S
European History
Broad Historic Overview
Period: World War I and World War II
POLS 208 European Studies
European Univers...
S German Unity and German Nationalism
S Under Kaiser Wilhelm II, Germany begins a “new course”
S After 1871, German trade ...
S Germany had allowed an implicit alliance with Russia to lapse
S French resent the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine (1871)
S...
Precipitating factors
S WWI one of the most contested issues in history
S Complexity of the war and the number of theorize...
S War brought by poor leadership
S War brought about by accident – tension between Alliances
S WWI culmination of historic...
S The war became inevitable with the “blank check”
S Austro-Hungarian Emperor sends letter to Wilhelm II
S Wilhelm II’s Ch...
The Alliances
S By 1914, Triple Entente was formed: France, Russia and
Britain
S Hungary, Germany and Italy form the Tripl...
Alliances
New Military Techniques and Technologies
S WWI introduces “total war”
S Full mobilization of society
S WWI marks the end o...
War World I
POLS 208 European Studies
European University of Lefke
New Military Techniques and Technologies
S From the age...
The Schlieffen Plan
S Designed by Field Marshall Count Alfred von Schlieffen
S Out of fear of two-front war
S To eliminate...
The Schlieffen Plan
The Schlieffen Plan
S Elimination of French, allows Germany fight against Russia or
Britain
S Defeat the Belgian Fortress ...
S New Alliances for the War
S Triple Entente forms the Allied Powers with Italy joining the
Alliance
S Allied Powers: Brit...
New Alliances
S August 1914: war erupts
S June 28th Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to Austria-Hungary
throne) assassinated in Sarajevo
S...
S German Force enacts Moltke’s plan
S Fortress of Liege attacked. Lasts 10 days.
S Second half of August, hasty French cou...
S Near-panic by end of August as Germans move south toward
Paris
S On German side, gap develops between the westernmost
ar...
1915-1916
S February 4th 1915, Germany declares submarine blockade of
GB
S May 7th 1915, Germany sinks passenger ship Lusi...
1915-1916
S February 4th 1915, Germany declares submarine blockade of
GB
S France’s front focus of mass attacks: huge loss...
S 1917 – 1918: Final Phases
S February 1st 1917, Germany declares unrestricted submarine
warfare
S Germans believe they co...
S Germany: hunger and deprivation as overseas trade was
blocked
S German Labor strikes and political discontent increasing...
S While WWI going on, in November 7th Bolsheviks led by Lenin
overthrows the post-Tsar Russian Government
S March 1918, ne...
S September 29th 1918, allied troops finally break into German
fortifications at the Hindenberg line
S November 9th 1918, ...
S European combatant nations exhausted
S Political conditions vastly changed
S German, Austrian and Russian monarchies rep...
The Treaty of Versailles 1919
S The Peace of Paris: The “Big Four” discuss the results of the
war
S US President Woodrow W...
Wilson’s 14 Points
S Democratic, liberal, enlightened and progressive
S New type of treaty designed to bring peace last fo...
S Treaty’s treatment of Germany
S Despite Wilson’s idealism, the Treaty was harsh, brutal and
punitive in nature
S Aspect ...
S Rhineland would be demilitarized as buffer zone
Europe: 1918 to 1945
POLS 208 European Studies
European University of Le...
S Germany’s colonies divided between France and GB
S Germany loses 13.5 % of land and 12.5 % of population
S German Navy c...
Germany after WWI
S New democratic Weimar Republic faces serious problems
S Germans refuse to admit their army lost the wa...
S Political chaos for several years: political parties battle over the central
gov’t
S The Spartacists (communist) stage u...
S Late 1920’s German returns its prosperity thanks to US aid
(the Dawes Plan 1924 and the Young Plan 1929)
S Realistic pla...
The Rise of Pacifism and Isolation in 1920s
S Nations desire to avoid the horrors and atrocities of the WWI
S Washington N...
Europe: 1918 to 1945
POLS 208 European Studies
European University of Lefke
The Rise of Pacifism and Isolation in 1920s
S ...
S Fascism rises in Europe
S Liberal democracies in Britain and France encounter
Isolationism and Pacifism
S Unemployment p...
S The Great Depression: challenges democracy, fascists and
communists increased popularity
S Low wages – less purchasing p...
