Preliminary	
  lessons	
  from	
  	
  
 the	
  oyster	
  “seed	
  crisis”	
  
What	
  can	
  the	
  rest	
  of	
  the	
  s...
Taylor	
  &	
  Whiskey	
  Creek	
  	
  
•  TAYLOR	
  SHELLFISH	
  FARMS:	
  Largest	
  U.S.	
  shellfish	
  
   grower.	
  ...
Oyster	
  seed	
  crisis	
  arrives	
  
                                Pacific	
  oyster	
  larvae	
  fail	
  

          ...
Paradigm	
  shiH	
  	
  Feely	
  et	
  al	
  2008	
  




 Researchers	
  at	
  Whiskey	
  Creek	
  (Barton,	
  others)	
 ...
How	
  hatcheries	
  rebounded	
  (for	
  now)	
  
•  Whiskey	
  Creek	
  is	
  near	
  peak	
  producOon	
  levels	
  
  ...
1.	
  Monitoring	
  &	
  research	
  
        If	
  you	
  can	
  see	
  what’s	
  coming	
  at	
  you,	
  
              ...
1.	
  A	
  well-­‐defended	
  posiNon	
  

                                     Hatcheries	
  
                           ...
Industry’s	
  three-­‐Phase	
  response	
  
1)  Short	
  term:	
  monitoring	
  &	
  research	
  enable	
  
    producers	...
STEP	
  1	
  
Monitoring	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  avoid	
  exposure	
  to	
  “bad	
  
water.”	
  

Sensors:	
  pH,	
  T,	
 ...
pCO2	
  readout	
  at	
  100	
  d:	
  ~1,000	
  ppm	
  

                                       Taylor’s	
  deepwater	
  i...
pCO2	
  at	
  30	
  d:	
  332	
  ppm	
  
                                 Taylor’s	
  shallow	
  water	
  intake:	
  
    ...
Managing	
  around	
  the	
  problem	
  
                                                                                	...
Step	
  2:	
  breeding	
  for	
  resistance	
  
Broodstock	
  research	
  has	
  increased	
  oyster	
  yield	
  in	
  the...
Step	
  3:	
  Policy	
  engagement	
  
•  Key	
  aims	
  :	
  	
  Support	
  research	
  &	
  monitoring,	
  
   protect	
...
ImplicaOons	
  for	
  seafood	
  industry	
  
•  ProducNve	
  zones	
  are	
  most	
  vulnerable:	
  highly	
  enriched	
 ...
Thanks.	
  
•  Benoit	
  Eudeline	
  &	
  Bill	
  Dewey	
  at	
  Taylor	
  
   Shellfish	
  Farms.	
  
•  Mark	
  Wiegardt,...
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Bill Dewey presentation on ocean acidification

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Bill Dewey presentation on ocean acidification

