Chapter 04

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Chapter 04

  1. 1.
  2. 2. Objectives Overview<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />2<br />See Page 209 <br />for Detailed Objectives<br />
  3. 3. Objectives Overview<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />3<br />See Page 209 <br />for Detailed Objectives<br />
  4. 4. The System Unit<br />The system unitis a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />4<br />Page 210 <br />Figure 4-1<br />
  5. 5. The System Unit<br />The inside of the system unit on a desktop personal computer includes:<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />5<br />Page 211 <br />Figure 4-2<br />
  6. 6. The System Unit<br />The motherboard is the main circuit board of the system unit<br />A computer chip contains integrated circuits<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />6<br />Page 212 <br />Figure 4-3<br />
  7. 7. Processor<br />The processor, also called the central processing unit (CPU), interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer<br />Contain a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit (ALU)<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />7<br />Page 213<br />
  8. 8. Processor<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />8<br />Page 213 <br />Figure 4-4<br />
  9. 9. Processor<br />The control unitis the component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer<br />The arithmetic logic unit(ALU) performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />9<br />Page 214<br />Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, <br />then click Control Unitbelow Chapter 4<br />
  10. 10. Processor<br />For every instruction, a processor repeats a set of four basic operations, which comprise a machine cycle<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />10<br />Page 215 <br />Figure 4-5<br />
  11. 11. Processor<br />Most current personal computers support pipelining<br />Processor begins fetching a second instruction before it completes the machine cycle for the first instruction<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />11<br />Pages 215 – 216 <br />Figure 4-6<br />
  12. 12. Processor<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />12<br />Page 216<br />
  13. 13. Processor<br />The leading manufacturers of personal computer processor chips are Intel and AMD<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />13<br />Pages 216 – 217 <br />Figure 4-7<br />Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, <br />then click Multi-Core Processors below Chapter 4<br />
  14. 14. Processor<br />Determine how you plan to use a new computer before selecting a processor<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />14<br />Page 218 <br />Figure 4-8<br />
  15. 15. Processor<br />A processor chip generates heat that could cause the chip to burn up<br />Require additional cooling<br />Heat sinks<br />Liquid cooling technology<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />15<br />Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, <br />then click Liquid Cooling below Chapter 4<br />Pages 219 - 220 <br />Figures 4-9 – 4-10<br />
  16. 16. Processor<br />Parallel processing uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a single program or task<br />Massively parallel processing involves hundreds or thousands of processors<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />16<br />Page 220 <br />Figure 4-11<br />
  17. 17. Data Representation<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />17<br />Page 221<br />
  18. 18. Data Representation<br />A computer circuit represents the 0 or the 1 electronically by the presence or absence of an electrical charge<br />Eight bits grouped together as a unit are called a byte. A byte represents a single character in the computer<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />18<br />Page 221 <br />Figures 4-12 – 4-13<br />
  19. 19. Data Representation<br />ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most widely used coding scheme to represent data<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />19<br />Page 221 <br />Figure 4-14<br />
  20. 20. Data Representation<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />20<br />Page 222 <br />Figure 4-15<br />
  21. 21. Memory<br />Memory consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processing the data<br />Stores three basic categories of items:<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />21<br />Page 223<br />
  22. 22. Memory<br />Each location in memory has an address<br />Memory size is measured in kilobytes (KB or K), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), orterabytes (TB)<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />22<br />Page 223 <br />Figure 4-17<br />
  23. 23. Memory<br />The system unit contains two types of memory:<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />23<br />Pages 223 - 224<br />
  24. 24. Memory<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />24<br />Page 224 <br />Figure 4-18<br />
  25. 25. Memory<br />Three basic types of RAM chips exist:<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />25<br />Page 225 <br />Figure 4-19<br />
  26. 26. Memory<br />RAM chips usually reside on a memory moduleand are inserted into memory slots<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />26<br />Page 225 <br />Figure 4-20<br />
  27. 27. Memory<br />The amount of RAM necessary in a computer often depends on the types of software you plan to use<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />27<br />Page 226 <br />Figure 4-21<br />
