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Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification
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Richard Feeley presentation on ocean acidification

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  • Turley, C.M. (2006) Ocean acidification and its impacts. In: CONFRONTING CLIMATE CHANGE: CRITICAL ISSUES FOR NEW ZEALAND Edited by Ralph Chapman, Jonathan Boston and Margot Schwass, Published by Victoria University Press,125-133.
  • Turley, C.M. (2006) Ocean acidification and its impacts. In: CONFRONTING CLIMATE CHANGE: CRITICAL ISSUES FOR NEW ZEALAND Edited by Ralph Chapman, Jonathan Boston and Margot Schwass, Published by Victoria University Press,125-133.
  • Turley, C.M. (2006) Ocean acidification and its impacts. In: CONFRONTING CLIMATE CHANGE: CRITICAL ISSUES FOR NEW ZEALAND Edited by Ralph Chapman, Jonathan Boston and Margot Schwass, Published by Victoria University Press,125-133.
  • Turley, C.M. (2006) Ocean acidification and its impacts. In: CONFRONTING CLIMATE CHANGE: CRITICAL ISSUES FOR NEW ZEALAND Edited by Ralph Chapman, Jonathan Boston and Margot Schwass, Published by Victoria University Press,125-133.
  • Not an inclusive list- Questions of long-term impacts & adaptation difficult to address
  • Evidence of corrosive water caused by the ocean’s absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) was found less than 20 miles off of the west coast of North America during field study from Canada to Mexico this summer. This was the first time corrosive acidified ocean water has been identified on the continental shelf of western North America. We observed the most recent upwelling on lines 5 and 6 near the Oregon-California border. Coincident with the upwelled waters, we found evidence for corrosive low pH seawater in the bottom waters as depicted by Ωarag values < 1.0 and pH values < 7.75. The corrosive waters reached mid-shelf depths of approximately 40-120 m along lines 2-4, and 7-13, and reached nearly all the way to the coast on lines 5 and 6 (Figure 1). In the region of the strongest and most recent upwelling (line 5), the isolines of Ωarag = 1.0, DIC = 2190 and pH = 7.75 closely followed the 26.2 potential density surface. The movement of the corrosive water onto the continental shelf appears to happen from about February to August during the upwelling season, when winds bring CO2-rich water up from depths of about 400-600 feet (~120-180m). The water that upwells off of the North American Pacific coast has been away from the surface for approximately 50 years.
  • Evidence of corrosive water caused by the ocean’s absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) was found less than 20 miles off of the west coast of North America during field study from Canada to Mexico this summer. This was the first time corrosive acidified ocean water has been identified on the continental shelf of western North America. We observed the most recent upwelling on lines 5 and 6 near the Oregon-California border. Coincident with the upwelled waters, we found evidence for corrosive low pH seawater in the bottom waters as depicted by Ωarag values < 1.0 and pH values < 7.75. The corrosive waters reached mid-shelf depths of approximately 40-120 m along lines 2-4, and 7-13, and reached nearly all the way to the coast on lines 5 and 6 (Figure 1). In the region of the strongest and most recent upwelling (line 5), the isolines of Ωarag = 1.0, DIC = 2190 and pH = 7.75 closely followed the 26.2 potential density surface. The movement of the corrosive water onto the continental shelf appears to happen from about February to August during the upwelling season, when winds bring CO2-rich water up from depths of about 400-600 feet (~120-180m). The water that upwells off of the North American Pacific coast has been away from the surface for approximately 50 years.
