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    • 1 CHAPTER I Background and Purpose Theories of translation have always tended to revolve around the two poles of ‘literal’ (or word-for-word) and ‘free’ (or sense-for sense) translation. When Newmark(1981) advocates literal word-for-word translation, but adds the qualification, “provided that equivalent effect is secured” (P.39), he is touching on a concept fundamental to the thinking of many translation scholars concerned with bridging the cultural gap between ST and TT. Later, particularly in the mid 20th century, there has been increasing interest in the question of translators’ attitudes to cultural hegemonies when cultural features and values expressed in a Source Text (ST)are different from the translator’s, and target reader’s, . But here there is a question remains to be answered, which is how to translate these cultural factors. Lawrence Venuti’s work (1995) has focused on the dichotomy between what he terms ‘domesticating’ and ‘foreignizing’ translation. ‘Domestication’ implies here that the translator’s aim is to give the readers of the Target Text (TT) the illusion that it was originally written in the Target Language (TL), whereas ‘foreignizing’ translation aims to challenge the TL reader by confronting the dissimilarities between Source and Target Language cultures. This dichotomy has also proposed by other scholars under different names. In Schreiber’s (1993) outline of different methods of translating, one of the
    • 2 contrasts drawn between foreignizing and naturalizing translation. Schreiber (1993) explains that difference is that in making a foreignizing translation the translator believes the reader expects it to read like a translation, where as the reader expects a naturalizing translation to red like an original. A further distinction is between linguistic versus cultural foreignization / naturalization. Linguistic foreignization / naturalization has to do with the degree to which the translation confirms to stylistic and idiomatic norms of the target language, while cultural foreignization / naturalization is concerned with translation of culture-specific aspects of source text. He points out that in practice a combination such as linguistic naturalization and cultural foreignization may be common. According to Venuti (2000) there are two different groups concerning literary translation: one side is for “foreignization”, namely, the translated text should be source language or source text oriented; the other side is for “domestication” which is target language or target reader oriented. However, Baker (2000) seems to put more emphasis on study of translation ontology such as translation principles, translation criteria, translation processes and translation methods, etc. According to aforementioned statements when certain translation criteria are defined, more efforts should be made to study various objective and subjective factors that may affect translation activities so as to make the discipline of translation more normative and scientific.
    • 3 Statement of the Problem One of the most challenging tasks for all translators is how to render culture-bound elements in subtitles into a foreign language. Indeed, not much attention has been paid to this problem by translation theories. According to Newmark "Translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in another language" (1981, p. 7). However, with culturally-bound words this is often impossible. Indeed, the meaning which lies behind this kind of expressions is always strongly linked to the specific cultural context where the text originates or with the cultural context it aims to re-create. Behind Venuti’s (2000) unease at the prevalence of ‘domesticating’ translation in the English speaking world is a suspicion that it reflects an attitude of superiority, even colonialism, towards cultures whose language is not English. Bearing in mind the differences between ST and TT audiences, not only in their previous knowledge of the subject matter, but also in their relationship with and attitude to the events referred to in the text, in this dissertation the researcher addresses the extent to which such culture-specific items should be either domesticated or foreignized. Then different strategies which are available to the translator are outlined and discussed, and the dissertation shows how a compromise can be reached between the imperative to make the TT clear and easy to read, and the desire to help the TL reader to an appreciation of the
    • 4 cultural differences of another country and another time. To reach this goal, the corpus of the study is chosen from literary genre. Research Questions 1. What are the translation strategies the translator has employed to translate culture-specific items in translation of “Dayee Jan Napoleon” from Persian into English? 2. What strategies are most frequent in translation of “Dayee Jan Napoleon” from Persian into English? 3. Are culture-specific items mostly foreignized or domesticated in translation of “Dayee Jan Napoleon” from Persian into English? Hypothesis According to Venuti's model, the translation of "Dayee Jan Napoleon" which is not an English novel is mostly foreignized. Definition of Key Terms Culture. Newmark (1988) defines culture as: The way of life and its manifestations which are peculiar to a community that uses a particular language as its means of expression. (p. 94) Culture specific (culture bound) items (CSIs). According to Newmark (1998): culture-bound terms, whether single-unit lexemes, phrases or collocations are those which are particularly tide to the way of life
    • 5 and its manifestations that are peculiar to a community that uses a particular language as its means of expression. (p.94) Translation units. Vinay and Darbelnet (1985) define translation unit as “the smallest segment of utterance whose signs are linked in such a way that they should not be translated individually. (p.95) Translation strategies. Baker (2001) states: Translation strategies involve the basic tasks of choosing the foreign text to be translated and developing a method to translate it… determined by various factors: cultural, economic, and political. (p.240) Lexical Gap. Lexical gap according to Hutchins and Somers is “the gap which occurs whenever a language expresses a concept with a lexical unit whereas the other language expresses the same concept with a free combination of words” (1992, p. 33) Translatability. According to Baker (2001) “translatability is mostly understood as the capacity for some kind of meaning to be transferred from one language to another without undergoing radical change” (p. 273).
