HAEMATOLOGY Blood is a complex liquid that performs a number of functionsincluding:Transporting• oxygen from the lungs to ...
OriginThe process by which blood cells are formed is called haemopoieses. In the adult theorigin of blood cells are:• Red ...
The surface of erythrocytes contain different types of proteins called agglutinations. Theseproteins are responsible for t...
poikil/o                           varied, irregular -poiesis                           formation -poly          morph    ...
biopsy of lymph node           removal of a small part of lymph node for examinationbone marrow transplant         implant...
Leucopaenia         Decrease of white blood cells (leucocytes)Lymphocytopaenia    Decrease of lymphocytes in bloodLymphocy...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

10+Haematology.DOC

546 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
546
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
196
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
11
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

10+Haematology.DOC

  1. 1. HAEMATOLOGY Blood is a complex liquid that performs a number of functionsincluding:Transporting• oxygen from the lungs to all the cells of the body• carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs• nutrients from the digestive organs to the cells• waste products from the cells to the kidneys, lungs and sweat glands• hormones from endocrine glands to the cells• enzymes to various cellsProtecting• against fluid loss through the clotting mechanism• against infection (assisted by the lymph nodes and spleen)Playing• a role in the regulation of body temperatureMicroscopically, blood is composed of two portions: plasma, a straw coloured liquid that isleft when the elements are removed from blood, and the formed elements, the cells andcell-like bodies that are suspended in the plasma.Types of Cells• Erythrocytes (red blood cells) Erythrocytes or red blood cells (RBC) are biconcave discs and contain haemoglobin a red pigment containing iron. Erythrocytes combine with oxygen and carbon dioxide and transport them in the blood• Leucocytes (white blood cells) Leucocytes or white blood cells (WBC) function to • Neutrophils combat inflammation and infection. Some leucocytes • Eosinophils are phagocytotic (eg neutrophils) meaning they can • Basophils ingest bacteria and dispose of dead matter. • Lymphocytes • Monocytes• Thrombocytes (platelets) Thrombocytes or platelets are disc-shaped cells. They prevent fluid loss by blood clotting.ClottingBlood maintains its liquid state as long as it remains in the vessels. If it is taken from thebody it thickens and forms a gel. The gel is called a clot. The process of clotting is calledcoagulation. Its purpose is to prevent blood loss when a blood vessel is ruptured. If bloodclots too easily, the result can be thrombosis - clotting in an unbroken blood vessel. If theblood takes too long to clot a haemorrhage can result. Chemical substances that preventclotting are called anticoagulants. Heparin is a quick acting anticoagulant that blocks theclotting mechanism and prevents clotting.Haematology Page 1 of 6
  2. 2. OriginThe process by which blood cells are formed is called haemopoieses. In the adult theorigin of blood cells are:• Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) produces red blood cells, granular leucocytes and platelets.• Lymphoid tissue - spleen, tonsils, lymph nodes - share responsibility with the myeloid tissue for producing some leucocytes.Root Combining form MeaningHaem Haem/o, haemato, -aemia, -haemia BloodErythr Erythr/o Red blood cellsReticul Reticul/o Young erythrocyte lacking a nucleusLeuc Leuc/o, leuk/o White blood cellsMyel Myel/o Bone marrowActivity 1Build words which mean;1. The study of blood ___________________________________________________2. Condition of blood in the urine____________________________________________3. Condition of deficiency of white blood cells__________________________________4. Poisonous to white blood cells____________________________________________5. Tumour of myeloid tissue________________________________________________Activity 2 Write the meaning of;1. haematoma ________________________________________________________2. haemopoiesis ________________________________________________________3. anaemia ________________________________________________________4. haemorrhage ________________________________________________________5. septicaemia ________________________________________________________6. haemoglobin ________________________________________________________7. leukaemia ________________________________________________________8. thrombocytopenia______________________________________________________9. thrombocytopathy______________________________________________________10. plasmapharesis________________________________________________________Blood GroupingHaematology Page 2 of 6
