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  • 1. Introduction and Tissues Human Anatomy BIOL 1010 Liston Campus
  • 2. What is Anatomy?Anatomy (= morphology): study of body’s structurePhysiology: study of body’s functionStructure reflects Function!!!Branches of Anatomy Gross: Large structures Surface: Landmarks Histology: Cells and Tissues Developmental: Structures change through life Embryology: Structures form and develop before birth
  • 3. Hierarchy of StructuralOrganization Each of these build upon one another to make up the next level: Chemical level Cellular Tissue Organ Organ system Organism
  • 4. Hierarchy of StructuralOrganization Chemical level  Atoms combine to make molecules  4 macromolecules in the body  Carbohydrates  Lipids  Proteins  Nucleic acids
  • 5. Hierarchy of StructuralOrganization Cellular  Made up of cells and cellular organelles (molecules)  Cells can be eukaryotic or prokaryotic  Organelles are structures within cells that perform dedicated functions (“small organs”)
  • 6. Hierarchy of StructuralOrganization Tissue  Collection of cells that work together to perform a specialized function  4 basic types of tissue in the human body:  Epithelium  Connective tissue  Muscle tissue  Nervous tissue
  • 7. Hierarchy of StructuralOrganization Organ  Made up of tissue  Heart  Brain  Liver  Pancreas, etc…… Pg 181
  • 8. Hierarchy of StructuralOrganizationOrgan system (11) Made up of a group of related organs that work together  Integumentary  Skeletal  Muscular  Nervous  Endocrine  Cardiovascular Circulatory  Lymphatic  Respiratory  Digestive  Urinary  Reproductive Pg 341 Urinary System
  • 9. Hierarchy of StructuralOrganization Organism  An individual human, animal, plant, etc……  Made up all of the organ systems  Work together to sustain life
  • 10. Anatomical DirectionsAnatomical positionRegions Axial vs. AppendicularAnatomical Directions-It’s all Relative! Anterior (ventral) vs. Posterior (dorsal) Medial vs. Lateral Superior (cranial) vs. Inferior (caudal) Superficial vs. Deep Proximal vs. DistalAnatomical Planes Frontal = Coronal Transverse = Horizontal = Cross Section Sagittal Pg 5
  • 11. Reference PointAnterior – (ventral) Posterior – (dorsal) Frontal PlaneCloser to the front surface of Closer to the rear surfacethe body of the bodyMedial – Lateral – Sagittal PlaneLying closer to the midline Lying further away from the midlineSuperior – (cranial) Inferior – (caudal) Horizontal PlaneCloser to the head in relation to Away from the head orthe entire body towards the lower part of(More General) the bodySuperficial – Deep – Surface of body orTowards the surface Away from the surface organProximal – Distal – Origin of a structureCloser to the origin of a body Further away from thepart origin of a body part(More Specific)
  • 12. 4 Types of Tissue 1) Epithelium 2) Connective 3) Muscle 4) Nervous
  • 13. Tissues: groups of cells closely associated thathave a similar structure and perform a related function Four types of tissue  Epithelial = covering/lining  Connective = support  Muscle = movement  Nervous = control Most organs contain all 4 types Tissue has non-living extracellular material between its cells
  • 14. EPITHELIAL TISSUE: sheets ofcells cover a surface or line a cavity Functions Protection Secretion Absorption Ion Transport
  • 15. Characteristics of Epithelium Cellularity  Composed of cells Specialized contacts  Joined by cell junctions Polarity  Apical vs. Basal surfaces differ Supported by connective tissue Avascular Innervated Highly regenerative
  • 16. Classification of Epithelium-basedon number of layers and cell shape Layers  Simple  Stratified  Stratified layers characterized by shape of apical layer  Psuedostratified Shapes  Squamous  Cuboidal  Columnar  Transitional
  • 17. Types of Epithelium Simple squamous (1 layer)  Lungs, blood vessels, ventral body cavity Simple cuboidal  Kidney tubules, glands Simple columnar  Stomach, intestines Pseudostratified columnar  Respiratory passages (ciliated version) Stratified squamous (>1 layer)  Epidermis, mouth, esophagus, vagina  Named so according to apical cell shape  Regenerate from below  Deep layers cuboidal and columnar Transitional (not shown)  Thins when stretches  Hollow urinary organs All histology pictures property of BIOL 1010 Lab
  • 18. Special EpitheliumEndothelium Simple squamous epithelium that lines vessels e.g. lymphatic & blood vesselMesothelium Simple squamous epithelium that forms the lining of body cavities e.g. pleura, pericardium, peritoneum