S FEDs untimely raise in interest rates (to lure foreign
investment)
S The Smooth-Hawley Tariff: immediate backlash in tar...
S Calls for autonomy in the colonies effected also by WW’s 14 points and proposed
“self determination”
S 1931, “Commonweal...
S Italy: fascism under Benito Musolini and Germany: Hitler
S Fascism: new form of gov’t - extreme nationalism, nat’l unity...
S 1936, German troops enter the Rhineland to establish national
self esteem
S 1938, Hitler’s policy of expansionism to est...
Outbreak of WWII
S The Treaty of Versailles creates “revisionist” powers
S Germany as losing side, heavy reparations
S Ita...
S 1933, Germany leaves the League of Nations
S 1934, Germany attempts to annex Austria
S 1935, Italy invades Ethiopia
S Ge...
S During 1939, Italy and Germany sign “the Pact of Steel”
alliance and Germany and SU sign a non - aggression pact
(sign t...
S Western Democracies reluctant to interfere
S Feel guilt over Germany’s treatment
S Areas Germany invaded all of German h...
Europe: 1918 to 1945
POLS 208 European Studies
European University of Lefke
S Fall of 1939 – Spring of 1940: Allies do not interfere i.e. “phoney war”
S 1940: Germany invades Denmark, Belgium, Nethe...
S 1943, Allies battle Italy and Mussolini's forces successfully
S 1943, Battle of Kursk: the largest armored engagement of...
Europe: 1918 to 1945
POLS 208 European Studies
European University of Lefke
S Late 1944, Battle of Bulge in Belgium, Allies crash the remaining of the
German forces
S May 8th 1945, Victory in Europe...
Conclusions of the War
S Two Major Conferences: Yalta Conference and Potsdam
Conference
S Discuss how to effectively termi...
Several Essential provisions:
S United Nations: “global association of gov’ts facilitating
cooperation in Int’l Law, Int’l...
The Potsdam Conference
S July to August 1945
S US President Harry Truman, British PM Attlee and Joseph
Stalin
S Conference...
Europe: 1918 to 1945
POLS 208 European Studies
European University of Lefke
EU now
POLS 208 European Studies
European University of Lefke
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European History: Part III

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European History: Part III

  1. 1. S European History Broad Historic Overview Period: World War I and World War II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  2. 2. S German Unity and German Nationalism S Under Kaiser Wilhelm II, Germany begins a “new course” S After 1871, German trade and industry increases vigorously S Many-sided rivalry develops between Germany and Britain, esp. when Wilhelm II begins building ocean-going navy S Britain and France draw together diplomatically as 20th Century begins War World I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  3. 3. S Germany had allowed an implicit alliance with Russia to lapse S French resent the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine (1871) S German Leaders fear “encirclement” by hostile nations S These factors contribute to the War in 1914 War World I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  4. 4. Precipitating factors S WWI one of the most contested issues in history S Complexity of the war and the number of theorized causes S War tensions build over a long period S Germany’s aggressive foreign policy contributes to the outbreak S Some historians speculate Germany willed and engineering the war S Germany compelled to go to war War World I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  5. 5. S War brought by poor leadership S War brought about by accident – tension between Alliances S WWI culmination of historical developments – Austria and Serbia conflict inevitable, Russia imperialistic expansion eastward, French resentful over Alsace-Lorraine S General rise in Nationalism War World I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  6. 6. S The war became inevitable with the “blank check” S Austro-Hungarian Emperor sends letter to Wilhelm II S Wilhelm II’s Chancellor telegrams back confirming that Austria-Hungary can rely on any action taken against Serbia War World I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  7. 7. The Alliances S By 1914, Triple Entente was formed: France, Russia and Britain S Hungary, Germany and Italy form the Triple Alliance S Other European Nations and US are neutral S Great Britain and France rely also on their overseas possessions to expand their “allies” War World I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  8. 8. Alliances
  9. 9. New Military Techniques and Technologies S WWI introduces “total war” S Full mobilization of society S WWI marks the end of war as “glamorous occupation” S WWI introduces a number of new technologies and techniques War World I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  10. 10. War World I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke New Military Techniques and Technologies S From the age of coal to the age of petroleum S Chemical welfare S Submarines: advent of depth charges and sonar S Rudimentary tanks and mechanized warfare towards the end S Machine Gun S All these aimed at improving trench warfare
