Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Digestivesystem
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Digestivesystem

412
views

Published on

biology class XI sains 3 SMAN 1 Kencong

biology class XI sains 3 SMAN 1 Kencong

Published in: Education, Business, Technology

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
412
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. The Digestive System by mr. steven puerto, jr Kang Maheso 1
  • 2. Digestion• Processing of food• Types – Mechanical (physical) • Chew • Tear • Grind • Mash • Mix – Chemical • Catabolic reactions • Enzymatic hydrolysis – Carbohydrate – Protein – Lipid Kang Maheso 2
  • 3. Digestion• Phases – Ingestion – Movement – Digestion – Absorption – Further digestion Kang Maheso 3
  • 4. Digestive System Organization• Gastrointestinal (Gl) tract (Alimentary canal) – Tube within a tube – Direct link/path between organs – Structures • Mouth • Oral Cavity • Pharynx • Esophagus • Stomach • Duedenum • Jejenum • kIleum • Cecum • Ascending colon Kang Maheso • Transverse colon 4
  • 5. Digestive System Organization • Descending colon • Sigmoid colon • Rectum • Anus• Accessory structures – Not in tube path – Organs • Teeth • Tongue • Salivary glands • Liver • Gall bladder • Pancreas Kang Maheso 5
  • 6. Anatomy of the Mouth and Throat Kang Maheso 6
  • 7. Human Deciduous and Permanent Teeth Kang Maheso 7
  • 8. Dorsal Surface of the Tongue Kang Maheso 8
  • 9. The Major Salivary Glands Kang Maheso 9
  • 10. Deglutition (swallowing)• Sequence – Voluntary stage • Push food to back of mouth – Pharyngeal stage • Raise – Soft palate – Larynx + hyoid – Tongue to soft palate – Esophageal stage • Contract pharyngeal muscles • Open esophagus • Start peristalsis Kang Maheso 10
  • 11. Deglutition (swallowing)• Control – Nerves • Glossopharyngeal • Vagus • Accessory – Brain stem • Deglutition center – Medulla oblongata – Pons – Disorders • Dysphagia • Aphagia Kang Maheso 11
  • 12. Esophagus• Usually collapsed (closed)• 3 constrictions – Aortic arch – Left primary bronchus – Diaphragm• Surrounded by – SNS plexus – Blood vessels• Functions – Secrete mucous – Transport food Kang Maheso 12
  • 13. Peristalsis and Segmentation Kang Maheso 13
  • 14. Esophagus• Sphincters – Upper – Lower• Abnormalities – Achalasia – Atresia – Hernia – Barret’s esophagus – Esophageal varices Kang Maheso 14
  • 15. Stomach• Usually “J” shaped• Left side, anterior to the spleen• Mucous membrane – G cells – make gastrin – Goblet cells – make mucous – Gastric pit – Oxyntic gland – Parietal cells – Make HCl – Chief cells – Zymogenic cells • Pepsin • Gastric lipase Kang Maheso 15
  • 16. Anatomy of the Stomach Kang Maheso 16
  • 17. Stomach• 3 muscle layers – Oblique – Circular – Longitudinal• Regions – Cardiac sphincter – Fundus – Antrum (pylorus) – Pyloric sphincter• Vascular• Inner surface thrown into folds – Rugae• Contains enzymes that workKang Maheso best at pH 1-2 17
  • 18. Stomach• Functions – Absorbs – Mix food • Alcohol – Reservoir • Water – Start digestion of • Lipophilic acid • Protein • Nucleic acids • B 12 • Fats – Activates some enzymes – Destroy some bacteria – Makes intrinsic factor – B 12 absorption – Destroys some bacteria Kang Maheso 18
  • 19. Small Intestine• Extends from pyloric sphincter  ileocecal valve• Regions – Duodenum – Jejenum – Ileum• Movements – Segmentation – Peristalsis Kang Maheso 19
  • 20. Small Intestine• Histology – Intestinal glands – Intestinal enzymes – Duodenal glands – Alkaline mucous – Paneth cells – Lysozyme – Microvilli – Lacteals – Plica circularis – Smooth muscle – Lymphatic tissue – GALT – Vascular Kang Maheso 20
  • 21. Small Intestine• Absorbs – Lipids – 80% ingested water • Monoglycerides – Electrolytes • Fatty acids – Vitamins • Micelles – Minerals • Chylomicrons – Carbonates • Active/facilitated transport • Monosaccharides – Proteins • Di-/tripeptides • Amino acids Kang Maheso 21
  • 22. Structure of the Villi in the Small Intestine Kang Maheso 22
  • 23. Small Intestine• Secretes digestive enzymes – Peptidases • Amino- • Di- • Tri- – Sucrases – Maltase – Lactase – Saccharidases • Di- • Tri- – Lipase – Nucleases Kang Maheso 23
  • 24. Small Intestine• Control• Requires pancreatic enzymes & bile to complete digestion Kang Maheso 24
  • 25. Large Intestine• Extends from ileocecal valve to anus• Regions – Cecum – Appendix – Colon • Ascending • Transverse • Descending – Rectum – Anal canal Kang Maheso 25
  • 26. Anatomy of the Large Intestine Kang Maheso 26
  • 27. Large Intestine• Histology – No villi – No permanent circular folds – Smooth muscle • Taeniae coli • Haustra – Epiploic appendages – Otherwise like rest of Gl tract Kang Maheso 27
  • 28. Large Intestine• Functions – Mechanical digestion – Absorbs • Haustral churning •More water • Peristalsis •Vitamins –B • Reflexes –K – Gastroileal – Gastrocolic – Concentrate/eliminate wastes – Chemical digestion – Bacterial digestion • Ferment carbohydrates • Protein/amino acid breakdown Kang Maheso 28
  • 29. Feces Formation and Defecation• Chyme dehydrated to • Control form feces – Parasympathetic• Feces composition – Water – Voluntary – Inorganic salts – Epithelial cells – Bacteria – Byproducts of digestion• Defecation – Peristalsis pushes feces into rectum – Rectal walls stretch Kang Maheso 29
  • 30. Liver• Location – R. Hypochondrium – Epigastric region• 4 Lobes – Left – Quadrate – Caudate – Right• Each lobe has lobules – Contains hepatocytes – Surround sinusoids – Feed into central vein Kang Maheso 30
  • 31. Liver• Functions – Makes bile • Detergent – emulsifies fats • Release promoted by: – Vagus n. – CCK – Secretin • Contains – Water – Bile salts – Bile pigments – Electrolytes – Cholesterol – Lecithin Kang Maheso 31
  • 32. Liver– Detoxifies/removes • Drugs • Alcohol– Stores • Gycolgen • Vitamins (A, D, E, K) • Fe and other minerals • Cholesterol– Activates vitamin D– Fetal RBC production– Phagocytosis– Metabolizes absorbed food molecules • Carbohydrates • Proteins Kang Maheso • Lipids 32
  • 33. Liver• Dual blood supply – Hepatic portal vein • Direct input from small intestine – Hepatic artery/vein • Direct links to heart Kang Maheso 33
  • 34. The Duodenum and Related Organs Kang Maheso 34
  • 35. The Organs and Positions in the Abdominal Cavity Kang Maheso 35
  • 36. Structures of the Alimentary Canal Kang Maheso 36
  • 37. Matur Nuwun• Sing gelem sinau mesti pinter lan ngerti. Sing ngerti bakal begja lan luhur wekasane.• Banda donya sing ora bisa dicolong lan ilang yaiku ngelmu lan pangerten. Kang Maheso 37