    • 6 Limitation and Delimitation of the Study Limitation of the study has three fold first of all this study is a case study and is limited to the novel of “Dayee Jan Napoleon” by Iraj Pezeshkzad, translated by Dick Davis. Secondly, this study traces culture-specific items as defined by Newmark (1998). Finally , the culture-specific items which will traced include local institutions, idioms and metaphorical expressions, titles, fists and ceremonies, religious terms, habits and taboos, mythology, items of clothing, makeup, foods and drinks, house and household peculiar to Persian culture. And delimitation of the study is as follow: as a native speaker of modern Persian, the researcher will use his own intuition, language as well as academic background to trace and spot culture bound items. Significance of the Study The second half of the twentieth century had been witnessing an increasing cooperation and communication among countries and regions all over the world in fields such as economy, politics, science and technology, culture, etc. Introducing Iranian culture is now a necessary job for all the translators. Literary works contain rich and colorful information of the culture in a country. Therefore, study of the translation of cultural information in the literary works has become both necessary and important.
    • 7 Persian literature is undoubtedly one of the nourished literature of the world which replete with cultural-specific items and there are many people who are eager to study it, the process of translation is surly a painstaking burdens on the person who undergone the task. On one hand the process of globalization and on the other expansion of information and innovation in IT try to show to show and verify cultural depth and stability. Translation in general and literary translation in particular, can best demonstrate a nation’s cultural specifications and identity. This necessitates a good knowledge of translation strategies prevalent in translation. One of The best-known and best-selling satirical novels in the Persian language is My Uncle Napoleon, by Iraj Pezeshkzad, which describes the ridiculous and eventually hateful existence of a family member who subscribes to the "Brit Plot" theory of Iranian history. The novel was published in 1973 and later made into a fabulously popular Iranian TV series. This novel is translated by Dick Davis. Living in Iran and teaching Persian literature, Dick Davis became familiar with Persian language and culture. Newmark (1981) suggests two kinds of translations for literary translation: semantic translation and communicative translation. Communicative translation attempts to produce on its readers an effect as close as possible to that obtained on the readers of the original. Semantic translation attempts to render, as closely as the semantic and syntactic
    • 8 structures of the second language allow, the exact contextual meaning of the original. (p.39) The translator of My Uncle Napoleon translated cultural concepts with communicative translation, because the translator wanted to produce the same effect on target reader as the source reader and this kind of effect doesn't obtain with word for word translation. In communicative translation, the translator should be familiar with target language and culture, so the translator tried to render cultural concepts into target language and culture. The first language of translator is English; he changed in some parts with the deletion, cultural substitution and sometimes definition for some special words
    • 9 CHAPTER II Review of Literature Translation is process of connection between two cultures. we can say that without translation exchange of material or non material factors of two cultures are impossible, because according to Ivir (1987) there is an inseprabele relation between culture and language and entrance of a cultural factor from one culture to another is through language. Accordingly translation means translation of cultures not languages. Culture is too board a term to be define in a line or two. Vermeer (1986, citer in Nord 1997) defines culture as “the entire setting of norms and conventions an individual as a member of a society must know in order to be ‘like every body’ or to be different every body”. (p. 28) Some scholars try to narrow down culture to simplified assumptions about tastes and preferences. In their view “culture is the way of life and its manifestations that are particular to a community that uses a particular language as its means of expression” (Newmark, 1988: 94). Culture-specific items As Álvarez and Vidal (1996) point out: Everything in a language is a product of a particular culture, beginning with language itself, it is difficult to define exactly what can be classified
