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European History Part I: French Revolution and Napoleonic period
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European History Part I: French Revolution and Napoleonic period

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Overview at European History

Overview at European History

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  • 1. European History Broad Historic Overview Period: From the Revolution in France till the World War I POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke S
  • 2. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke Revolution in France S 1789 a significant year S First time Marx’s “class struggle” into view S Great Impact that sparked further revolts S Absolute Monarchy of Louis XVI and wife Marie Antoinette S Present Chaos and Conditions ripe for change
  • 3. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke Diplomatic Revolution S The term applied to the reversal of longstanding diplomatic alliances S End of War of Austrian Succession in 1748 S France & Austria versus Great Britain & Prussia S Marie Antoinette from Austria marries Louis XVI S Seven Years’ War 1758-1763, Austria and France failed against Prussia
  • 4. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke Diplomatic Revolution S The Austrian Alliance – one of the main causes for the Revolution S Queen out of touch with the general population S No-one else to blame for bad policies, but the Queen S Queen exercised influence on the choice of Ministers
  • 5. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke Precursors to the French Revolution S The Enlightenment ideas S Locke’s idea of overthrowing government S Rousseau’s ideas of the general will S The Enlightenment attached divine right of the ruler S Food shortages, social inequality, week rulers and harsh winter S The immediate spark – the financial crisis in France
  • 6. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke Precursors to the French Revolution S Nobles: tax exempt S Massive debt caused by Seven Years’ War S Corruption of the tax-collectors S The Estates General: clergymen, nobles and commoners S Commoners declared the National Assembly S Oath of the Tennis Court swearing allegiance and list of grievances S Democratic Representation and hope for constituion
  • 7. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke Class Struggle & Storming the Bastille S 1st time struggle between different classes S Social mobility and equality S July 14th 1789: Paris mob storms Bastille S The event symbolized the rising of the people against the tyranny of absolutism S 1st time for popular mobs to rise and take action outside of the legislature
  • 8. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke New Governments S The National Assembly – 1789 to 1791 S Members were from the Third Estate (Estates General) S Mostly Jacobins or bourgeois S Lower third estate did not take part in the government S Urban middle class led the storming of the Bastille and the march on Versailles
  • 9. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke New Governments S Efforts to remake society S Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen: a social contract S Freedom of religion, taxation of equality, legal equality, freedom of press and expression S Constitution: Constitutional Monarchy with a Parliament S Bourgeois – active citizens running the Parliament S The rest of the citizens – passive citizens
  • 10. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke New Governments S Progress based upon merit S Establishment of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790) S Church property – nationalized S Abolishment of religious vows and Church clerics turned into civil servants with assignments from Paris, not Rome S Severe punishment for those not taking the oath causes severe resentment
  • 11. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke New Governments S Legislative Assembly: 1791 to 1792 S Permanent Constitutional Monarchy S Failure due to inability to fix food and unemployment S Lower third estate felt politically abandoned by the bourgeois S Sans –culottes rise against it
  • 12. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke New Governments S Austrian Government pushed to crash the revolution S Other Nations feared the Revolution S Austria signs the “Declaration of Pillnitz” in 1791 S French interprets it as a declaration of war S Prussia signs the Brunswick Manifesto in 1792 S Prussia and Austria ally for the balance of power
  • 13. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke New Governments S The Convention: 1792 to 1795 S Emergency Republic with universal male suffrage S Committee of Public Safety: suppress dissent & protect the Revolution S 12 members S Leaderships splits between Robespierre/Montagnards (radicals) and Girondin (middle class)
  • 14. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke New Governments S Convention has issues to address S War with Prussia and Austria S First draft “levee en masse” instituted S 1794 French troops invades Austria successfully S “Dechristianization” S “General Maximum” established: controls bread price and wages