  3. 3. The surface of erythrocytes contain different types of proteins called agglutinations. Theseproteins are responsible for the two major blood group classifications: the ABO group andthe Rh group.ABO grouping is based on 2 agglutinates symbolised as A and B. Individuals whoseerythrocytes manufacture only agglutinate A are said to have blood type A. hose whomanufacture only agglutinate B are blood type B. Individuals who manufacture both A andB are blood type AB. Others, who manufacture neither, are called type O.• Type A = 41% of the population• Type B = 10% of the population• Type AB = 4% of the population• Type O = 45% of the population• Type A blood can be given to Type A or AB• Type B blood can be given to Type B or AB• Type AB blood can be given to Type AB only• Type O blood can be given to O, AB, A and B• AB is the universal receiver and type O is the universal donor.Rh grouping When blood is transfused the technician must make sure the donor and therecipient match safely - not only for ABO but also for Rh. The Rh system is so namedbecause it was first worked out in the blood of the rhesus monkey. Like the ABO grouping,the Rh system is based on agglutinates that lie on the surface of erythrocytes. Individualswhose erythrocytes have the Rh agglutinates are designated Rh+ (positive). People wholack Rh agglutinates are designated Rh- (negative)Terms & word parts: -aemia/aem (-emia [Am] ) condition of blood (blood) -blast immature germ cell blast/o early/growth/germ cyt, cyt/o cell erythr/o red ferr/o iron fer/o to carry/bear haem/o, (hem/o [Am]) blood hist/o tissue leuc/o, (leuk/o [Am]) white megal/o large myel/o bone marrow -osis abnormal disease, condition, or increase paenia-, (penia-[Am]) decrease, deficiency phage, (phagia) to eat (condition of eating) -plasm formative substanceHaematology Page 3 of 6
  4. 4. poikil/o varied, irregular -poiesis formation -poly morph many forms or shapes ser/o serum sider/o ironOne of the main groups of blood disorders are those arising from abnormalities in thenumber or type of blood cells, i.e. leukaemia - an abnormal increase in white cells. Some exceptions are haemophilia - defect in the clotting mechanism, and purpura -defect in the capillary walls.Disorders & Terms: Abnormality in oxygen carrying pigment haemoglobin in blood. Is a sign not a diagnosis. It means there are insufficientAnaemia erythrocytes or haemoglobin. These conditions lead to fatigue or intolerance to cold, both of which are related to lack of oxygen needed for energy and heat production.Haemophilia Congenital disease, lack of clotting factors (Factor 8) in bloodHaemorrhage Bleeding, either internally or externally.Hodgkins disease Malignant disease of lymph nodesHypersplenism Enlarged spleenLeucocytosis Increase in leucocytes in blood and bone marrow Increase in abnormal white blood cells. Cancer of the blood. Leukaemia is an uncontrolled, greatly accelerated production ofLeukaemia white blood cells. These crowd out the normal production of red blood cells and platelets.Malignant lymphoma Tumour of the lymph nodesMultiple myeloma Malignant disease of bone marrowPernicious anaemia Reduction of red blood cells in bone marrow Is an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells. It can lead to thrombosis and haemorrhage. The clinical test importantPolycythaemia in diagnosing polycythaemia is haematocrit. Haematocrit is the percentage of blood that is made up of red blood cells.Septicaemia Blood poisoning. Toxins or disease causing bacteria in the blood.Splenomegaly Enlarged spleenSplenorrhexis Rupture of spleen Hereditary blood disease, abnormality in the production ofThalassaemia haemoglobinProcedures:autologous transfusion transfusion from selfHaematology Page 4 of 6
  5. 5. biopsy of lymph node removal of a small part of lymph node for examinationbone marrow transplant implantation of bone marrow from person to personsplenectomy removal of spleenAbbreviationsALL Acute lymphocytic leukaemiaAML Acute myeloid leukaemiaESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rateFBC Full blood countHb HaemoglobinHct HaematocritLFT liver function testsMBA multiple biochemistry analysisNa sodiumRBC Red blood cell / countTFT thyroid function testsWBC White blood cell / countHaematology terms:Erythrocyte Red blood cell (rbc)Haemodialysis Removal of waste out of blood ("washing")Haemoglobin The oxygen-carrying pigment found in red blood cellsHaemopoiesis The process of production of blood cellsLeucocyte White blood cell (wbc)Myelopoiesis The process of production of bone marrowPlasma The fluid component of bloodPlatelet Disc-shaped cell structure present in blood (thrombocyte)Serum Fluid that separates from clotted blood (lacks coagulation factors)Thrombocyte PlateletOther Terms:Dyscrasia An abnormal state of the body or part of bodyLeucocytosis Increase of white blood cells (leucocytes)Haematology Page 5 of 6
  6. 6. Leucopaenia Decrease of white blood cells (leucocytes)Lymphocytopaenia Decrease of lymphocytes in bloodLymphocytosis Increase of lymphocytes inMacrocytosis Abnormally large red blood cells (erythrocytes)Microcytosis Abnormally small red blood cells (erythrocytes)Poikilocytosis Abnormally shaped erythrocytesProliferation Increase in numbersPyrexia FeverThrombocytopaenia Reduction of platelets in bloodHaematology Page 6 of 6

×