    • 10 in a text as culture-specific. One broad definition of what might be termed ‘culture-specific items’ (CSIs) could be every feature in a ST which presents a problem for the translator because there is an intercultural gap between the SL and the TL. Such a gap is found where an item in the ST does not exist in the TL culture, or the TL has no word for that item. (p.57) An intercultural gap is also to be found where, as Álvarez and Vidal state, the referred item has a “different intertextual status in the cultural system of the readers of the TT” (1996, p.58), for example where an item has common metaphorical associations in the SL, but conveys quite different connotations in the TL. It follows that an item of lexis might be classified as a CSI in a particular context, although in general it would not be considered specific to the SL culture. Álvarez and Vidal give as an example the month of April, which in England suggests spring or the renewal of life, but would not do so for TL readers in whose country April was the month of severe hurricanes. Álvarez and Vidal identify a third component in the nature of CSIs as the fact that, in the course of time, “objects, habits or values once restricted to one community [may] come to be shared by others” (1996, p.58). This requires flexibility in the definition of what constitutes a CSI at any given time in a particular text. In practice, it obliges the translator to decide to what extent the item is now integrated into the SC.
    • 11 Style as a culture-specific feature Hatim and Mason (1990) see style as being “an indissociable part of the message to be conveyed” (p.9), style here being distinguished from idiolect, or from the conventional patterns of expression to be found in a particular language. Modification on stylistic grounds is seen as “a step on the road to adaptation” (p.9), which turns the producer of the ST into someone with the outlook of the TL community, and therefore a different person. The translator must therefore consider the cultural significance of such linguistic features as dialect, words marked for social class, or ‘officialese’. Bassnett (1991) also notes that dialect forms or “regional linguistic devices particular to a specific region or class in the SL” (p.119) can be significant, so their function should be first established, and then rendered adequately by the translator. Features of style or register could therefore be classified as CSIs. Translating culture specific items Jacobson (2000) asserts that “all cognitive experience and its classification is conveyable in any existing language”, but there is “ordinarily no full equivalence between code units”. (p.139) According to Jakobson (2000) the translator therefore works mostly in messages, not single code units. This contrasts with Catford’s(1965 cited in munday 2001), concept of formal correspondence, which he defines as “identity of function of correspondent Items in two linguistic systems” (p.60).
    • 12 However, as Ivir notes, it is “practically impossible to find categories which would perform the ‘same’ functions in their respective systems, even when the two languages are closely related” (1981, p. 54). Equivalence and equivalent effect Nida as a prolific writer on the subject of equivalence in translation has attempted to formulate a ‘science of translating’ based on the work of theoretical linguists in the 1950s and 1960s. (Munday, 2001) Nida(2000) rejects the concept of a ‘fixed meaning’ for any given word, maintaining that its meaning is acquired through context, and “ultimately words only have meaning in terms of the corresponding culture” (p.13). The translator must aim for the closest possible equivalence, but he identifies two opposite poles of equivalence, which he terms ‘formal’ and ‘dynamic’. In its strictest manifestation, formal equivalence aims to match the message in the TL as closely as possible to that in the SL, in structure as well as in the content of the message. In a translation oriented towards a dynamic equivalence, the focus is on the response of the TT audience. Nida (2000) states: A translation of dynamic equivalence aims at complete naturalness of expression, and tries to relate the receptor to modes of behavior relevant within the context of his own culture; it does not insist that he understand the cultural patterns of the source-language context in order to comprehend the message. (p.156)
    • 13 On the other hand Newmark sees equivalent effect as unlikely where there is a “pronounced cultural gap” between the ST and the TT, or if the purpose of one text is to “affect” and the other to “inform” (1988, p.48). He states furthermore that: The more cultural (the more local, the more remote in time and space) a text, the less is equivalent effect even conceivable unless the reader is imaginative, sensitive and steeped in the SL culture. (1988:49). Newmark thus places the focus on text function, seeing the spectrum of translation strategies in terms of ‘semantic’ and ‘communicative’ translation. According to Newmark (1981) text functions are classified as Expressive, Informative or Vocative, and equivalent-effect translation is given as the appropriate strategy for the translation of either informative or vocative STs. A semantic translation keeps as close as possible to the form and the exact meaning of the ST, while a communicative translation aims to sound as natural as possible in the TL, and to be reader-friendly. Newmark (1981) considers that semantic translation may use culturally neutral words, but should not use cultural equivalents. In assessing the quality of a translation, his main criterion is the quality and extent of the semantic deficit. Ivir (1981) sees the ‘dynamic equivalence’ approach to translation as being based on the assumption that for each unit in the SL there is an equivalent unit in the TL, and it is the translator’s job to find it. This dynamic view of translation regards it as a process rather than a result, consisting of the
