIT F Nx w.. (Continved) From stclrttofinish thebut. terflyshouldtqkeyouonlycl minutetoperform includingthe foldsclnclyourdicllogue.By usingclpieceofpclperclnclcl bclre.bonesstory,youcclnE)e. comethecenterofclltention givemopletheviscercllexm ri. enceofm urideclclnclgetthem receptivetoyouridecls Figure 18.2O Squeeze''but- terfly'sbody''w ithfingertips. Y Backroom 'llpsfortheCorporateButterfly * Inthe versionyou iustreqd Hodgesused thethemeqlxlutem. ployeescomingfirstbeccluse itfitthemissionoftheorgclnizcltion hewclsworkingwith.Nclturcllly thethemeoftheCorrxxclte But. terflycclneqsilybecllteredtofitdifferentmessclges:clproiectthclt tclkesoff'clnideclwhosetimehclscome'thewhole ismorethcln thesumofitspqrts. * Foryournextcriticqlpresentqtion IeqvethePowerpointclthome clnclbringclsheetof5.by.5.inchpclm rinstecld.
  • 244. p*,.1 IN D EX Acciclcntal(Qgff/s,153 Activelistening,81 Annemann,76 Appearance dressbetterthananyoneelse, 189 dressingwellmakes persuasioneasier 187 4/4/4/Principler187 hireaconsultantr191 lookgoodoutofyour luggager191-192 makeoff-the-rackseem hanctmacter191 M alinilookedlikeheshould perform before royaltyr187 reasonsbusinesspeopledon't dresswellr188-189 rulesofgood ctressr189 tw othousand dollarsmakes yousharpenough for prim etime 189 wearblack and.gray,189 weardark tiesand.ascots,19O BauerrJoel aboardcruiseshipsr82J162 astheHuman Puppy D og Closer103-104 changing focusr83-84/162 creating pandem onium r11 grandfatherAlbertr199 grandfatherDuffyr12OJ 187-188 infotainerand.perceptionistr 17O-171 professionr10 targeting corporations 164 weardifferenttexturesand. hues,190 wearlight-coloredshirtsand. blouses,19O wearthefinestshoesyoucan afford 19O youraccessories 190-191 yourlookspellsthe difference,186 Astt/xHcaclbuntcr,104 A P'II/J 100
  • 245. INDEX BauerrJoel(continuccl) why he'sasuccessfultrad.e show performerr 150-151 BeckrJohnr17 BeckerrLarly 99 Beerindustly 5 Bell'slkeflexr51 BenzaisrJohnnyr224 Bod.yM etaphor definitionofJ41 examplesof HurstPushing Dem onstrationr 44-45/47 intertwrinedlegsr43 pointingfingerr43 squeezing and.releasingr 41-43 standingon achair,46 Bottledwaterindustry,4-5 ChangetheM oment doingsomethingoutofthe norm r20 em otionaland.personalized messagesr17-18 extremesituations 20 pastand.futurequestionsr19 peoplewalkaround intheir problemsr14 therightthingto dor21 seeing anenergeticfuturer14 throughlanguager14-17 usingfavoredim ageryr19 youreffectonpeopler13 yourim portance 18 Clarity beingclearthroughwritten ctetailr151-154 everyonewantstobeled.r151 lifeisaboutactionr155 picturesastem platesr150 questionstohelpclarifyr Dangerfieldvlkodney,93 Dark arts,1 Davenport,Thomas,17 D iamond.,Paul,83 DrcuplsJgttlAction,151 D'Sotlza,Sean,135 ElbowrPeterr70 Entertainm entinventom 28 ''Eyelevelisbuylevel''92 fJstCotttèany,11 Fifty dollarbillstoly 199 52restaurants 76 Force,37-38 Fox,Jeffreyl.,178 Freebies boldbuildsr119 buildingthevalueofJ113-115J 118-120 creating obligationr117