  • 15. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke New Governments S The Convention needed a new constitution to prevent counter-revolution S “The Terror” period, guillotine invented S New Constituion establsihes government known as the Directory S Permanent Republic envisaged S 27th July 1794 Robespierre arrested and executed
  • 16. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke New Governments S Jacobins and Montagnards replaced with Girondins (Bourgeois) S Directory: 1795 to 1799 / First Constitutional Republic S Executive Body of 5 Directors and bicameral legislative body consisted of Council of Ancients and Council of 500 S 1797: first free elections. Royalist mostly chosen to the Legislature S Left-wing members get support from military to purge rightists
  • 17. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke New Governments S Dictatorship established S People fear return of the Terror S Napoleon Bonaparte and Abbe Sieyes launched coup to end Directory S Consulate established with little resistance
  • 18. S
  • 19. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke Napoleon Bonaparte Rise of Nationalism S Napoleon seizes control and establishes despotism known as the Consulate S Number of Enlightened Reforms S The Napoleonic Code: freedom of religion, uniform law code, social and legal equality, property rights, end of feudal dues S State-wide compulsory education known as the University of France S End of Dechristianization
  • 20. S
  • 21. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke Napoleon Bonaparte Rise of Nationalism S The Empire: S 1799 to 1804
  • 22. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke Napoleon Bonaparte Rise of Nationalism S Napoleon declares French Emperor and becomes a military dictator S Undefeated against Austria. Russia and Prussia S During his tenure he seized large proportions of mainland Europe S Napoleon fails to subdue England S Defeated at the Battle of Trafalgar by Admiral Nelson
  • 23. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke Napoleon Bonaparte Rise of Nationalism S Establishment of the Continental System: method of economic welfare S Napoleon prohibits trade with England, but fails in his attempt S England trades with colonies in Asia and America S Napoleon completely eliminates the Holy Roman Empire S 1806 “Confederation of Rhyne” (40 states consolidated)
  • 24. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke Napoleon Bonaparte Rise of Nationalism
  • 25. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke Napoleon Bonaparte Rise of Nationalism S Russia with Alexander I withdraws from the Continental System S Napoleon invades in return, but fails for the 1st time S Russian army: scorched earth tactics S Napoleon rises another army S Battle of Nations/ Leipzig 1813 S Quadruple Alliance of England, Austria, Russia and Prussia
  • 26. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke Napoleon Bonaparte Rise of Nationalism S Napoleon exiled in Elba S “Hundred days” period in 1815 as Napoleon returns S Quadruple Alliance crashes his new army at the Battle of Waterloo led by Duke of Wellington S Napoleon exiled again on the Island of Saint Helena, where he dies in 1821
  • 27. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke Napoleon Bonaparte Rise of Nationalism S The Congress of Vienna 1814 – 1815 S Aim: to create Post-Napoleonic Europe S Representatives from England, France, Austria and Russia S France was restored old boundaries and Louis XVII S No reparations
  • 28. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke Napoleon Bonaparte Rise of Nationalism S Louis XVIII signs the Charter of 1814: legal equality, offices open to all men, two chamber parliament, Napoleonic Civil Code, abolishment of feudalism S Major Shift in Foreign policy: balance of power still important S Featured in war: advocates of liberalism versus conservatism or the “Old Regime” S Old Regime monarchs establish “the Concert of Europe” using the Congress system to prevent revolution and war
  • 29. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke Napoleon Bonaparte Rise of Nationalism S Sense of new nationalism S Largely due to Napoleon’s occupation and destruction/suppression of individual cultures S Napoleon’s conquests spurred new level of Nationalism (esp. Germany and Italy)
  • 30. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke Age of Revolutions To be continued S Aftermath of the French Revolution and Napoleonic wars S Many European states transformed by 25 years of conflict
  • 31. S
  • 32. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke Assignments S For next week: One paragraph for each of the EU founding fathers: who were they and why they are considered to be the founding fathers of the European Union 1. Konrad Adenauer 2. Winston Churchill 3. Alcide De Gasperi 4. Jean Monnet 5. Robert Schuman Send as email to: emine.international@gmail.com by Wednesday 12th of March
  • 33. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke Countries Assignement S Each student chooses a country of the EU and makes a country profile research. This will be used for future simulation, role-plays and workshops.
  • 34. POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke Guess the Flag?
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