  • For those in the room that are new to this topic, this diagram illustrates how increases in atmospheric CO2 alter seawater chemistry. As CO2 is driven into the ocean, it quickly forms carbonic acid, which is a weak acid. Most of this rapidly dissociates to either HCO3- or CO3=. Alkalinity is the excess of positively charged ions in the seawater.This excess positive charge is balanced by the proportion of HCO3- to CO3=. If more negative charge is needed, then some of the HCO3- is converted to CO3=, and if less is needed, then some of the CO3= is converted to HCO3-. As a first approximation, the carbonate ion concentration can be estimated as the alkalinity - total CO2 concentration. In terms of how adding CO2 changes the equation, one can easily see that by adding CO2, the total CO2 increases (note that this does not alter the alkalinity), and hence the carbonate ion concentration will go down. Also shown in this picture are the processes of photosynthesis/respiration and calcification.Photosynthesis/respiration alters the total CO2 concentration, which calcification alters BOTH the total CO2 concentration and the alkalinityFeely/Gledhill talk
  • The 3 major gps of…..Relative abundance of each group varies by region;These 3 gps are diverse with respect to mineralogy, trophic level and other attributesFor eg, Pteropods & forams are heterotrophs; coccosautotrophs; Pteropods secrete aragonite which is about 50% more soluble in seawater than the calcite formed by forams and coccos---Generation times are particularly impt when considering the capacity of these gps to adapt to the future high CO2 ocean – Coccos have generation times on the order of days….
  • A landmark study of Riebesell et al and related work by Zondervan et al, measured the response of 2 coccospp - E hux…..These workers manipulated the CO2 system by… [Click] Measured a Decrease in calcification – G. oceanic more sensitive to elevated pCO2; Documented malformed coccoliths in both spp.
  • 2 spp of forams have been investigated by Dr. JelleBijma and co-workers. In both, shell mass was positively correlated with [CO3] Shell mass decreased by 4 to 8% at 2x CO2 (560 ppm) and by 6 to 14% at 3xCO2 (740 ppm)No studies have directly measured foram calcification rates as a function of pCO2.
  • Turning to shelled pteropods – we have even less information on these aragonite-producing zooplankton.Orr et al. report qualitative changes in the shells of live pteropods when they were exposed to undersaturated conditions for 48 hours. SEM examination of shells show that shell dissolution begins near the shell aperature with the formation of etch pits and exposure of the aragonitic rods at the growing edge. SEM examination of shells shows that shell dissolution begins near the shell aperature with the formation of etch pits and exposure of the aragonitic rods at the growing edge. [go through panels]Orr et al. report qualitative changes in the shells of live pteropods when they were exposed to undersaturated conditions for 48 hours.
  • Revenues from National Marine Fisheries Service data partitioned by species into large groups. The yellow and red tones represent fisheries that are directly susceptible to acidification because they make shells and skeletons out of calcium carbonate. Some groups in green (fin-fish) may experience indirect foodweb effects (there may be direct effects on fish larvae but they are currently ill-defined). Primary commercial sales are ex-vessel values, or the amount paid to fishermen by wholesalers and processors. Primary revenue is amplified greatly (factor of ~10x to 20x) in overall industry fisheries support.Bivalves: clams, scallops, mussels, oysters •Valuable commercial fisheries• Mussels & oysters: ecosystem engineers Echinoderms: sea urchins, sea stars, sea cucumbers• Commercial fisheries: sea urchins & sea cukes• Sea stars: keystone speciesCrustaceans: shrimp, crabs, lobsters, copepods• Valuable commercial fisheries• Copepods: central role in marine food webs
  • Mylitusedulis; common blue mussel ; oyster Crassostreagigas is the most cultivated species in the worldDifference in calcification response - may be related to shell mineralogy – oyster shells are calcite but mussel shells are a mixture of calcite and aragonite – aragonite can be as high as 80%
  • What about the juvenile stages of molluscs?Strong evidence comes from the work of Mark Green. He looked at hard shell clam – Mercenariamercenaria – aragonite shell. Introduced these juv clams to sediments that were undersaturated w/respect to aragonite - at levels are typical of estuarine surface sedmts Shell gone w/in 2 wks – leaving only the protein matrix Dissolution is an impt source of mortality for newly settled clams
  • As an example of food web impacts – let’s consider juv salmon. Armstrong et al. conducted a 3-year study on the feeding habits of juvenile pink salmon in the Gulf of Alaska & Prince William Sound.PteropodLimacinahelicina can be important prey of Juvenile Pink SalmonIf pteropod populations decline in the future, would juv pink salmon be affected? Likely switch to different prey types…BUT..how will those prey will fare in a high CO2 world? We don’t know.