    • 14 substituting of messages in one language for messages in another. Ivir’s view on this understanding of translation equivalence is that the nature of the translator’s role in receiving the original sender’s message does not differ essentially from that of other SL receivers of that message. The translator’s job is to code the received message again in the TL in a way which is substantially the same as the task performed by the original reader. It is only the communicative situation which is different. Inevitably the message undergoes modifications in this process, but the translator must strive to change as little as possible, while changing “as much as is necessary to ensure communication” (1981, p.53). Equivalence does not exist separately outside the communicative act; it is dependent on the relational dynamics in that particular act. Ivir (1981) summarizes dynamic equivalence as the presence in a translation of both textually realised formal correspondents in the SL and the TL, and the “communicative realization of the extralinguistic content of the original sender’s message in the TL” (p.59). Hatim and Mason (1990) find difficulties with Nida’s concepts of formal and dynamic equivalence. Where the translator chooses a strategy of formal equivalence, it is likely to be in a situation where there are good reasons for doing so, and therefore the formally equivalent translation may achieve an equivalent effect on the reader of the TT. Hatim and Mason (1990) state that:
    • 15 since it is difficult to gauge the actual effects of TTs on their receivers, it is preferable to talk of equivalence of ‘intended’ effects” (1990, p.7) linking what the translator is aiming to achieve to a judgment of what the author of the ST intended. (p.7) Adequacy As complete equivalence is probably an unattainable goal, Hatim and Mason (1990) prefer the concept of ‘adequacy’ in translations. Adequacy should be judged in terms of the specifications given by the initiator of the translation, and the needs of the TT users. They are critical of Nida’s emphasis of the message over the style of the TT; they consider that to modify the style of the TT on these grounds would be “to deny the reader access to the world of the SL text” (P.9). They see this approach as being a step towards adaptation, where the producer of the ST is effectively given the outlook of a member of the TL community. Hatim and Mason( 1990) sum up: The role of the translator as being that of a mediator between different cultures, with the major principles involved in translation being communicative, pragmatic, and semiotic. The terminologies used in a translation should be seen as the vehicles of a culture, but while relaying propositional meaning, the translator must also be sensitive to the ‘politeness strategies’ which exist in interaction in every culture. Finally,
    • 16 the socioideological stance reflected in the ST should be readable in the TT if it is to be regarded as a successful translation. (P.238) Domestication and foregnization As Munday notes (2001:27), the nineteenth century theologian and translator Schleiermacher acknowledged the difficulty of translating texts of a scholarly or artistic nature because the language of the ST is very “culture- bound” and the TL can never fully correspond with it. Schleiermacher’s response to this problem is to adopt the strategy of “[moving] the reader towards the writer” (Munday. 2001: 28). In Venuti’s words, “the translator must aim to be as ‘invisible’ as possible” (2008:1). Venuti takes a similar position to Schleiermacher, though he uses the concepts of ‘domestication’ and ‘foreignization’. Domestication implies that everything foreign in the ST is made familiar and recognizable to the TL reader, whereas foreignization “signifies the differences of the foreign text … by disrupting the cultural codes that prevail in the translating language” (2008:15). In advocating foreignization, Venuti is urging the translator to “[resist] dominant values in the receiving culture so as to signify the linguistic and cultural differences of the foreign text” (2008:18). This choice represents a question of “fundamentally ethical attitudes towards a foreign text and culture” (2008:19). Venuti is not alone in expressing disquiet about the tendency of translators into English to make their translations as transparent as possible.