  • 19. Features of Apical Surface ofEpitheliumMicrovilli: (ex) in small intestine Finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane of apical epithelial cell Increase surface area for absorptionCilia: (ex) respiratory tubes Whip-like, motile extension of plasma membrane Moves mucus, etc. over epithelial surface 1-way
  • 20. Features of Lateral Surface of EpitheliumCells are connected to neighboring cells via: Contour of cells-wavy contour fits together Cell Junctions (3 common)  Desmosomes  Proteins hold cells together to maintain integrity of tissue  Tight Junctions  Plasma membrane of adjacent cells fuse, nothing passes  Gap junction  Proteins allow small molecules to pass through
  • 21. Features of the Basal Surface of Epithelium Basement membrane  Sheet between the epithelial and connective tissue layers  Attaches epithelium to connective tissue below  Made up of:  Basal lamina: thin, non-cellular, supportive sheet made of proteins  Superficial layer  Acts as a selective filter  Assists epithelial cell regeneration by moving new cells  Reticular fiber layer  Deeper layer  Support
  • 22. Glands Epithelial cells that make and secrete a product Products are water-based and usually contain proteins Classified as:  Unicellular vs. multicellular  Exocrine vs. Endocrine Page
  • 23. Glands: epithelial cells that make andsecrete a water-based substance w/proteins Exocrine Glands  Secrete substance onto body surface or into body cavity  Activity is local  Have ducts  Unicellular or Multicellular  (ex) goblet cells, salivary, mammary, pancreas, liver
  • 24. Glands: epithelial cells that make andsecrete a water-based substance w/proteins Endocrine Glands  Secrete product into blood stream  Either stored in secretory cells or in follicle surrounded by secretory cells  Hormones travel to target organ to increase response (excitatory)  No ducts  (ex) pancreas, adrenal, pituitary, thyroid
  • 25. 4 Types of Tissue 1) Epithelium 2) Connective 3) Muscle 4) Nervous
  • 26. 4 Types of Connective Tissue 1) Connective Tissue Proper 2) Cartilage 3) Bone Tissue 4) Blood
  • 27. Connective Tissue (CT):most abundant and diverse tissue Four Classes Functions include connecting, storing & carrying nutrients, protection, fight infection CT contains large amounts of non-living extracellular matrix Contains a variety of cells and fibers Some types vascularized All CT originates from mesenchyme  Embryonic connective tissue
  • 28. Fibers in Connective Tissue Fibers For Support  Reticular:  form networks for structure & support  (ex) cover capillaries  Collagen:  strongest, most numerous, provide tensile strength  (ex) dominant fiber in ligaments  Elastic:  long + thin, stretch and retain shape  (ex) dominant fiber in elastic cartilage
  • 29. Components of ConnectiveTissue Fibroblasts:  cells that produce all fibers in CT  produce + secrete protein subunits to make them  produce ground matrix Interstitial (Tissue) Fluid  derived from blood in CT proper  medium for nutrients, waste + oxygen to travel to cells  found in ground matrix Ground Matrix (substance):  part of extra-cellular material that holds and absorbs interstitial fluid  Made and secreted by fibroblasts  jelly-like with sugar & protein molecules
  • 30. 1) Connective Tissue ProperTwo kinds: Loose CT & Dense CT Functions  Support and bind to other tissue  Hold body fluids  Defends against infection  Stores nutrients as fat Each function performed by different kind of fibers and cells in specific tissue
  • 31. Defense from Infection Areolar tissue below epithelium is body’s first defense Cells travel to CT in blood  Macrophages-eat foreign particles  Plasma cells-secrete antibodies, mark molecules for destruction  Mast cells-contain chemical mediators for inflammation response  White Blood Cells = neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils-fight infection Ground substance + cell fibers-slow invading microorganisms
  • 32. Loose CT Proper Areolar CT  All types of fibers present  All typical cell types present  Surrounds blood vessels and nerves
  • 33. Specialized Loose CT ProperAdipose tissue  Loaded with adipocytes, highly vascularized, high metabolic activity  Insulates, produces energy, supports  Found in hypodermis under skinReticular CT  Contains only reticular fibers  Forms caverns to hold free cells, forms internal “skeleton” of some organs  Found in bone marrow, holds blood cells, lymph nodes, spleen