  11. 11. The Schlieffen Plan S Designed by Field Marshall Count Alfred von Schlieffen S Out of fear of two-front war S To eliminate one of the fronts before the other side could prepare S Rapid German mobilization S Holland – Luxembourg – Belgium – France route S Overwhelming numbers on the far right flank with minimum War World I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  12. 12. The Schlieffen Plan
  13. 13. The Schlieffen Plan S Elimination of French, allows Germany fight against Russia or Britain S Defeat the Belgian Fortress in Liege by encirclement S Shlieffen retires in 1906. Replaced by Helmuth von Moltke S 1907-08 Moltke readjusts the plan. Direct move into Belgium. War World I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  14. 14. S New Alliances for the War S Triple Entente forms the Allied Powers with Italy joining the Alliance S Allied Powers: Britain, France, Italy, Russia and US S Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria War World I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  15. 15. New Alliances
  16. 16. S August 1914: war erupts S June 28th Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to Austria-Hungary throne) assassinated in Sarajevo S Austria declares war on Serbia S Germany declares war on France and Russia S August 4, Germany invades Belgium S Britain thus joins the war War World I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  17. 17. S German Force enacts Moltke’s plan S Fortress of Liege attacked. Lasts 10 days. S Second half of August, hasty French counteroffensive collapses in Lorraine under heavy German machine-gun fire S Germany crosses Belgium into France on a wide front S Russia invades German easternmost province, East Prussia, in August S Russians defeated in the Battle of Tannenberg War World I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  18. 18. S Near-panic by end of August as Germans move south toward Paris S On German side, gap develops between the westernmost army corps couples with exhaustion of the troops S French reinforces Paris to the front S Germans halted along the river Marne in the 1st week of September S Beginning of static trench lines that define the front in West Europe for 4 years War World I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  19. 19. 1915-1916 S February 4th 1915, Germany declares submarine blockade of GB S May 7th 1915, Germany sinks passenger ship Lusitania S Massive uproar in US as over 100 US citizens vanish S August 30th, Germany declares it will not longer attack ships without warning War World I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  20. 20. 1915-1916 S February 4th 1915, Germany declares submarine blockade of GB S France’s front focus of mass attacks: huge loss but little gain S GB fully engaged with France, raising large conscript army for the 1st time in History S 1915: first attacks with chlorine gas by Germans S The battle of Verdun: the longest in the war (1916): Germans fought to a draw. 1 million casualties. S Battle of Somme: Nov.18, no breakthrough, another 1 million War World I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  21. 21. S 1917 – 1918: Final Phases S February 1st 1917, Germany declares unrestricted submarine warfare S Germans believe they could win GB in 6 months and the US will take a year to mobilize forces S Cultural despair prevalent in Europe as entire generation of youth fed into the maw of combat S French armies came close to mutiny in 1917 War World I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  22. 22. S Germany: hunger and deprivation as overseas trade was blocked S German Labor strikes and political discontent increasing S Russia collapses and the Tsar ousted in favor of liberal-socialist regime S April 6th 1917, US enters the war S The Third Battle of Ypres: July 31st – November 17th minor gains for Britain, but no breakthrough through German defense War World I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  23. 23. S While WWI going on, in November 7th Bolsheviks led by Lenin overthrows the post-Tsar Russian Government S March 1918, new Russian Gov’t represented by Leon Trotsky signs an armistice treaty with Germany S March 21st Germans launch “Ludendorff” offensive hoping to win before US troops arrive S Germans draw closer to Paris, but exhaustions takes a toll by the end of the summer War World I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  24. 24. S September 29th 1918, allied troops finally break into German fortifications at the Hindenberg line S November 9th 1918, Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates S November 10th German Weimar republic founded S November 11th, 1918, at 11:00 am on the 11th day of the 11th month war ended as Germany and Allies sign an armistice agreement War World I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  25. 25. S European combatant nations exhausted S Political conditions vastly changed S German, Austrian and Russian monarchies replaced by democratic or revolutionary gov’ts S European ethnic groups seize chance to obtain independence S Victorious powers attempt to bring peace to Europe S Germany heavily blamed and punished Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  26. 