  • The 3 major gps of…..Relative abundance of each group varies by region;These 3 gps are diverse with respect to mineralogy, trophic level and other attributesFor eg, Pteropods & forams are heterotrophs; coccosautotrophs; Pteropods secrete aragonite which is about 50% more soluble in seawater than the calcite formed by forams and coccos---Generation times are particularly impt when considering the capacity of these gps to adapt to the future high CO2 ocean – Coccos have generation times on the order of days….
  • http://www.visit.willapabay.org/graphics/north-co-grn..gif
  • Message: We are pleased that we are getting a great deal of support for the program. The Implementation Plan is taking shape. (Draft 3 is dated August 14/from Dick Feely). The overarching goal of the NOAA Ocean Acidification Research Program is to monitor trends in ocean acidification, to predict how ecosystems will respond to ocean acidification, and to provide information that managers can use to address issues related to ocean acidification.NOAA’s approach to addressing the overarching goal:Monitoring of temporal and spatial trends – Accomplished through ship-based and moored observations of key physical, chemical and biological parameters. Ecosystem responses – Will use same platforms as monitoring, but will also require laboratory physiological response experiments. Modeling studies - Purpose is to delineate large-scale changes in ocean water chemistry and ecosystem responses.Utility of research - Findings will be used to develop adaptation strategies in response to ocean acidification. Primary goals (6 themes) of this research are to: (Source: Aug. 14, 2009 draft of NOAA OA Implementation Plan)Develop the monitoring capacity to quantify and track ocean acidification and its impacts in open-ocean and coastal systems (Theme 1) – e.g. VOS & repeat hydrography, technology developmentAssess the response of marine organisms to ocean acidification (Theme 2) – lab & field studies, marine phytoplankton, higher tropic levelsForecast biogeochemical and ecological responses to ocean acidification (Theme 3) Develop management strategies for responding and adapting to the consequences of ocean acidification from a human dimensions perspective (Theme 4) Provide a synthesis of ocean acidification data and information (Theme 5) Provide an engagement strategy for educational and public outreach (Theme 6)Segue: Ecosystem study prioritiesPhoto credits, top to bottom: Monitoring – An underwater CO2 sampling system attached to one of NOAA's Integrated Coral Observing Systems (ICON) in the Bahamas, MAPCO2 deployment off Puerto Rico; Ecosystems – coral, teacher at sea measuring coral; Modeling – Science On a Sphere ocean acidification with coral reefs; Adaptation Strategies - Klamath Basin stakeholders meeting; Eduction/Outreach - Students at the UCAP school in Providence, RI talk by satellite phone with NOAA scientist and former UCAP employee Catalina Martinez, who is in a submersible more than 8,000 ft deep in the Gulf of Alaska.
  • Message: Monitoring pays off – yield valuable data  new science/seasonal trends in CO2/pH & collaboration/coordination across int’l, fed, and state agencies is essential for the best monitoring efforts.BUILD Opens with Papa buoy and mapONE CLICK to bring up data
  • BUILDOpens with U.S. Capilot image + “Introduced June & Nov 2007”CLICK: Adds calendar + Omnibus…+ FOARAMCLICK AGAIN: Adds dates in chronological sequence automaticallyStatus of S.1581 Title: A bill to establish an interagency committee to develop an ocean acidification research and monitoring plan and to establish an ocean acidification program within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Sponsor: Sen Lautenberg, Frank R. [NJ] (introduced 6/7/2007) Cosponsors (5) Related Bills: H.R.4174 Latest Major Action: 6/7/2007 Referred to Senate committee. Status: Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. Today, Tuesday, December 4th, the Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee (Chair Inouye, D-HI) is scheduled to mark up this bill as well as three other climate bills (S. 2355. S. 2307, and S. 1581) which would impact NOAA. I am waiting to hear back from Adrienne what happened at the mark up. Status of H.R.4174 Title: To establish an interagency committee to develop an ocean acidification research and monitoring plan and to establish an ocean acidification program within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Sponsor: Rep Allen, Thomas H. [ME-1] (introduced 11/14/2007) Cosponsors (12) Latest Major Action: 11/14/2007 Referred to House committee on Science and Technology. This bill may move through the Senate this year or next. However, it may have some trouble making it through the House since the House Resources Committee may have some jurisdictional battles with the House Science Committee. Plus, next year Congress will be focused on campaigning and not getting a whole lot of bills passed. Just making sure you don't give folks the impression that Congress will pass an ocean acidification soon. If it happens, it may not be for a couple more years...