  • 246. questionstoaskyourself about,115 subtlebuilds,118 usingthequestions,116-117 FrightChallenge,2-3/6,201 G ifts applyingtheprinciples,129 '' chatch''kit 126 definitionofJ125 personalizingr128-129 tw orulesofgiftgivingr126 ''G iftsand.prizessecure attention''92 G oldberg,W hoopi,101 ColâcnRulco.fS'côpltltlzfgg,125 G oneW ith theW ind.,73 Greenspan,Alan,153 Grove,Andy,69 Guttraining,82-85 HarvarâBusincssRcvicw,17 ''H ewhoisloudestwins,''92 H igh concept,3-4 H odges,Lynn,227-228 Houdin,Jean-Eugene,lkobert, 175 H oudini,H arry,121-124 .H'tlu7ttll?cctlpzaJt.fzfl/plfztcr,178 H um mer,112 H urst,Lulu,44 Hypercard.,65 Hypnotiststare,80-81 ''1don'tgetnorespect!''93 lnfluencequestionsto ponderr 76-77 IND EX lssuingachallenge,158/201 JtTutcs(Qts,Duplplft/,83 Jackson,Michael,101 Jackson,SamuelL.,101 Jaye,Aye,125-126 Kaplanrlkobr57 KatselasrM iltonr151-152 Keepgoingr149 M adameTussaud'sW ax M useum r101-1O2J 1O4J106 M agicmagaziner124 M alinirM axr186-187 M etaphorsr22-23/70 M ictctletonrlkobertr43-44/46 M iscall 37 Nloney,112-113 Namingthingsmakesthem real,2 N apoleon 111,175 bkw Ytlrt'Jlplcs,161 ''N ightingales''4 ''N ursesinwett-shirts''4 PaperM etaphor battleshipanalogyr60 createyourow n 58-60 definitionofJ54 exam plesof BuildvH old.rM oveProcessr 54-56
  • 247. IND EX PaperMetaphor(continuccl) 1aw of1im ited icteasr56-57 organizationalpyram id.r57 toillustrateafeaturer 55-56 toillustrateaprocessr 54-56 problem approachr59 solutionapproachr59 PerecrGeorgesr1OO ''PerfectPitch ''4 Persuasionm odel 1-2 PersuasionN iner68-70 Platform Pitch theaudiencer198 buildingm assw itha challenger201 buildingm assw itha mechanism r 200-201 theBuilctStepr198 creating painr202-203 thedosand.cton'tsofslidesr 206-207 expand and.contractyour presentation 2O6 holdstepr201-204 involveyouraudiencer2O6 m ovestepr205-206 offeringasolutionr203-204 PcrfOrmancea.Stransaction, 2OO publicspeakingr2O7 sellingyoursolutionr2O4 thestructurer198 PollackrShepr57 Positioning basedonpublicperceptionr 160 basingimage onapositionr 164-165 itcanbesim pler160 differentpositionsfor differentaudiencesr 170-171 discoveringwhatyour audiencevalues,169 inanutshell,168 slantstopositionby,166-168 term coinedby lkiesand. Trout,160 why positioningworks,166 yourself 169 Processingw ords,81 Proof admittingadeficit,145 bestformsof associationand. organization membershipsr 136-137 casestudiesr14O celebrihrendorsementsr136 clientlistsr134 clienttestimonialsr134-136 expertopinion 137 guaranteesr70 142-143 photographsr141-142 propsr85J143-145/ 198-199 realreasonwhyr138 specificityr139 surveyresultsr137-138 Pub'-flkir120
  • 248. QuickPitch advantagesofJ79 bod.ysentencer78-79 conversationalassum ptionr80 conversationalkeysr80-82 declarativeformatr67,71 definitionofJ66 generativestage 71 hypotheticalelem entsin questions 82 listening,80-81 practicingtheQuickPitch 82J84-85 question-basedform atr 67-68/71 raisingeyebrowsr72 rephraseyourquestionsr82 sampleopeningsr71 storiesasm aterial72 aszo-seconctcom ing attractions 68 hring questionstothepastr82 usesforr66-67 'T helkealThingr''94 lkesistance alternatewaysofdealing withr180-181 G ift-shiftM indsetr181 handingobjectionsas requests 176 objectionsarejustopinionsr 176 Sid.eApproaches IND EX agreewiththeobjectionr and.reaffirm your mainbenefitsr179 askwhatshereallywants toknowr178 gethertoseethe consequencesofnot usingyourservices 179-180 makeherobjectionthe veryreasonforgoing ahead 179 maketheobjectionintoan objectiver178-178 pretendyoudon't understandthe objectionr178 refertoaclientwhohad.the sameobjectionr178 StraightforwardApproachr 177 strengthenyourpresentation toforestallresistancer 181 lkevealing secretsr38J51,226 lkichiardir212-213 lkogersrCarl 81 lkolexofpastries,126 Sam ples creatingasam pler106-1O7 definitionofJ6 d.othejob intheinterviewr 104 functionsof 1O2 H uman Puppy DogCloser 103-104
