was a system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government in South Africa between 1948 and early 1994.
the policy of settling international quarrels by admitting and satisfying grievances through rational negotiation and compromise, thereby avoiding the resort to an armed conflict which would be expensive, bloody, and possibly dangerous."  The term is most often applied to the foreign policy of British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain towards Nazi Germany between 1937 and 1939.
An armistice is a situation in a war where the warring parties agree to stop fighting.
Atheism can be either the rejection of theism , or the position that god (deities) does not exist.
is a form of government , in which a few of the most prominent citizens rule.
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments to the constitution
The purpose of is to protect those rights against infringement by the government.
Included basic freedoms such as speech, religion, right to own guns etc.
Was a compromise in getting the Constitution ratified.
was a British politician known chiefly for his leadership of the United Kingdom during World War II . He served as Prime Minister from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
(1945–1991) was the continuing state of political conflict, military tension, and economic competition existing after World War II(1939–1945), between the USSR and its satellite states, and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States.
Coup d’ etat
A coup d'état or coup for short, is the sudden unconstitutional deposition of a legitimate government , usually by a small group of the existing state establishment—typically the military —to replace the deposed government with another, either civil or military.
launched by Mao Zedong , the chairman of the Communist Party of China, on May 16 , 1966 , who alleged that "liberal bourgeois" elements were permeating the party and society at large and that they wanted to restore Capitalism .
He insisted that these elements be removed through post-revolutionary class struggle by mobilizing the thoughts and actions of China’s youth, who formed Red Guards
Later denounced by Chinese leadership
Declaration of Independence
The United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4 , 1776 , which announced that the thirteen American colonies then at war with Great Britain were now independent states, and thus no longer a part of the British Empire . Written primarily by Thomas Jefferson , the Declaration is a formal explanation of why Congress had voted on July 2 to declare independence from Great Britain, more than a year after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War .
was a five-star general in the United States Army and the 34th President of the United States , from 1953 until 1961
During the Second World War , he served as Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe , with responsibility for planning and supervising the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45
In 1951, he became the first supreme commander of NATO .
Age of Enlightenment
is a term used to describe a time in Western philosophy and cultural life, centered upon the eighteenth century, in which reason was advocated as the primary source and legitimacy for authority.
Stressed the “natural rights” of man
Foundation of the Dec. of Independence
Ethnic cleansing is a term that has come to be used broadly to describe all forms of ethnically inspired violence, ranging from murder, rape, and torture to the forcible removal of populations .
The European Union ( EU ) is an economic and political union of 27 Member States , located primarily in Europe . Committed to regional integration , the EU was established by the Treaty of Maastricht on 1 November 1993 upon the foundations of the pre-existing European Economic Community . With almost 500 million citizens, the EU combined generates an estimated 30% share ( US$ 18.4 trillion in 2008) of the nominal gross world product . [
In its most classic sense, feudalism refers to the Medieval European political system composed of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility , revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals , and fiefs .
is the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group.
Guerrilla warfare is the irregular warfare warfare and combat in which a small group of combatants use mobile military tactics in the form of ambushes and raids to combat a larger and less mobile formal army .
The guerrilla army uses ambush and mobility in attacking vulnerable targets in enemy territory. Guerrilla warfare is countered with counter-insurgency warfare.
He was the authoritarian leader of Germany from 1933 to 1945, serving as chancellor from 1933 to 1945 and as head of state ( Führer und Reichskanzler ) from 1934 to 1945.
Responsible for WW II
He is synonymous with NAZI Party
Nazi forces committed numerous atrocities during the war, including the systematic killing of as many as 17 million civilians, an estimated six million of whom were Jews targeted in a genocide known as the Holocaust .
Emperor of Japan during WW II
was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989.
Japan was still a fairly rural country with a limited industrial base. Japan's militarization in the 1930s eventually led to Japan's invasion of China and involvement in World War II .
is the term generally used to describe the genocide of approximately six million European Jews during World War II , a program of systematic state-sponsored extermination by Nazi Germany , under Adolf Hitler , its allies , and collaborators . 
is a perspective common to a wide range of ethical stances that attaches importance to human dignity, concerns, and capabilities, particularly rationality . Although the word has many senses, its meaning comes into focus when contrasted to the supernatural or to appeals to authority
Imperialism is considered the control by one state of other territories. Through political or military means (direct imperialism), the imperial power may take over the government of a particular territory, or through economic processes (indirect imperialism), in which the concerned region is officially self-governing but linked to the imperial power by, often unequal, trade relations.
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transport had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions in the United Kingdom . The changes subsequently spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world. The onset of the Industrial Revolution marked a major turning point in human history; almost every aspect of daily life was eventually influenced in some way.
A trade union (or labor union ) is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas, such as working conditions. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members ( rank and file members) and negotiates labor contracts ( Collective bargaining ) with employers.
was an American general , United Nations general, and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army . He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and later played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II .
He was designated to command the proposed invasion of Japan in November 1945. When that was no longer necessary, he officially accepted the nation's surrender on September 2, 1945.
MacArthur was removed from command by President Harry S. Truman for publicly disagreeing with Truman's Korean War Policy.
Magna Carta- 1215 AD
Magna Carta required King John of England to proclaim certain rights (pertaining to freemen ), respect certain legal procedures , and accept that his will could be bound by the law . It explicitly protected certain rights of the King's subjects, whether free or fettered — and implicitly supported what became the writ of habeas corpus , allowing appeal against unlawful imprisonment.
was the primary plan of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger foundation for the countries of Western Europe, and repelling communism after World War II .