    • 17 Hermans, for example, acknowledges that a translation into English is only deemed successful when the translator’s labor is “negated or sublimated”, leaving “no identifiable trace of its own” (1999:62). Franco Aixelá (1996:54) writes of a clear trend in the Western world towards “maximum acceptability”, which means that domestic readers may be given the impression that they are encountering an original text. As Zlateva points out (1990:34), critics reviewing a translated work rarely know the language in which that work was originally written, and are therefore judging the TT as a text in their native language. Their judgment on the beauty, richness or fluency of the language may be entirely at odds with the style of the ST and the intentions of its author. In deciding on an appropriate strategy the translator has to make a fundamental choice as to the extent to which the reader of the TT should be made aware that the ST has sprung from a different culture. Various factors will influence this decision, including the genre of the TT, the translator’s perception of the TT audience, and the translator’s own ideology or possible political agenda.
    • 18 CHAPTER III Methodology Introduction In this chapter, the design of this study which shows the nature of this project, the corpus on which this study is run besides the justifications for choosing it, the framework which constitutes the theoretical basis of this study, the procedure of doing this project and the method of data analysis used in this study will be mentioned. Design This study is a descriptive and library research and its aim is to analyze and describe the strategies applied by translator to deal with CSI. Based on the classification of cultural categories by translation scholars the CSIs will be extracted, their translation will be reviewed, strategies determined, and the results will interpreted. Corpus The corpus of this study is a body of culture-specific items which would be extracted From “Dayee Jan Napoleon”, a novel by Iraj pezeshkzad, translated by Dick Davis. The reason for choosing this novel of is that it is replete with different CISs which its translation might be a challenging task.
    • 19 Theoretical Framework The theoretical framework of the present research is based on the Ivir’s model, which proposed 7 strategies for translation of cultural words: borrowing, definition, literal translation, substitution, lexical creation, omission and addition (1987). Ivir, notes that "combinations of procedures rather than single procedures are required for optimum transmission of cultural information (e.g. borrowing-and-definition, borrowing-and-substitution, lexical creation-and- definition, etc.)" (1987: 37). Ivir (1987) says: Borrowing is a strategy that translators quite frequently use. It is a very precise transmission of cultural information, but only when it is reasonable to believe that the TL reader would recognize the term and know what it means. A borrowing is often used along with its definition, or with a substitution by a term in the TL that is close to it in meaning, although not its exact translation. Once the borrowed term has entered the target language, it can be used freely in that language. (38) Ivir notes that borrowing is a more accepted practice when the TL "is relatively open to foreign influences" (1987:38). According to Ivir (1987), definitional translation tends to be unwieldy. It is used mainly to complement borrowing. The definition is given "in the body
    • 20 of the text or in a footnote, when the borrowed term is first introduced" (39). According to Ivir (1987) definitional translations may result in overtranslation and draw attention to themselves in a way that the corresponding non- definitional source-language expression do not. This strategy is not recommended when the term is used only as "cultural background" (39). Ivir (1987) says that the translator can resort to substitution where the two cultures display a partial overlap rather than a clear-cut presence vs. absence of a particular element of culture (41). The disadvantage of substitution is that it identifies concepts which are not identical, eliminating the 'strangeness' of the foreign culture and treating foreign-culture concepts as its own (42). By adding information to the TL text, the translator makes explicit the information that was unexpressed yet implicit in the source text (42). Substitutions and omissions, on the other hand, fail to reflect the fact that the original communication was taking place in a different cultural setting and that the source text was an expression a of a source culture. According to Ivir (1987) this kind of predicament, has "no satisfactory solution" and can only be solved by "relativization and compromise" (46). Procedure This study is descriptive and library research and its aim is to study cultural influences on translation, to identify culture-specific items, and to study the ways and methods for translating them. According to researcher’s intuition
    • 21 and taste, as a native speaker of modern Persian, and after perusing different cultural categories and during the comparison of STs and TTs, the CSIs will be identified. The Persian sentences in which the item was spotted and the corresponding translation will extracted. The next step will be determination of the strategy used by the translator to render the item into English; for sure this process will be according to framework which is proposed. The items will then be populated into several tables to specify the frequency of each strategy. In the process of this research two criteria are used to identify lexical gap; first, the researcher’s own intuition, second, the fields and domains that have been previously mentioned and identified by translation scholars to which CSIs belong and the strategies to which translators refer when encountering a CSI. After collecting data, they will be analyzed to see which of the aforementioned strategies of translation was the most frequently used in the process of translating of each group. Data Analysis This article is qualitative research. After the items and their translations are extracted and entered in to a chart, then the kind and frequency of strategies will be determined. The results will be interpreted in order to determine which strategies are most frequent and whether the culture-specific items mostly foreignized or domesticated.