  • 249. IND EX Samples(continuccl) im pressingonlookers,1O8 physicaland.timelim its,107 positioning of,1O8 simulatedbaby,1O5 Sawing awom aninhalf 211-212 Schlitz 69 ''Seeingherdilemm aanew ''8 Seinfeld.rJerly 117 SloganPitch definitionofJ91 distortedimagely 95 examplesof m nem onicsin 93 repetitioncturingr92 signaturelinesr93 trade-show presentationr 92 '' thefactories''WCOWn J 91-92 withinaconversationr 94 parallelconstructionr95-96 slogancharacteristicsr92-93 Society'sdem and forbrevihrr 90-91 SpellingrAaronr4 StahlrDavid.r127 TheatricalPersuasionM odel,2 Tiffany,126 Trad.eShow etiquetteviolationr79 pressuresr10 processr54-56 TransformationM echanism s intheBuilctStep,200-201 buildyourow n,29-33 connectingunrelatectobjects aspractice 33 tocreatemass 199 definitionofJ6-7/22 duringtheH old Stepr2O3 exam plesof AllowanceM oneyr223-227 BalancingaCoinO na D ollarBillr108-111 can'topen eyesr 51 can'twritename 51 can'tstand 51 TheCorkintheBottler 13O-132 CuttingaPersoninH alf w ith lkopesr207-212 TheCorporateButterflyr 227-232 Frisbeer29-30 grayelephantinD enmarkr 25-27 Thelmm ovableFingerr 155-158 ThelmpossibleObjectr 61-65 knivesr31-32 TheLightand.H ea'or Personr171-175 TheM agazineTestr34-39 TheM igrating Pepperr 193-196 M issingtheObviousr 96-100 TheNeedleThrough Balloonr145-149
  • 250. PredictingFingers,73-77 ThePressurePointLeg Lock 47-52 ThelkeappearingM atchr 182-185 rubberband.r7-9 stam psr31 StickingYourH ead Through aBusiness Card.r218-222 TheTrickThatFooled H oudinir121-124 TheW ork-Flow Knotr 215-217 IND EX 239 jobofJ39 makingtheshifttoJ24-25 propertiesof 40 TwainrM arkr150 VernonrDair124 TheW allStreetJournalOnliner 1O
  • 251. p*,.1 A BO U T THE A UTHO RS JoelBaueris,accordingtotheJ'$Q//Street7'ogrgtg/Online,''undoubt- edly the chairman ofthe board''ofcorporate trade-show rain- m aking.Llsing acompelling synthesisofm agic,hypnosis,sales persuasion,andrevival-show fury,Joelbuildscrowdsfrom trade- show passersby and convertsthem into willing prospectsforhis clients.On witnessingthismiraculous,Joel-engineered conver- sion process,a J//fret:tmagazine reportercalled it''an incredible featofmassobediencethatmustbeseentobebelieved.'' Twenty million people haveexperiencedJoel'straffic-stop- pingpresentationsfororganizationssuch as3M ,Canon,General M otors,IBM ,lntel,M itsubishi,M otorola,Panasonic,and Philips. M illionsmorehaveseen him perform on television fornetworks such asABC,CBS,NBC,CNBC,CNN ,andFox. AlthoughJoelcontinuesto entertain and persuadeattrade shows,henow worksprimarily asaspeaker,teaching audiences thesecretsofpersuasion,sales,and personalproductivity. H e lives in California with hiswife,Cherie,and children, Chanelle,Briana,and Sterling. VisitJoelonthewebatwwm infotainencom. M ark Levy is the founder of Levy lnnovation,a marketing- strategy firm thatm akespeople andcompaniescompelling.Due inparttoM ark'sefforts,hisclientshavebeenfeaturedinT'/?etiew
  • 252. ABo u'rTI--IEAu-rl-lolts J'or/t'Fves,thelhnancial'Jlmes,and the Lo.lï;to'lï'Jlrlesand on AI?C Netvs,CBSfveninylWfz's,kkltgrt/?tgStewartLive,and-.r'/?:T'orb. ')rSbow. H e has also written or co-created four books,including Accfkegttg/Cenius:RevolutionizeJ'ogrT'llfgêf'lg tllrog- f?llPrivateJ//rftf'lg (Berrett-Koehler,2000),whichhasbeentranslatedintofivelan- guages. HelivesinNewJerseywithhiswife,Stella. VisitM arkontheweb atwwm levyinnovation.com .