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‘ Breaking the Fourth Wall in Ancient Comedy: New Insights from the Social Sciences’ Department of Classics Kenyon College...
Welcome to Roman comedy… <ul><li>“ I’ll make it so that you know at the right time. I don’t want to repeat myself again—th...
where the ‘fourth wall’ can be quite permeable… <ul><li>“ For it is proper for anyone who walks out on stage to present so...
and some of the characters seem to know… <ul><li>“ This play is being acted out for the sake of these spectators—those who...
exactly what they’re doing! <ul><li>“ Now I’ve decided to lay a trap for Pseudolus in a different way than happens in othe...
An Overview <ul><li>Background on Roman comedy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plautus + his performance context </li></ul></ul><ul>...
The Major Comic Poets <ul><li>Aristophanes: Athens, ca. 447-ca. 386-80 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Greek Old Comedy’ </li>...
An Overview <ul><li>Background on Roman comedy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plautus + his performance context </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Stock Characters of Roman Comedy <ul><li>Deities </li></ul><ul><li>Old men (harsh or gentle) </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers </...
SW Corner of the Palatine Hill, Rome (from Goldberg 1998)
Temple of Magna Mater, Palatine Hill, Rome (from Goldberg 1998)
Mosaic depicting comic actor playing slave role, 1 st  c. CE—National Archaeological Museum, Naples
Mosaic depicting comic masks of the 2 nd  c. CE—Capitoline Museum, Rome
Comic costuming, as imagined in a 12 th -century manuscript found in Tours
What I Do <ul><li>Focus on the status of the characters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology: new system of classification fo...
Categories of Pretense Disruption <ul><li>1) direct address of the audience;  </li></ul><ul><li>2) awareness of the audien...
Stock Characters (High to Low) <ul><li>Deities </li></ul><ul><li>Old men </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Pimp...
Characters in Plautus’  Pseudolus <ul><li>Pseudolus  (191 BCE): </li></ul><ul><li>?PROLOGUE SPEAKER </li></ul><ul><li> PS...
Category 1: Audience Address (1)  <ul><li>Pseudolus: ‘Now, so nobody denies that this was said to them, I say to everyone,...
Category 1: Audience Address (2) <ul><li>Pseudolus: ‘I suspect that you all  (vos)  think that I promised such great deeds...
Category 1:  Audience Address (3) <ul><li>Pseudolus: ‘For earlier I did prepare my resources in my heart, my double and tr...
Category 1:  Audience Address (4) <ul><li>(Simo: ‘Why not invite the spectators as well?’) Pseudolus: ‘By Hercules—they do...
Category 2:  Audience Awareness <ul><li>Pseudolus: ‘I’ll make it so that you know at the right time.  I don’t want to repe...
Category 3: Explicitly Theatrical Language <ul><li>Charinus: ‘How pompously theatrical ( ut paratragoedat ) that scoundrel...
Category 4:  Semi-theatrical Language <ul><li>Auctor : creator/author </li></ul><ul><li>Fabula :   story/play </li></ul><u...
Category 4:  Semi-theatrical Language, Poets and Plays <ul><li>Pseudolus: ‘But just like a poet  (quasi poeta),  when he t...
Category 4: Semi-theatrical language, Games <ul><li>Simo:  ‘Now declare your games ( ludos ).’ (546) </li></ul><ul><li>Cal...
Category 4: Semi-theatrical Language, Acting <ul><li>Phoenicium: ‘Now I shall test you, how much you love, how much you ar...
Pretense Disruption in Plautus
Contributions from the Social and Behavioral Sciences <ul><li>Social anthropology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scott  </li></ul><...
Social Anthropologists <ul><li>James C. Scott </li></ul><ul><li>Weapons of the Weak </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malaysian peasan...
Weapons of the Weak <ul><li>“ Most forms of this struggle [between peasantry and elite] stop well short of outright collec...
Powers of the Weak <ul><li>Practices of disobedience/subversion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refusal to participate in the syste...
Indirect Resistance amongst Roman Slaves <ul><li>Phaedrus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fable (disguised speech) </li></ul></ul><u...
Social Psychologists <ul><li>Goodwin & Fiske </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-status people have a better understanding of what’s...
What does this tell us about comedy, ancient and modern? <ul><li>Low-status pretense disruption is pervasive in ancient co...
Selected Bibliography <ul><li>Daube, David.  Civil Disobedience in Antiquity.  Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1972.  </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Hornby, Richard.  Drama, Metadrama and Perception . Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell UP, 1986.  </li></ul><ul><li>Hubbard, ...
