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Ethnicity, Ethnocentrism and Human Adaptation
Ethnicity, Ethnocentrism and Human Adaptation
Ethnicity, Ethnocentrism and Human Adaptation
Ethnicity, Ethnocentrism and Human Adaptation
Ethnicity, Ethnocentrism and Human Adaptation
Ethnicity, Ethnocentrism and Human Adaptation
Ethnicity, Ethnocentrism and Human Adaptation
Ethnicity, Ethnocentrism and Human Adaptation
Ethnicity, Ethnocentrism and Human Adaptation
Ethnicity, Ethnocentrism and Human Adaptation
Ethnicity, Ethnocentrism and Human Adaptation
Ethnicity, Ethnocentrism and Human Adaptation
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Ethnicity, Ethnocentrism and Human Adaptation

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Class presentation on ethnicity within the sociobiological / human evolutionary ecology context in anthropology. An overview from a single class in HEE.

Class presentation on ethnicity within the sociobiological / human evolutionary ecology context in anthropology. An overview from a single class in HEE.

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  • 1. Ethnicity, Ethnocentrism, and Human Adaptation Celia Emmelhainz ANTH 630: Human Evolutionary EcologyPresentation at Texas A&M, December 1 2008
  • 2. Cultural Adaptation Division and conflict between groups by ethnicity can be seen as: -Adaptive -Neutral -Tolerable -Maladaptive (Edgerton 1992)
  • 3. EthnicityViewed as Primordial:- Endogamy and Shared Descent (Hammond and Axelrod 2006)- Social Construct/Mental Shortcut (Gil-White 1999, 2001)Viewed as Socially Constructed:- Group Boundaries (Barth 1969)- Rational Choice (Economics)
  • 4. Markers ofEthnicity:Language Religion CustomsPhysicality Dress Accent
  • 5. Francisco Gil-White and the Ultimatum game- Bulgan Sum, Hovd, Mongolia- Few outward markers- Kazakhs and Torguuds- More paid to out-group members(Gil-White 2003, 2004)
  • 6. Adaptation and Ethnicity (Theories in Human Evolutionary Ecology)— Living Kinds Theory— Genetic Similarity Theory— Domain-Specific Mechanisms— Social Identity Mechanisms— Rational Choice Theory(MacDonald 2001)
  • 7. Maladaptation and ethnicity• Lost opportunities (trade, mating, cooperation)• Discrimination• Xenophobia• War• Genocide
  • 8. “ethnocentrism: the feeling that one’s group has a mode of living, values, and patterns of adaptation that are superior to those of other groups.” Columbia Encyclopedia 2000:12933 cited in Gil-White 2005
  • 9. Ethnocentrism - Reinforces group norms and increases in-group conformity - Increases discrimination against outsiders - Increases cooperation within-group and decreases it between groups - Increases tendency to think of outsiders as sub-human - Decreases costly interactions (Gil-White 2005) - Increases conflicts and misunderstandings
  • 10. Conclusion“if humans are to succeedin adapting to one anotherand to the environments inwhich they live, they mustdevise social and culturalmechanisms to controlcertain aspects of theirbiological nature.”(Edgerton 1992:61)
  • 11. Pictures used in a fair-use educational context:1. http://www.angryasianman.com/images/angry/mongol01.jpg2 . http://www.ngsprints.co.uk/popup_image.php?pID=1079623. http://www.flickr.com/photos/nozomiiqel/1099084874. http://www.flickr.com/photos/25932866@N065. http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/mongolia.html6. http://www.flickr.com/photos/clydebentley/25643494517. http://www.flickr.com/photos/dunechaser/4908889518. http://www.flickr.com/photos/46329566@N00/2821552374/9. http://www.flickr.com/photos/jerrold/23793265010. http://www.flickr.com/photos/jeff-bauche/223026583711. http://www.flickr.com/photos/integralfocus/7196981612. http://www.flickr.com/photos/keithpatterson/9790094668
  • 12. For more information see also:Brown 2003Edgerton 1992Gil-White 1999Gil-White 2003Hammond and Axelrod 2006Henrich and Boyd 1998Jahoda 2002MacDonald 2001McElreath et al 2003Ruston 2005Soltis et al 1995

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