26. The Treaty of Versailles 1919 S The Peace of Paris: The “Big Four” discuss the results of the war S US President Woodrow Wilson, GB Prime Minister, Lloyd- George, France Statesman Clemenceau, Italy Diplomat Orlando S Germany and Russia not invited S Wilson’s leading as US least damaged and seemingly neutral in the war S Wilson’s 14 points: idealistic road map to a new future Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  27. 27. Wilson’s 14 Points S Democratic, liberal, enlightened and progressive S New type of treaty designed to bring peace last forever S Disallow secret treaties S Freedom of the seas S Arms reduction S Self-determination of nations S League of Nations: key instrument to prevent future war Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  28. 28. S Treaty’s treatment of Germany S Despite Wilson’s idealism, the Treaty was harsh, brutal and punitive in nature S Aspect of it designed to to attempt prevent Germany’s ability to wage war in the future S France takes control over Saar valley (iron and coal) for 15 years S France gets Alsace-Lorraine returned Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  29. 29. S Rhineland would be demilitarized as buffer zone Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  30. 30. S Germany’s colonies divided between France and GB S Germany loses 13.5 % of land and 12.5 % of population S German Navy confiscated and military limited to 100,000 S No submarines, planes, artillery permitted S Germany forced to pay brutal reparations: 132 billion gold marks S Article 231 of the Treaty, “War Guilt Clause”, orders Germany to take full responsibility for the war Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  31. 31. Germany after WWI S New democratic Weimar Republic faces serious problems S Germans refuse to admit their army lost the war S This undermines the credibility of the new Republic, despite the fact that n 1918 German High Commander asks the politicians to form a Gov’t which Allies will find acceptable for negotiations S Economic Problems on the rise S Germany unable to pay debt, France takes control over the Ruhr Valley. Massive hyperinflation as Germany prints money in return Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  32. 32. S Political chaos for several years: political parties battle over the central gov’t S The Spartacists (communist) stage uprisings in Berlin & other cities, size Bavaria S Freikorps (demobilized soldiers) crash the Bavarian coup d'état, will to overthrow the Weimar Republic in 1920, but German workers respond with strike S 1919, small right-wing party in Munich, recruits a new member. Army Corporal named Adolf Hitler. S The skilled orator & Politician heads the Nat’l Socialist Worker’s Party: Nazis Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  33. 33. S Late 1920’s German returns its prosperity thanks to US aid (the Dawes Plan 1924 and the Young Plan 1929) S Realistic plans for reparation payments aiming to restore economic stability S The prosperity eliminates the radical groups both on the left and right Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  34. 34. The Rise of Pacifism and Isolation in 1920s S Nations desire to avoid the horrors and atrocities of the WWI S Washington Naval Congress 1921: US, GB, France, Japan and Italy agree not to build new battleships for 10 years and reduce size of their navies S 1925, Locarno Treaties, Germany unconditionally guarantees France and Belgium borders. Promises not to violate Czechoslovakia and Poland Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  35. 35. Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke The Rise of Pacifism and Isolation in 1920s S Germany joins the League of Nations in 1926. Russia joins in 1934 S 1928, 65 nations sing the “Kellogg Briand Pact” rejecting war as means of policy
  36. 36. S Fascism rises in Europe S Liberal democracies in Britain and France encounter Isolationism and Pacifism S Unemployment problems and colonial struggles S As result of the 1930 Great Depression, Socialism becomes very popular, i.e., the Gov’t responsibility to meet citizen’s social needs Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  37. 37. S The Great Depression: challenges democracy, fascists and communists increased popularity S Low wages – less purchasing power S Agricultural depression & falling prices: increased agri-output but decreased demand S Overproduction in factories S Overexpansion in credit, US Stock market crash of 1929 Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  38. 38. S FEDs untimely raise in interest rates (to lure foreign investment) S The Smooth-Hawley Tariff: immediate backlash in tariffs across the world. Majority of world trade collapses Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  39. 39. S Calls for autonomy in the colonies effected also by WW’s 14 points and proposed “self determination” S 1931, “Commonwealth of Nations” – Canada, New Zealand, Australia, the Irish Free State, and South Africa, but still linked to GB via trade (Statute of Westminister) S 1930s India, under the Muslim League and Indian Nat’l Congress, called for greater role in their Gov’t S Ghandi’s “Civil Disobedience” end British rule. 1935 Government of India. 1947 India gains independence & splits with Pakistan S 1908, “Young Turks” overthrow Abdul Hamid II and rule till 1918. After WWI, Kemal Ataturk takes over. 1923 moves capital from Constantinople to Ankara. 