<ul><li>Platter, Charles.  Aristophanes and the Carnival of Genres.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2007.  </li></ul><ul><li...
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E. K. Moodie Kenyon Talk, 2/11

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  • fragment of a polychrome mosaic depicting a comic actor playing a slave; Roman, first century CE
Naples, National Archaeological Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003
  • polychrome mosaic depicting comic masks of a young woman and a slave
Roman, age of Hadrian, second century CE
Rome, Palazzo Nuovo (Capitoline Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2003
  • http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/documentation/enlumine/fr/rechexperte_00.htm
  • Transcript of "E. K. Moodie Kenyon Talk, 2/11"

    1. 1. ‘ Breaking the Fourth Wall in Ancient Comedy: New Insights from the Social Sciences’ Department of Classics Kenyon College February 11, 2011
    2. 2. Welcome to Roman comedy… <ul><li>“ I’ll make it so that you know at the right time. I don’t want to repeat myself again—that’s the way plays get too long.” Pseudolus the slave, Ps . 387-8 </li></ul><ul><li>“ I suspect that you all think that I promised such great deeds so that I might entertain you while I act out this play, and that I am not about to do what I said I would.” Pseudolus, Ps . 562-5 </li></ul>
    3. 3. where the ‘fourth wall’ can be quite permeable… <ul><li>“ For it is proper for anyone who walks out on stage to present some new invention in a new way…It pleases me to withdraw inside here for a short time, while I marshall the tricks in my heart…the piper will entertain you all in the meantime out here.” Pseudolus, Ps. 568-73a </li></ul>
    4. 4. and some of the characters seem to know… <ul><li>“ This play is being acted out for the sake of these spectators—those who’ve been here already know. I’ll tell you later.” Pseudolus, Ps. 720-1 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Trifles of the theater—words which are usually said to the pimp in comedies!” Ballio the pimp, Ps. 1081 </li></ul><ul><li>“ But look—does this costume suit me well enough?” Simia the slave, Ps. 935 </li></ul>
    5. 5. exactly what they’re doing! <ul><li>“ Now I’ve decided to lay a trap for Pseudolus in a different way than happens in other comedies, where they are besieged with whips and goads.” Simo the old man, Ps. 1239-45 </li></ul>
    6. 6. An Overview <ul><li>Background on Roman comedy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plautus + his performance context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminology + previous interpretations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What I do: focus on the status of the characters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology: new system of classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples from Plautus’ Pseudolus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contributions from the social sciences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scott, Janeway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sidanius + Pratto, Goodwin + Fiske </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What does this tell us about comedy, ancient and modern? </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Major Comic Poets <ul><li>Aristophanes: Athens, ca. 447-ca. 386-80 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Greek Old Comedy’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11 surviving comedies, plus fragments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Menander: Athens, 342-291 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Greek New Comedy’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 surviving full comedy, plus many fragments (some long, some short) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plautus: Rome, 254-184 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 surviving comedies, plus fragments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terence: Rome, fl .166-60 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 surviving comedies (all he wrote) </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. An Overview <ul><li>Background on Roman comedy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plautus + his performance context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminology + previous interpretations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What I do: focus on the status of the characters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology: new system of classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples from Plautus’ Pseudolus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contributions from the social sciences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scott, Janeway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sidanius + Pratto, Goodwin + Fiske </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What does this tell us about comedy, ancient and modern? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Stock Characters of Roman Comedy <ul><li>Deities </li></ul><ul><li>Old men (harsh or gentle) </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Pimps </li></ul><ul><li>Young men (usually in love) </li></ul><ul><li>Parasites (flattering moochers) </li></ul><ul><li>Wives (usually controlling) </li></ul><ul><li>Maidens </li></ul><ul><li>Madams </li></ul><ul><li>Cooks </li></ul><ul><li>Male slaves (clever, obedient, or ‘running’!) </li></ul><ul><li>Prostitutes (wicked or good-hearted) </li></ul><ul><li>Female slaves </li></ul>