    • 22 REFERENCES Álvarez, R. and Vidal, M. (1996). Translating: A Political Act. In R. Álvarez and M. Vidal (Eds.), Translation, Power, Subversion (pp. 1-9). Clevedon, Philadelphia and Adelaide: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Baker, M. (2001). The Routledge Encyclooedia of Translation Studies. London: Routledge. Baker, Mona. (2000). Linguistic perspectives on translation. In The Oxford guide to literature in English translation. (Ed) Peter France. Oxford University Press. Oxford, New York. Pp.20-25. Bassnett, S. (1991). Translation Studies (2nd ed.). London: Methuen. Franco Aixelá, J. (1996). Culture-Specific Items in Translation. In R. Álvarez and M.Vidal (Eds.), Translation, Power, Subversion (pp. 52-78). Clevedon, Philadelphia and Adelaide: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Hatim, B. and Mason, I. (1990). Discourse and the Translator. Harlow: Longman. Hutchins, W.J. and Somers, H.L. (1992): An introduction to machine translation. London: Academic Press. Ivir, V. (1981). Translation Theory and Intercultural Relations [Electronic Version]. Poetics Today, 2(4), 51-59.
    • 23 Ivir, V. 1987. "Procedures and strategies for the translation of culture". Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics 13(2): 35-46. Jakobson, R. (2000). On Linguistic Aspects of Translation. In L. Venuti (Ed.), The Translation Studies Reader (2nd. ed.). (pp. 138-143). New York and Abingdon: Routledge. Munday, J. (2001). Introducing Translation Studies. London and New York: Routledge. Newmark, P. (1981). Approaches to Translation. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Newmark, P. (1988). A Textbook of Translation. New York, London: Prentice Hall. Newmark, P. (1998) More Paragraphs on Translation. New Jersey University Press: Multilingual Maters. Nida, E. (2000). Principles of Correspondence. In L. Venuti (Ed.), The Translation Studies Reader (2nd. ed.). (pp. 153-167). New York and Abingdon: Routledge. Nord, C. (1997). Translating as a Purposeful Activity. Manchester: St. Jerome. Venuti, L. (1995) The Translator's Invisibility. A history of translation, London and New York: Routledge. Venuti, L. (2008). The Translator’s Invisibility (2nd ed.). London and New York: Routledge. Venuti, L. 2000. The Translation Studies Reader. London: Routledge.
    • 24 Vinay,J.P. & Darbelnet, J. 1985. Comparative Stylistic of French and English, trans. and Ed. by Sager, J.c. & Hamel, M.J. Amsterdam / Philadelphia , Joun Benjamins. Zlateva, P. (1990). Translation: Text and Pre-Text ‘Adequacy’ and ‘Acceptability’ in Crosscultural Communication. In S. Bassnett and A. Lefevere (Eds.), Translation, History and Culture (pp. 29-37). London: Pinter.