  • While the changes in CO2 chemistry of seawater due to anthropogenic CO2 are well understood and predictable, the Impacts of ocean acidification on biota are largely unknown…..Baseline data with suffcient temporal and spatial resolution are lacking in regions which are projected to become undersaturated with respect to CaCO3 – particularly aragonite – over next 50-100 yrs
  • Transcript

    • 1. OCEAN ACIDIFICATION
      The Other CO2 Problem
      Outline
      Overview ofocean acidification science
      Results of ocean acidification surveys
      What are the potential biological impacts?
      Where do we go from here?
      Richard A. Feely, Ph.D.
      NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
      Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission Workshop
      August 12, 2010
    • 2. Atmospheric accumulation
      234 Pg C
      (46%)
      Land-use change
      160 Pg C
      (31%)
      Terrestrial sink
      147 Pg C
      (29%)
      Fossil emission
      348 Pg C
      (69%)
      Ocean sink
      127 Pg C
      (25%)
      Cumulative carbon sources and sinks over the last two centuries
      SINKS
      SOURCES
      Ocean CO2 Chemistry
      Global Carbon Project (2008) Carbon Budget and trends 2007, www.globalcarbonproject.org, 26 September 2008
    • 3. Rates of increase are important
      Ocean CO2 Chemistry
      atmospheric CO2
      global temperature
      Hoegh-Guldberget al. 2007, Science
    • 4. CO2 emissions (GtC/yr)
      Atmospheric CO2
      concentration (ppm)
      IPCC TAR Emission Profiles from Pre-Industrial Levels
      Ocean CO2 Chemistry
      Turley (2006)
      Drivers for a change in energy policy
    • 5. Saturation State
      [
      ]
      [
      ]
      +
      -
      2
      2
      Ca
      CO
      3
      =
      W
      *
      K
      phase
      sp
      ,
      phase
      Saturation State
      Ocean CO2 Chemistry
      W
      >
      =
      1
      precipitation
      calcium carbonate
      calcium
      carbonate
      W
      =
      =
      1
      equilibrium
      W
      <
      =
      1
      dissolution
    • 6. Field Observations
      Ocean CO2 Chemistry
      WOCE/JGOFS/OACES Global CO2 Survey
      ~72,000 sample locations collected in the 1990s
      DIC ± 2 µmol kg-1
      TA ± 4 µmol kg-1
      Sabine et al. (2004)
    • 7. Observed aragonite & calcite saturation depths
      Ocean CO2 Chemistry
      Feely et al. (2004)
      The aragonite saturation state migrates towards the surface at the rate of 1-2 m yr-1, depending on location.
    • 8. pH distribution in surface waters
      from the NCAR CCSM3 model projections using the IPCC A2 CO2 Emission Scenarios
      Projections
      pH
      warm water corals
      deep water corals
      Feely, Doney and Cooley, Oceanography (2009)
    • 9. Natural processes that could accelerate the ocean acidification of coastal waters
      Projections
      brings high CO2, low pH, low Ω, low O2 water to surface
      CoastalUpwelling
    • 10. NACP West Coast Survey Cruise
      11 May – 14 June 2007
      Newport
      Aberdeen
      UCLA
      MBARI
    • 11. Seasonal invasion of corrosive waters on west coast North America
    • 12. NACP West Coast Survey Cruise
      11 May – 14 June 2007
      Vertical sections from Line 5 (Pt. St. George, California)
      ....
      sample locations
      Feely et al. (2008)
      The ‘ocean acidified’ corrosive water was upwelled from depths of 150-200 m onto the shelf and outcropped at the surface near the coast.