  • 34. Dense/Fibrous ConnectiveTissue Contains more collagen Can resist extremely strong pulling forces Regular vs. Irregular  Regular-fibers run same direction, parallel to pull  (eg) fascia, tendons, ligaments  Irregular-fibers thicker, run in different directions  (eg) dermis, fibrous capsules at ends of bones Dense regular Dense irregular
  • 35. Components of CT ProperSummarized Cells Matrix Fibroblasts Gel-like ground substance Defense cells Collagen fibers -macrophages Reticular fibers -white blood cells Elastic fibers Adipocytes
  • 36. 2) Cartilage Chondroblasts produce cartilage Chondrocytes mature cartilage cells  Reside in lacunae More abundant in embryo than adult Firm, Flexible Resists compression  (eg) trachea, meniscus Avascular (chondrocytes can function w/ low oxygen) NOT Innervated Perichondrium  dense, irregular connective tissue around cartilage  growth/repair of cartilage  resists expansion during compression of cartilage
  • 37. Cartilage in the Body Three types:  Hyaline  most abundant  fibers in matrix  support via flexibility/resilience  (eg) at limb joints, ribs, nose  Elastic  many elastic fibers in matrix too  great flexibility  (eg) external ear, epiglottis  Fibrocartilage  resists both compression and tension  (eg) meniscus, annulus fibrosus
  • 38. Components of Cartilage Summarized Cells Matrix Chondrocytes Gel-like ground substance Chondroblasts Lots of water (in growing cartilage) Fibroblasts Some have collagen and elastic fibers
  • 39. 3) Bone Tissue: (a bone is an organ) Well-vascularized Function:  support (eg) pelvic bowl, legs  protect (eg) skull, vertebrae  mineral storage (eg) calcium, phosphate (inorganic component)  movement (eg) walk, grasp objects  blood-cell formation (eg) red bone marrow
  • 40. Bone Tissue Osteoblasts  Secrete organic part of bone matrix Osteocytes  Mature bone cells  Sit in lacunae  Maintain bone matrix Osteoclasts  Degrade and reabsorb bone Periosteum  External layer of CT that surrounds bone  Outer: Dense irregular CT  Inner: Osteoblasts, osteoclasts Endosteum  Internal layer of CT that lines cavities and covers trabeculae  Contains osteoblasts and
  • 41. Compact Bone External layer Osteon (Haversian system)  Parallel to the long axis of the bone  Groups of concentric tubules (lamella)  Lamella = layer of bone matrix where all fibers run in the same direction  Adjacent lamella fibers run in opposite directions  Haversian Canal runs through center of osteon  Contains blood vessels and nerves  Connected to each other by perforating (Volkman) canals Interstitial lamellae fills spaces and forms periphery
  • 42. Bone Anatomy: Spongy boneSpongy bone (cancellous bone): internal layer Trabeculae: small, needle-like pieces of bone form honeycomb  each made of several layers of lamellae + osteocytes  no canal for vessels  space filled with bone marrow  not as dense, no direct stress at bone’s center
  • 43. Shapes of BonesFlat = skull, sternum, clavicle Irregular = pelvis, vertebrae Short = carpals, patella Long = femur, phalanges, metacarpals, humerus
  • 44. Anatomy of a Long Bone Diaphysis  Medullary Cavity  Nutrient Artery & Vein 2 Epiphyses  Epiphyseal Plates  Epiphyseal Artery & Vein Periosteum  Does not cover epiphyses Endosteum  Covers trabeculae of spongy bone  Lines medullary cavity of long
  • 45. 2 Types of Bone Formation Intramembranous Ossification  Membrane bones: most skull bones and clavicle  Osteoblasts in membrane secrete osteoid that mineralizes Endochondral Ossification: All other bones  Begins with a cartilaginous model  Cartilage calcifies  Medullary cavity is formed by action of osteoclasts  Epiphyses grow and eventually calcify  Epiphyseal plates remain cartilage for up to 20 years
  • 46. Bone Growth & RemodelingGROWTH Appositional Growth = widening of bone  Bone tissue added on surface by osteoblasts of periosteum  Medullary cavity maintained by osteoclasts Lengthening of Bone  Epiphyseal plates enlarge by chondroblasts  Matrix calcifies (chondrocytes die and disintegrate)  Bone tissue replaces cartilage on diaphysis sideREMODELING Due to mechanical stresses on bones, their tissue needs to be replaced  Osteoclasts-take up bone ( = breakdown) release Ca2++ , PO4 to body fluids from bone  Osteoblasts-form new bone by secreting osteoid Ideally osteoclasts & osteoblasts work at the same rate!