  1. 1. Preliminary  lessons  from     the  oyster  “seed  crisis”   What  can  the  rest  of  the  seafood  industry  learn  from  the  first   producers  to  suffer  (and  partly  overcome)  severe  impacts     associated  with  “corrosive”  high-­‐CO2  seawater?   Taylor  Shellfish   hatchery  on  Dabob   Bay,  Washington   By  Brad  Warren  
  2. 2. Taylor  &  Whiskey  Creek     •  TAYLOR  SHELLFISH  FARMS:  Largest  U.S.  shellfish   grower.    ~12,000  acres  under  culOvaOon  (owned  or   leased)  in  Washington,  Mexico,  BriOsh  Columbia,  a   pearl  farm  in  Fiji.  Two  company-­‐owned  hatcheries   (Hawaii,  Washington)  supply  its  own  farms.   •  Whiskey  Creek  Shellfish  Hatchery:  largest  oyster  seed   supplier  on  West  Coast,  supplies  ~75%  of  farms.   •  Together,  they  provide  lion’s  share  of  producOon  on   West  Coast.  
  3. 3. Oyster  seed  crisis  arrives   Pacific  oyster  larvae  fail   L:  Pacific  oyster     larvae  growing   at  Taylor.  Billions     of  these  were  lost.   R:  Larval  clams     dissolve  at  pH   7.5  in  lab  (Green)            70-­‐80%  loss  of  producOon  in  2007-­‐2008  at  both  major   hatcheries.  At  Whiskey  Creek,  oyster  larvae  dissolved,   vanished  in  tanks.  Even  hard-­‐fouling  of  intake  pipes  ceased.          Li]le  or  no  commercial-­‐scale  wild  “set”  of  oysters  in  Willapa   Bay  since  2005.    Industry  hunts  for  culprits:    vibrio  tubiashi?    
  4. 4. Paradigm  shiH    Feely  et  al  2008   Researchers  at  Whiskey  Creek  (Barton,  others)  confirm  strong  link  to  larval  death.  
  5. 5. How  hatcheries  rebounded  (for  now)   •  Whiskey  Creek  is  near  peak  producOon  levels   through  July  2010,  by  dodging  frequent  episodes   of  “bad  water,”  working  overOme  to  produce  in   “good  water”  periods.   •  Taylor  also  going  strong  through  July  2010,   enjoying  “good  water”  from  shallow  intake  (30   d);  but  deep  intake  (100  d)  now  yields  high  CO2   levels  that  they  avoid.   •  Two  criNcal  tools  enabled  this  rebound:  
  6. 6. 1.  Monitoring  &  research   If  you  can  see  what’s  coming  at  you,   you  can  dodge   New  monitoring  systems,  OOS  buoys  permit  frequent  sampling  of  water  quality   parameters  (e.g.  pCO2,  pH):    Hatcheries  avoid  spawning  in  high-­‐CO2  water.     Bioassays,  calcificaOon  studies,  physiological  &  geneOc  analyses  underway  at  several  labs.  
  7. 7. 1.  A  well-­‐defended  posiNon   Hatcheries          Control  of  most   vulnerable  life-­‐ stage  enabled   them  to  defend   larvae  <  120   microns.  
  8. 8. Industry’s  three-­‐Phase  response   1)  Short  term:  monitoring  &  research  enable   producers  to  dodge  “bad  water.”  (operaOons  +   policy)   2)  Medium  term:  culOvate  more  resilient   broodstock.  (operaOons  +  policy)   3)  Long-­‐term:  promote  policies  to  reduce   emissions,  strengthen  research  &  monitoring   (policy)  
  9. 9. STEP  1   Monitoring  in  order  to  avoid  exposure  to  “bad   water.”   Sensors:  pH,  T,  S,  depth,  turbidity        
  10. 10. pCO2  readout  at  100  d:  ~1,000  ppm   Taylor’s  deepwater  intake:     pH  here  measured  ~  7.5   At  Whiskey  Creek,  pCO2     is  now  key  predictor  of     larval  survival.  For  gigas   larvae  in  first  2  days,     hatchery  owners  say     200-­‐300  ppm  is  opOmal,    with  low  end  best;  older   larvae  can  handle  up  to     400  ppm.    “Over  600  we   back  off.”  (Wiegardt,  pers.     comm  with  BW  7.27.2010)  
  11. 11. pCO2  at  30  d:  332  ppm   Taylor’s  shallow  water  intake:   pH  here  measured  ~8.2   To  avoid  high  CO2  water,     Taylor  mainly  now  relies     on  shallow  intake  for  oysters.     This  increases  exposure  to   algal  blooms,  etc,  which  were     the  reason  they  developed  a     deepwater  intake  at  100  d.     Now  elevated  CO2  is  pushing     Taylor  to  risk  that  exposure,  esp.   for  young  Pacific  oyster  (c.  Gigas)  
  12. 12. Managing  around  the  problem      SPAWN!   •   Put  small  larvae  into  tanks  filled      in  the  aHernoon  or  overnight                -­‐  Works  if  the  sun  is  out   •   24  hour  noOce-­‐  Upwelling  takes        a  day  or  two  to  start  up,  so  when        winds  from  the  North,  fill  tanks        late  in  the  day  and  spawn  like        crazy    DON’T   Slide:  Alan  Barton   SPAWN!  
  13. 13. Step  2:  breeding  for  resistance   Broodstock  research  has  increased  oyster  yield  in  the  past  (see  graph):  Can  it  help   now?   Molluscan  Broodstock     Program  at  OSU   increased  oyster  yield     (sum  of  survival  +  growth)    by  41%  over  2     generaOons.   Can  broodstock  work  boost     resistance  to  high  CO2?   Preliminary  signs  of   promise:  a  few  families   show  be]er  resistance;     OSU  MBP     some  species  too  (Olympia).   Growth  rates,  yields,  quality?  
  14. 14. Step  3:  Policy  engagement   •  Key  aims  :    Support  research  &  monitoring,   protect  producOvity.   •  Oyster  producers  talk  to  Congress  about   acidificaOon,  need  for  research;  some  support   prevenOve  emissions-­‐reducOon  policies.   •  Sen.  Cantwell  secures  $500,000  for  hatchery   retrofits,  including  monitoring.   •  HR  989:  Taylor  &  others  worked  it,  got  58%  yes   vote.   •  OOS  systems  beginning  to  monitor  pCO2  etc,  
  15. 15. ImplicaOons  for  seafood  industry   •  ProducNve  zones  are  most  vulnerable:  highly  enriched                seawater    closer  “Opping  points.”   •  First  blow  can  hit  hard:  70-­‐80%  loss  of  producOon  in  2007-­‐2008   at  two  major  hatcheries  (supplying  lion’s  share  of  producOon).   •  Technical  and  poliNcal  savvy  allowed  shellfish  industry  to  meet   the  challenge:  Taylor,  Whiskey  Creek  found  ways  to  dodge   impacts,  win  needed  scienOfic  &  poliOcal  support,  and  rebuild   producOon  (for  now).  Other  growers,  reliant  on  Whiskey  Creek,   pitched  in.  PoliOcians  too.  (3  Congressmen  a]ended  our   workshop  in  March).   •  Impacts  are  uneven:  Species,  families,  &  local  environmental   condiOons  can  either  miOgate  or  aggravate  effects.   •  Victory  probably  temporary:  ConOnued  rise  in  emissions     more  trouble  ahead:  more  severe  acidificaOon,  likely  wider   impacts.  
  16. 16. Thanks.   •  Benoit  Eudeline  &  Bill  Dewey  at  Taylor   Shellfish  Farms.   •  Mark  Wiegardt,  Sue  Cudd,  Alan  Barton  at   Whiskey  Creek.   •  Richard  Feely,  Vicky  Fabry,  Joanie  Kleypas,   Jeremy  Mathis,  Sco]  Doney,  Mark  Green,  Jeff   and  many  others.   •  Bulli]  &  Oak  foundaOons,  Rockefeller  Brothers   Fund,  other  donors.  

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