    • 13. North American Carbon Program
      Continental carbon budgets, dynamics, processes & management
      surface
      120m
      Aragonite saturation state in west coast waters
    • 14. Summer 2008 transect: Coast to Hood Canal
      Lower pH and lower saturation
      states in subsurface waters of Hood Canal than along the Washington Coast
      Feely et al. (2010)
    • 15. Potential impacts: marine organisms & ecosystems
      • Changes to:
      • 16. Fitness and survival
      • 17. Species biogeography
      • 18. Key biogeochemical cycles
      • 19. Food webs
      • 20. Reduced:
      • 21. Sound Absorption
      • 22. Homing Ability
      • 23. Recruitment and Settlement
      • 24. Reduced calcification rates
      • 25. Significant shift in key nutrient and trace element speciation
      • 26. Shift in phytoplankton diversity
      • 27. Reduced growth, production and life span of adults, juveniles & larvae
      • 28. Reduced tolerance to other environmental fluctuations
      Uncertainties great
      RESEARCH REQUIRED
      Changes to ecosystems & their services
    • 29. Experiments on many scales
      Biosphere 2 (provided by Mark Eakin)
      Aquaria & small mesocosms
      SHARQ
      Submersible Habitat for Analyzing Reef Quality
    • 30. Major planktoniccalcifers
      extant species
      mineralform
      generation time
      Coccolithophores
      ~ 200
      calcite
      days
      algae
      Foraminifera
      ~ 30
      weeks
      calcite
      protists
      Pteropods
      ~ 32
      months to year?
      aragonite
      snails
    • 31. Coccolithopores
      Single-cell algae
      manipulation of CO2 system by addition of HCl or NaOH
      pCO2
      280-380 ppmv
      780-850 ppmv
      Emiliania huxleyi
      Gephyrocapsa oceanica
      Calcification decreased
      - 45%
      - 9 to 18%
      Riebesell et al.(2000); Zondervan et al.(2001)
    • 32. Formanifera
      single-celled protists
      -4 to -8% decline in calcification at pCO2= 560 ppm
      -6 to -14% decline in calcification at pCO2= 780 ppm
      Bijma et al. (2002)
      Shell mass is positively correlated with [CO32-]
    • 33. Shelled pteropods
      planktonic snails
      Whole shell:
      Clio pyramidata
      Arag. rods exposed
      Prismatic layer
      (1 µm) peels back
      Respiratory CO2 forced ΩA <1
      Shells of live animals start to dissolve within 48 hours
      Aperture (~7 µm):
      advanced dissolution
      Normal shell: nodissolution
      Orr et al. (2005)
    • 34. Potential Economic Impacts
      4
      $4B primary commercial sales in 2007 fed a $70B industry, adding $35B to GNP
      Varying regional importance of fishery groups calls for local adaptation
      Total consequences could be far-reaching for ecosystems and marine-dependent societies
      1.5
      Uninfluenced
      Predators
      Crustaceans (crabs, etc)
      Bivalves (oysters, etc.)
      3
      1
      Billions of U.S. $
      2
      0.5
      1
      0
      0
      U.S.
      NewEngl.
      Mid-Atl.
      Gulf
      Pac.
      HI
      AK
      Cooley & Doney, 2009
    • 35. Mussels & oysters
      Mytilusedulis& Crassostreagigas
      Decrease in calcification rates for the both species
      Significant with pCO2 increase and [CO32-] decrease
      At pCO2 740 ppmv:
      25% decrease in calcification for mussels
      10% decrease in calcification for oysters
      Gazeau et al., 2007
    • 36. Bivalve juveniles
      Hard shell clam Mercenaria
      0.3 mm newly settled clams
      • Massive dissolution within 24 hours in undersaturated water; shell gone within 2 weeks
      • 37. Dissolution causes mortality in estuaries & coastal habitats
      Common in soft bottom habitats
    • 38. Potential food web impacts
      Coccolithophores
      ARCOD@ims.uaf.edu
      Copepods
      Barrie Kovish
      Pacific Salmon
      V. Fabry
      Vicki Fabry
      Pteropods
    • 39. 15%
      60%
      63%
      Diet of juvenile salmon
      Pteropod
      Impacts of increasing pCO2 on nearly 100% of prey types are unknown
      Barrie Kovish
      Food web impacts
      Vicki Fabry
      Armstrong et al., 2005
    • 40. Marine Fish impacts
      Barrie Kovish
      Vicki Fabry
    • 41. Impacts Scorecard
      Response to increasing CO2