1930 Constantinople name is changed. Western dress, Latin alphabet, polygamy ban, women given suffrage in 1936 Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  40. 40. S Italy: fascism under Benito Musolini and Germany: Hitler S Fascism: new form of gov’t - extreme nationalism, nat’l unity, emphasis on masculinity, youth, aggression, violence, racial superiority, one supreme leader with superhuman abilities; rejection of individual rights; use of secret police; censorship, propaganda; militaristic and aggressive foreign policy; central control of the economy; individual subordinate to the needs of the society as a whole Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  41. 41. S 1936, German troops enter the Rhineland to establish national self esteem S 1938, Hitler’s policy of expansionism to establish Greater Germany, starting with Austria S GB realizes policy of appeasement are taken advantage of S Hitler signs Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with Soviet Union: a treaty of non-agression Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  42. 42. Outbreak of WWII S The Treaty of Versailles creates “revisionist” powers S Germany as losing side, heavy reparations S Italy gets nothing out of the Peace of Paris S Hungary loses 2/3 of her territory, each 3rd ethnic Hungarian placed under foreign rule S Japan doesn’t receive what she wants after winning Russia S Soviet Union not invited to the Peace of Paris Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  43. 43. S 1933, Germany leaves the League of Nations S 1934, Germany attempts to annex Austria S 1935, Italy invades Ethiopia S Germany reoccupies the Saar Valley S 1936, Germany remilitarizes the Rhineland S 1938, Germany annexes Austria & Sudetenland S 1939, Germany seizes Czechoslovakia Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  44. 44. S During 1939, Italy and Germany sign “the Pact of Steel” alliance and Germany and SU sign a non - aggression pact (sign that war was imminent) S September 1st 1939 Germany invades Poland using new war machine: lightning warfare (Blitzkrieg) S September 3rd 1939, GB and France declare war on Germany S September 17th 1939, USSR invades Poland S 1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan sing the Tripartite Treaty forming the Axis Powers Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  45. 45. S Western Democracies reluctant to interfere S Feel guilt over Germany’s treatment S Areas Germany invaded all of German heritage S Leaders met in Munich in 1938. Hitler promises no more aggressive actions S 1939, the WWII breaks out Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  46. 46. Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  47. 47. S Fall of 1939 – Spring of 1940: Allies do not interfere i.e. “phoney war” S 1940: Germany invades Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, and France S 1940 Battle of Britain, German air force fails S 1941 Germany attempts to invade Russia to destroy communism & access oil. They fail and winter causes mass deaths and destruction of the German army S 1942, Germany attacks Stalingrad and fails again S 1943, GB and US defeats German forces in North Africa Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  48. 48. S 1943, Allies battle Italy and Mussolini's forces successfully S 1943, Battle of Kursk: the largest armored engagement of all time on the Eastern Front. Soviet wins. S September 8th 1943 Italy surrenders S June 6th 1944, Allied forces land in Normandy. D-DAY Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  49. 49. Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  50. 50. S Late 1944, Battle of Bulge in Belgium, Allies crash the remaining of the German forces S May 8th 1945, Victory in Europe Day as Russians take Berlin Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  51. 51. Conclusions of the War S Two Major Conferences: Yalta Conference and Potsdam Conference S Discuss how to effectively terminate WWII S Feb.11th 1945: US President Franklin Roosevelt, Britain Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and SU Leader Joseph Stalin Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  52. 52. Several Essential provisions: S United Nations: “global association of gov’ts facilitating cooperation in Int’l Law, Int’l Secutiry, Economic Development and Social Equity.” S 4 Part dismemberment of Germany: UK, France, US and Russia S Nuremburg trials: army members held to Int’l standards S Poland reconstituted, reparations enforced against Germany S Parties agree to the Declaration of Liberated Europe Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  53. 53. The Potsdam Conference S July to August 1945 S US President Harry Truman, British PM Attlee and Joseph Stalin S Conference provides for German Disarmament, demilitarization and denazification S Poland was shifted and massive post-war migration occurred S Japan threatened with destruction by a new weapon. Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  54. 54. Europe: 1918 to 1945 POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  55. 55. EU now POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke

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