    10. 10. SW Corner of the Palatine Hill, Rome (from Goldberg 1998)
    11. 11. Temple of Magna Mater, Palatine Hill, Rome (from Goldberg 1998)
    12. 12. Mosaic depicting comic actor playing slave role, 1 st c. CE—National Archaeological Museum, Naples
    13. 13. Mosaic depicting comic masks of the 2 nd c. CE—Capitoline Museum, Rome
    14. 14. Comic costuming, as imagined in a 12 th -century manuscript found in Tours
    15. 15. What I Do <ul><li>Focus on the status of the characters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology: new system of classification for metatheatrical and pretense-rupturing moments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples from Plautus’ Pseudolus </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Categories of Pretense Disruption <ul><li>1) direct address of the audience; </li></ul><ul><li>2) awareness of the audience or of being an actor in a play; </li></ul><ul><li>3) reference to the theater in general; </li></ul><ul><li>4) semi-theatrical language; </li></ul><ul><li>5) reference to costumes and costuming; </li></ul><ul><li>6) a play-within-a-play deception (and rehearsals for it); </li></ul><ul><li>7) paratragedy and implicit reference to theatrical convention; </li></ul><ul><li>8) language of deception; </li></ul><ul><li>9) disruption of the pretense of a Roman comedy’s Greek setting. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Stock Characters (High to Low) <ul><li>Deities </li></ul><ul><li>Old men </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Pimps </li></ul><ul><li>Young men </li></ul><ul><li>Parasites </li></ul><ul><li>Wives </li></ul><ul><li>Maidens </li></ul><ul><li>Madams </li></ul><ul><li>Cooks </li></ul><ul><li>Male slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Prostitutes </li></ul><ul><li>Female slaves </li></ul>
    18. 18. Characters in Plautus’ Pseudolus <ul><li>Pseudolus (191 BCE): </li></ul><ul><li>?PROLOGUE SPEAKER </li></ul><ul><li> PSEUDOLUS, SLAVE </li></ul><ul><li>?CALIDORUS, young man </li></ul><ul><li>• BALLIO, pimp </li></ul><ul><li>• SIMO, old man </li></ul><ul><li>?CALLIPHO, old man </li></ul><ul><li>HARPAX, soldier’s slave </li></ul><ul><li>• CHARINUS, young man </li></ul><ul><li>WHIP-MEN </li></ul><ul><li>PROSTITUTES, including PHOENICIUM </li></ul><ul><li>SLAVE BOY </li></ul><ul><li>COOK </li></ul><ul><li>?SIMIA, ‘sycophanta’ (trickster) </li></ul><ul><li>Key to Dramatis Personae </li></ul><ul><li>(speaking parts only, names and roles as listed in OCT indices) </li></ul><ul><li>• Name: character has 1 or more overtly pretense-disrupting remarks. </li></ul><ul><li> Name: character is the most dominant pretense-disrupting character in the comedy. </li></ul><ul><li>?Name: character’s only potentially pretense-disrupting remarks do not break the fourth wall overtly. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Category 1: Audience Address (1) <ul><li>Pseudolus: ‘Now, so nobody denies that this was said to them, I say to everyone, to the youths at the public meeting, to all the people, I declare to all my friends and acquaintances, that they should be wary of me for the length of this day, that they should not trust me.’ (125-8) </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudolus: ‘Where are they, where are the men hiding who are are full-grown and who find love from a pimp?’ (203) </li></ul>
    20. 20. Category 1: Audience Address (2) <ul><li>Pseudolus: ‘I suspect that you all (vos) think that I promised such great deeds so that I might entertain you while I act out this story ( hanc fabulam transigam ) , and that I am not about to do what I said I would. I won’t change your mind. And certainly, so far as I know, I know nothing about how I’d do it, except that it will be done. For it is proper for anyone who walks out on stage ( in scaenam ) to present some new invention in a new way; but if he can’t do this, let him yield his position to one who can. It pleases me to withdraw inside here for a short time, while I marshall the tricks ( sycophantias ) in my heart. I’ll come out, I won’t make you (vobis) wait—the piper (tibicen) will entertain you all in the meantime out here.’ (562-73a) </li></ul>
    21. 21. Category 1: Audience Address (3) <ul><li>Pseudolus: ‘For earlier I did prepare my resources in my heart, my double and triple tricks (dolos), my treacheries (relying on the virtue of my ancestors—I should say on my own diligence and deceitful badness), so that I conquer easily, so that I easily despoil my enemies with my treachery. Now in a charming manner I shall utterly destroy this common enemy of mine and yours (vostrorum), Ballio: now pay attention (date operam)! ’ (579-85) </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudolus: ‘Shh! Be quiet, be quiet! ( tace! tace! ) This man is mine, unless all gods and men desert me.’ (600-600a) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Category 1: Audience Address (4) <ul><li>(Simo: ‘Why not invite the spectators as well?’) Pseudolus: ‘By Hercules—they don’t usually invite me, nor do I invite them! But if you all wish (voltis) to applaud and approve this troupe (gregem) and this play (f abulam ), I will invite you all (vos) tomorrow.’ (1331-4) </li></ul><ul><li>Ballio: ‘Pseudolus held a capital trial for me in the Centuriate Assembly…Now don’t you all expect ( expectetis ) me to return home by this road; the matter is over and done with. I’ve decided to follow by this back-street.’ (1234-5) </li></ul>