The plan was in operation for four years beginning in April 1948.
During that period some USD 13 billion in economic and technical assistance were given to help the recovery of the European countries
By the time the plan had come to completion, the economy of every participant state, with the exception of Germany, had grown well past pre-war levels
Mercantilism suggests that the ruling government should advance these goals by playing a protectionist role in the economy; by encouraging exports and discouraging imports, notably through the use of tariffs and subsidies.
Mercantilism is an economic theory that holds that the prosperity of a nation is dependent upon its supply of capital , and that the global volume of international trade is "unchangeable
Leader of Italy in WW I
was an Italian politician who led the National Fascist Party and is credited with being one of the key figures in the creation of Fascism
signed on 17 March 1948
The organization constitutes a system of collective defense whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.
The Parties of NATO agreed that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all.
is the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party or National Socialist German Workers’ Party under Adolf Hitler , and the policies adopted by the dictatorial government of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945
Responsible for World War II
Believed in superior Aryan race
Responsible for the “holocaust”
An Oligarchy is a form of government in which power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society distinguished by royal, wealth, intellectual, family, military, or religious leaders.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries is a cartel of twelve countries made up of Algeria , Angola , Ecuador , Iran , Iraq , Kuwait , Libya , Nigeria , Qatar , Saudi Arabia , the United Arab Emirates , and Venezuela .
Controls world oil princes and production
The Renaissance (French for "rebirth“) was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Florence in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe .
An intellectual transformation of a resurgence of art, science, and architecture
Ended the “Middle Ages” or “Dark Ages”
is replenishment of a previously inflicted loss by the criminal to the victim.
Possibly a results of:
Social or cultural injustice (Japanese internment)
a complex artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe , and gained strength during the Industrial Revolution . It was partly a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature, and was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature.
Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) 1882-1945
the only U.S. President (1933-45) elected to more than two terms, was a central figure in world events during the mid- 20th century , leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war
Often credited for leading the US out of the Great Depression.
Expanded role of President
Created many new government programs
was an international organization for collective defense which was signed on September 8, 1954.
was primarily created to block further communist gains in Southeast Asia.
Australia, France, Bangladesh, New Zealand, Philippines, Pakistan, United States, Thailand, United Kingdom
was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. In the years following Lenin's death in 1924, he rose to become the leader of the Soviet Union .
Was leader in Russia during World War II
Stalin-Hitler Pact of 1939
It was a Non-Aggression Pact between Russia and Germany and pledged neutrality by either party if the other were attacked by a third party.
Germany later invaded Russia in 1941
is a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the state's supreme civil ruler, or in a higher sense, a form of government in which a state is governed by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regarded as divinely guided (clerics).
Rule by religious leaders, ex. Iran
is a political system where the state, usually under the control of a single party or faction, recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
Triangular trade , or Triangle trade , is a historical term indicating trade among three ports or regions. The trade evolved where a region had an export commodity that was required in the region from which its major imports came. Triangular trade thus provided a mechanism for rectifying trade imbalances.
Often sugar to Europe, rum to Africa, slave to America
First types of government
Usually small migrant bands of people gathered together for protection
Had spiritual and leadership guidelines
Often warring or defensive
a set of principles of U.S. inland policy created on March 12, 1947 by President Harry S Truman
Truman declared that the United States, as " leader of the free world ", must support democracy worldwide and fight against communism .
The declaration of the Truman Doctrine served to inhibit the formation of coalition governments that included communist elements. (containment)
Set the groundwork for the “Cold War”
is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and the achieving of world peace.
Currently 192 member countries
Started in 1945-after WW II
is the informal name for the mutual defense Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance subscribed by eight Communist states in Eastern Europe , that was established at the USSR ’s initiative and realized on 14 May 1955.
The Warsaw Pact was the Soviet Bloc ’s military response to West Germany ’s October 1954 integration to NATO .
Countries included were:
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Mao Zedong (Tse-tung)
was a Chinese revolutionary, political theorist and Communist leader .
He led the People's Republic of China (PRC) from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
His theoretical contribution to Marxism - Leninism , military strategies, and his brand of Communist policies are now collectively known as Maoism .
Mao's social-political programs, such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution , are blamed for causing severe famine and damage to the culture , society and economy of China.
Causes of World War I
Mutual Defense Alliances
Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
Causes of WW I
Mutual Defense Alliances
Russia and Serbia
Germany and Austria-Hungary
France and Russia
Britain and France and Belgium
Japan and Britain
Causes of WW I
Imperialism is when a country increases their power and wealth by bringing additional territories under their control
Africa and Asia were points of contention
Desire to control these areas led to confrontation
Causes of WW I
Arms race among Britain, Germany and Russia
Causes of WW I
Countries wanted to prove their dominance and power
Causes of WW I
Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
Led to Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia
Russia aligned with Serbia so Germany declared war on Russia
Why US Entered WW I
US was neutral to begin with
Sinking of Lusitania stirred American concerns
German submarine warfare against US merchant ships
German sent secret message to Mexico and promised them parts of the US back if they aligned with Germany
Causes of World War II
Failure of the Treaty of Versailles
Failure of League of Nations
Adolf Hitler’s rise to power
Expansionism and Appeasement
Economic depression and instability
Causes of World War II
1939-Germany invades Poland
Brings Britain and France into the war
Japan invades Manchuria, China
Japan attacks Pearl Harbor bringing US into the war