      # species
      studied
      coccolithophores
      planktonicformanifera
      mollusks
      echinoderms
      tropical corals
      corraline red algae
      4 2 1 1 1
      2 2 - - -
      4 4 - - -
      2 2 - - -
      11 11 - - -
      1 1 - - -
      calcification
      coccolithophores
      prokaryotes
      seagrass
      2 - 2 2 -
      2 - 1 1 -
      5 - 5 - -
      photo-synthesis
      nitrogen fixation
      1 - 1 - -
      cyanobacteria
      Barrie Kovish
      4 4 - - -
      1 1 - - -
      Vicki Fabry
      repro-duction
      mollusks
      echinoderms
      Doneyet al., 2009
    • 42. Winners & Losers
      Sea-grass shoot density
      epiphytic
      CaCO3
      Differing pH levels in Mediterranean CO2 vents off Ischia Island (pH 8.17 to 6.57)
      Hall-Spencer et al. Nature (2008)
    • 43. Ischia CO2 vents
      Variation in pH & species abundance
      Hall-Spencer et al. Nature (2008)
      Live Patella caerulea and Hexaplextrunculus (gastropods) showing severely eroded, pitted shells in areas of minimum pH7.4
      Tipping point at around 7.8 or even higher
      • How do you differentiate between a threshold and new regime?
      • 44. Different “pH Tipping Points” for different species?
    • Pacific Northwest oyster emergency
      Willapa Bay
      seed crisis
      • Failure of larval oyster recruitments in recent years
      • 45. Commercial oyster hatchery failures threatens $100M industry (3000 Jobs)
      • 46. Low pH “upwelled” waters a possible leading factor in failures
      Larval oyster may be “canary in goldmine” for near-shore acidification?
    • 47. Upwelling favorable winds
      Winds from S
      Coastal upwelling linked to high mortality events
      Higher
      salinity
      Lower
      salinity
      High mortality
      High survival
      High Ωarag
      Saturation (Ωarag)
      Low Ωarag
      Figure courtesy of Alan Barton
    • 48. NOAA OA Research Implementation Plan
      Monitor trends
      Ecosystem responses
      Model changes & responses
      Develop adaptation strategies
      Conduct education and outreach
    • 49. Importance of Moorings
      Preliminary results show a clear seasonal trend in pH and a strong correlation with pCO2
      Note: pH scale is reversed
      2007 – 1st OA mooring in Gulf of Alaska at Papa Station
      First ocean acidification mooring Gulf of Alaska at Station Papa - 2007
      Collaboration and coordination across international, federal and state agencies is vital.
    • 50. Biological impacts & sensitivity to CO2 perturbations
      Much of our present knowledge stems from…
      • abrupt CO2/pH perturbation experiments
      • 51. with single species/strains
      • 52. under short-term incubations
      • 53. with often extreme pH changes
      Hence, we know little about…
      • responses of genetically diverse populations
      • 54. synergistic effects with other stress factors
      • 55. physiological and micro-evolutionary adaptations
      • 56. species replacements
      • 57. community to ecosystem responses
      • 58. impacts on global climate change
      -Provided by Ulf Riebesell, 2006
    • 59. Omnibus Land Management Act of 2009
      2009
      Introduced June & November 2007
      Senate Bill
      passed
      House Billpassed
      Federal Ocean Acidification Research and Monitoring Acto of 2009 (H.R. 146)
      Presidentsigned
    • 60. Since the beginning of the industrial age surface ocean pH (~0.1), carbonate ion concentrations (~16%), and aragonite and calcite saturation states (~16%) have been decreasing because of the uptake of anthropogenic CO2by the oceans, i.e., ocean acidification. By the end of this century pH could have a further decrease by as much as 0.3-0.4 pH units.
      Possible responses of ecosystems are speculative but could involve changes in species composition & abundances - could affect food webs, biogeochemical cycles. More research on impacts and vulnerabilities is needed.
      An observational network for ocean acidification is under development. Modeling studies need to be expanded into coastal regions. Physiological response, mitigation and adaptation studies need to be developed and integrated with the models.
      Conclusions

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