    23. 23. Category 2: Audience Awareness <ul><li>Pseudolus: ‘I’ll make it so that you know at the right time. I don’t want to repeat myself again—that’s the way plays (fabulae) get too long.’ (387-8) </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudolus: ‘This play is being acted for the sake of these spectators (spectatorum ) : those who’ve been here know what happened. I’ll tell you later.’ (720-1) </li></ul><ul><li>Simo: ‘Now I’ve decided to lay a trap ( insidias ) for Pseudolus in a different way than happens in other comedies ( in aliis comoediis ), where they are besieged with whips and goads…That mortal is too clever ( doctus ), too crafty, too wicked ( malus ); Pseudolus surpassed that Trojan trick ( dolum ) and Ulysses. Now I will go inside, bring out the silver, and prepare a trap ( insidias ) for Pseudolus. (1239-45) </li></ul>
    24. 24. Category 3: Explicitly Theatrical Language <ul><li>Charinus: ‘How pompously theatrical ( ut paratragoedat ) that scoundrel sounds !’ (707) </li></ul><ul><li>Ballio: Trifles of the theater (theatri) —words which are usually (solent) said to the pimp (lenoni) in comedies (in comoediis)! (1081) </li></ul>
    25. 25. Category 4: Semi-theatrical Language <ul><li>Auctor : creator/author </li></ul><ul><li>Fabula : story/play </li></ul><ul><li>Ludus : game/show </li></ul><ul><li>Pars : part/role </li></ul><ul><li>Poeta : poet/playwright </li></ul><ul><li>Simulare : imitate/pretend </li></ul><ul><li>Spectare : watch/spectate </li></ul><ul><li>Sycophanta : informer/trickster </li></ul>
    26. 26. Category 4: Semi-theatrical Language, Poets and Plays <ul><li>Pseudolus: ‘But just like a poet (quasi poeta), when he takes up tablets for himself, seeks what’s nowhere on earth, nevertheless he finds/invents (reperit) it, and makes what’s a lie similar to the truth. Now I become a poet (poeta): nevertheless I shall invent (inveniam) 20 minae that are now nowhere on earth.’ (401-5) </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudolus: ‘When I dress up (exornavero) the man, I want him to become a fake slave of that soldier. He will carry this token to the pimp with five minae of silver, then he will take the woman away from the pimp: voil à , that’s the whole play ( omnem fabulam ) for you!’ (751-4) </li></ul>
    27. 27. Category 4: Semi-theatrical language, Games <ul><li>Simo: ‘Now declare your games ( ludos ).’ (546) </li></ul><ul><li>Callipho: ‘It is a pleasure to watch your games ( ludos ), Pseudolus.’ (552) </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudolus: ‘You tear me to pieces at my own game ( ludo ) very well, Charinus!’ (743) </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudolus: ‘the tragic end to my game ( ludo ).’ (1278a) </li></ul>
    28. 28. Category 4: Semi-theatrical Language, Acting <ul><li>Phoenicium: ‘Now I shall test you, how much you love, how much you are pretending ( simulas ).’ (73) </li></ul><ul><li>Ballio: ‘Honest singer-actors ( cantores )!’ (366) </li></ul><ul><li>Ballio: ‘There’s no profit for pretenders ( sycophantis ) here today.’ (1197) </li></ul><ul><li>Ballio: ‘This boy is an unadulterated pretender ( sycophanta ).’ (1200) </li></ul><ul><li>Ballio: ‘This pretender (sycophanta) doesn’t rely on nonsense: he is well rehearsed ( meditatus ). By Pollux that scoundrel Pseudolus, how learnedly (docte) he composed the trick ( dolum )! Just as much silver as the soldier owed he gave to this man and dressed him up (exornavit) so he might take away the woman.’ (1204-7) </li></ul>
    29. 29. Pretense Disruption in Plautus
    30. 30. Contributions from the Social and Behavioral Sciences <ul><li>Social anthropology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scott </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Janeway </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sidanius + Pratto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goodwin + Fiske </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Social Anthropologists <ul><li>James C. Scott </li></ul><ul><li>Weapons of the Weak </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malaysian peasants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domination and the Arts of Resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serfs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of lower castes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prisoners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth Janeway </li></ul><ul><li>Powers of the Weak </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects of autocratic regimes </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Weapons of the Weak <ul><li>“ Most forms of this struggle [between peasantry and elite] stop well short of outright collective defiance. Here I have in mind the ordinary weapons of relatively powerless groups: foot dragging, dissimulation, desertion, false compliance, pilfering, feigned ignorance, slander, arson, sabotage, and so forth.” (Scott, Weapons , p. 29) </li></ul>