  • 47. Components of Bone Tissue Summarized Cells Matrix Osteblasts Gel-like ground substance calcified with inorganic salts Fibroblasts Collagen fibers Osteocytes Osteoclasts
  • 48. 4) Blood: Atypical Connective Tissue Function:  Transports waste, gases, nutrients, hormones through cardiovascular system  Helps regulate body temperature  Protects body by fighting infection Derived from mesenchyme Hematopoiesis: production of blood cells  Occurs in red bone marrow  In adults, axial skeleton, girdles, proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur
  • 49. Blood CellsErythrocytes: (RBC) small, oxygen-transporting most abundant in blood no organelles, filled w/hemoglobin pick up O2 at lungs, transport to rest of bodyLeukocytes: (WBC) complete cells , 5 types fight against infectious microorganisms stored in bone marrow for emergencies*Platelets = Thrombocytes: fragments of cytoplasm plug small tears in vessel walls, initiates clotting
  • 50. Components of Blood SummarizedCells MatrixErythrocytes Plasma(red blood cells) (liquid matrix)Leukocytes NO fibers(white blood cells)*Platelets(cell fragments)
  • 51. 4 Types of Tissue 1) Epithelium 2) Connective 3) Muscle 4) Nervous
  • 52. Muscle TissueMuscle cells/fibers Elongated Contain many myofilaments: Actin & MyosinFUNCTION Movement Maintenance of posture Joint Stabilization Heat GenerationThree types: Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth
  • 53. Skeletal Muscle Tissue(each skeletal muscle is an organ) Cells  Long and cylindrical, in bundles  Multinucleate  Obvious Striations Skeletal Muscles-Voluntary Connective Tissue Components:  Endomysium-surrounds fibers  Perimysium-surrounds bundles  Epimysium-surrounds the muscle Attached to bones, fascia, skin Origin & Insertion
  • 54. Cardiac Muscle Cells  Branching, chains of cells  Single or Binucleated  Striations  Connected by Intercalated discs Cardiac Muscle-Involuntary Myocardium-heart muscle  Pumps blood through vessels Connective Tissue Component  Endomysium: surrounding cells
  • 55. Smooth Muscle TissueCells Single cells, uninucleate No striationsSmooth Muscle-Involuntary 2 layers-opposite orientation (peristalsis)Found in hollow organs, blood vesselsConnective Tissue Component Endomysium: surrounds cells
  • 56. 4 Types of Tissue 1) Epithelium 2) Connective 3) Muscle 4) Nervous
  • 57. Nervous TissueNeurons: specialized nerve cells conductimpulses Cell body, dendrite, axonCharacterized by: No mitosis (cell replication) Longevity High metabolic rate
  • 58. Nervous Tissue: control Support cells (= Neuroglial) : nourishment, insulation, protection  Satellite cells-surround cell bodies within ganglia  Schwann cells-surround axons (PNS)  Microglia-phagocytes  Oligodendrocytes-produce myelin sheaths around axons  Ependymal cells-line brain/spinal cord, ciliated, help circulate CSF Brain, spinal cord, nerves
  • 59. Integumentary System Functions  Protection  Mechanical, thermal, chemical, UV  Cushions & insulates deeper organs  Prevention of water loss  Thermoregulation  Excretion  Salts, urea, water  Sensory reception
  • 60. Microanatomy - Layers of theSkin Epidermis  Epithelium Dermis  Connective tissue Hypodermis / subcutis  Loose connective tissue  Anchors skin to bone or muscle Skin Appendages = outgrowths of epidermis  Hair follicles  Sweat and Sebaceous glands  Nails
  • 61. Cell Layers of the Epidermis Stratum corneum  Dead keratinocytes Stratum lucidum  Only in “thick” skin  Dead keratinocytes Stratum granulosum  Water proofing Stratum spinosum  Resists tears and tension Stratum basale  Sensory receptors  Melanocytes  Keratinocytes (in all layers)
  • 62. Layers of the Dermis Highly innervated Highly vascularized Collagen & Elastic fibers 2 layers:  Papillary layer (20%)  Areolar CT  Collagen & Elastic fibers  Innervation  Hair follicles  Reticular layer (80%)  Dense irregular CT  Glands  sebum  2.5 million sweat glands!!  Smooth muscle fibers  Innervation
  • 63. Hypodermis Also called superficial fascia Areolar & Adipose Connective Tissue Functions  Store fat  Anchor skin to muscle, etc.  Insulation
  • 64. Structure of Tubular Organs LUMENTunica Mucosa  Lamina epithelialis  Lamina propria  Lamina muscularis mucosaTunica SubmucosaTunica Muscularis  Inner circular  Outer longitudinalTunica Adventitia / Serosa  Adventitia – covers organ directly  Serosa – suspends organ in the peritoneal cavity