  28. 28. Memory<br />Memory cache speeds the processes of the computer because it stores frequently used instructions and data<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />28<br />Page 227 <br />Figure 4-22<br />Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, <br />then click Windows ReadyBoost below Chapter 4<br />
  29. 29. Memory<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />29<br />Page 228<br />Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, <br />then click ROMbelow Chapter 4<br />
  30. 30. Memory<br />Flash memorycan be erased electronically and rewritten<br />CMOStechnology provides high speeds and consumes little power<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />30<br />Pages 228 – 229<br />Figure 4-23<br />
  31. 31. Memory<br />Access timeis the amount of time it takes the processor to read from memory<br />Measured in nanoseconds<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />31<br />Page 229 <br />Figures 4-24 – 4-25<br />
  32. 32. Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards<br />An expansion slotis a socket on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card<br />An adapter cardenhances functions of a component of the system unit and/or provides connections to peripherals<br />Sound card andvideo card<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />32<br />Page 230 <br />Figure 4-26<br />Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, <br />then click Video Cardsbelow Chapter 4<br />
  33. 33. Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards<br />With Plug and Play, the computer automatically can configure adapter cards and other peripherals as you install them<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />33<br />Pages 230 – 231 <br />Figure 4-27<br />
  34. 34. Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards<br />Removable flash memory includes:<br />Memory cards, USB flash drives, and PC Cards/ExpressCard modules<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />34<br />Page 231 <br />Figure 4-28<br />
  35. 35. Ports and Connectors<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />35<br />Page 232<br />Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, <br />then click Digital Audio Portbelow Chapter 4<br />
  36. 36. Ports and Connectors<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />36<br />Page 232 <br />Figure 4-29<br />
  37. 37. Ports and Connectors<br />On a notebook computer, the ports are on the back, front, and/or sides<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />37<br />Pages 232 - 233 <br />Figure 4-30<br />
  38. 38. Ports and Connectors<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />38<br />Page 233 <br />Figure 4-31<br />
  39. 39. Ports and Connectors<br />A USB portcan connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector<br />You can attach multiple peripherals using a single USB port with a USB hub<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />39<br />Page 234 <br />Figure 4-32<br />Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, <br />then click USB Portsbelow Chapter 4<br />
  40. 40. Ports and Connectors<br />Other types of ports include:<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />40<br />Pages 234 - 236<br />
  41. 41. Ports and Connectors<br />A Bluetooth wireless port adapter converts a USB port into a Bluetooth port<br />A smart phone might communicate with a notebook computer using an IrDA port<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />41<br />Page 235 <br />Figures 4-33 – 4-34<br />
  42. 42. Ports and Connectors<br />A port replicator is an external device that provides connections to peripherals through ports built into the device<br />A docking station is an external device that attaches to a mobile computer or device<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />42<br />Page 236 <br />Figure 4-35<br />Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, <br />then click Docking Stationbelow Chapter 4<br />
  43. 43. Buses<br />A bus allows the various devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other<br />Data bus<br />Address bus<br />Word sizeis the number of bits the processor can interpret and execute at a given time<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />43<br />Page 237 <br />Figure 4-36<br />
  44. 44. Buses<br />Expansion slots connect to expansion buses<br />Common types of expansion buses include:<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />44<br />Page 238<br />Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, <br />then click FireWirebelow Chapter 4<br />
  45. 45. Bays<br />A bay is an opening inside the system unit in which you can install additional equipment<br />A drive baytypically holds disk drives<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />45<br />Page 238 <br />Figure 4-37<br />
  46. 46. Power Supply<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />46<br />Page 239<br />
  47. 47. Putting It All Together<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />47<br />Page 239 <br />Figure 4-38<br />
  48. 48. Putting It All Together<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />48<br />Page 239 <br />Figure 4-38<br />
  49. 49. Keeping Your Computer or Mobile Device Clean<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />49<br />Page 240<br />
  50. 50. Video: The Leopard with a Time Machine<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />50<br />CLICK TO START<br />
  51. 51. Summary<br />Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a Digital World Chapter 4<br />51<br />Page 241<br />
  52. 52. Chapter 4 Complete<br />

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