    33. 33. Powers of the Weak <ul><li>Practices of disobedience/subversion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refusal to participate in the system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal of attention from the powerful. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disbelief in the reasoning of the powerful. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acceptance of own vulnerability. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No paralyzing shame because of low status or weakness. </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Indirect Resistance amongst Roman Slaves <ul><li>Phaedrus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fable (disguised speech) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Columella </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negligent feeding of livestock, plowing, crop tending, threshing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renting out the master’s property for personal gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilfering (seed before sowing, grain after threshing) </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Social Psychologists <ul><li>Goodwin & Fiske </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-status people have a better understanding of what’s actually happening than high-status people do. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sidanius & Pratto </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Dominance Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-status people are more likely to reject hierarchy-justifying myths. </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. What does this tell us about comedy, ancient and modern? <ul><li>Low-status pretense disruption is pervasive in ancient comedy. </li></ul><ul><li>Is it subversive? </li></ul><ul><li>So why was it staged? </li></ul><ul><li>What were these pretense-rupturing moments meant to do? </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Clever slave’ bronze incense burner, Roman, ca. 1-50 CE—Getty Villa, Malibu  </li></ul>
    37. 37. Selected Bibliography <ul><li>Daube, David. Civil Disobedience in Antiquity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1972. </li></ul><ul><li>Dobrov, Gregory. Figures of Play: Greek Drama and Metafictional Poetics. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Dover, Kenneth James. Aristophanic Comedy. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1972. </li></ul><ul><li>Duncan, Anne. Performance and Identity in the Classical World. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Fitzgerald, William. Slavery and the Roman Literary Imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>Green, J.R. Theatre in Ancient Greek Society. London: Routledge, 1994. </li></ul><ul><li>Gutzwiller, Kathryn. ‘The Tragic Mask of Comedy: Metatheatricality in Menander.’ ClAnt 9.1 (2000): 102-37. </li></ul><ul><li>Hall, Edith. The Theatrical Cast of Athens. Oxford, Oxford UP, 2006. </li></ul>
    38. 38. <ul><li>Hornby, Richard. Drama, Metadrama and Perception . Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell UP, 1986. </li></ul><ul><li>Hubbard, Thomas K. The Mask of Comedy: Aristophanes and the Intertextual Parabasis. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1991. </li></ul><ul><li>Janeway, Elizabeth. Powers of the Weak. New York: Knopf, 1980. </li></ul><ul><li>Lape. Susan. Reproducing Athens. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Marshall, C.W. The Stagecraft and Performance of Roman Comedy. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>McCarthy, Kathleen. Slaves, Masters, and the Art of Authority in Plautine Comedy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>Moore, Timothy. The Theater of Plautus: Playing to the Audience. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>Muecke, Frances. ‘Playing with the Play: Theatrical Self-consciousness in Aristophanes.’ Antichthon 11 (1977): 52-67. </li></ul><ul><li>Muecke, Frances. ‘Plautus and the Theater of Disguise.’ Classical Antiquity 5 (1986): 216-229. </li></ul>
    39. 39. <ul><li>Platter, Charles. Aristophanes and the Carnival of Genres. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Rosenmeyer, Thomas G. “‘Metatheater’: An Essay on Overload.” Arion 10.2 (2002): 87-111. </li></ul><ul><li>Scott, James C. Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1985. </li></ul><ul><li>Scott, James C. Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1990. </li></ul><ul><li>Slater, Niall. Plautus in Performance: The Theatre of the Mind. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1985. </li></ul><ul><li>Slater, Niall. Spectator Politics: Metatheatre and Performance in Aristophanes. Philadelphia, PA: UPenn Press, 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Stallybrass, Peter and Allon White. The Politics and Poetics of Transgression. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1986. </li></ul><ul><li>Whitman, Cedric H. Aristophanes and the Comic Hero. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1964. </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson, Peter, and Oliver Taplin. ‘The ‘Aetiology’ of Tragedy in the Oresteia. ’ PCPhS 39 (1993): 169-80. </li></ul>
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