!"#$%&"()(*"$+(,%&-+#./&0$.1$-&2$"(*"&!3/+#.&4.,5+6&$%)&    263/(,-,738    Emma Timmins-Schiffman, UW SAFS    Michael O’Do...
!9+-(%#8•  Ocean acidification and marine invertebrate   larvae•  Experimental design and methods•  The impacts of ocean a...
!&$%)&0$.1$#&:&;6$+&        <$==#%/>8•  Halted or delayed development•  Smaller size•  Inhibited calcification            ...
!&$%)&0$.1$#&:&;63>8•  Stress causes resources to be used in different ways•  Evidence from physiological assays: changes ...
!&$%)&0$.1$#&:&;63>8•  Stress causes resources to be used in different ways•  Evidence from physiological assays: changes ...
;6$+&$.#&+6#&(?=$"+/&,@&,"#$%&$"()(*"$+(,%&,%&-$.1$-&!"#$%$&##$.-3&)#1#-,=?#%+>8
A#+6,)/8        !"#$%&#%(    !)*+      /0(     1!2,-&345     81"(                     ,-$%&."               67.(       ?B(...
•  Flow-through•  pH monitored continuously•  Solenoid controls addition of   CO2 back into low-pCO2   water
A#+6,)/8•  Size: Photographs of fixed larvae and measured   hinge length and shell height                                 ...
0$.1$-&<(%7#&0#%7+68                                  A                   B                   C                           ...
0$.1$-&Q6#--&<#(76+8                                A                   B                   C                             ...
0$.1$-&N$-"(*"$+(,%8                                                        1.0                                           ...
N,%"-9/(,%/8•  The larvae at the highest pCO2 were able to   achieve preliminary growth and calcification, but   could not...
N,%"-9/(,%/8•  Through day 3 post-fertilization, larvae at MidCO2   (~800 !atm) CO2 were indistinguishable from   controls.
N,%"-9/(,%/8•  Even if the larvae at the highest pCO2 treatment   “caught up”, there could be ecological   consequences.
!"#$%&"()(*"$+(,%&$%)&     R91#%(-#&!"#$%$&8•  Exposure at 6 different pCO2 for 1 month  o  400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, and...
S?=-("$+(,%/8•  How do different life stages of oyster   compensate for the energetic demands of   ocean acidification?  o...
"T%,5-#)7#?#%+/8•  Friday Harbor Labs   o    Ken Sebens   o    Emily Carrington   o    Matt George   o    Laura Newcomb   ...
students.washington.edu/emmats                     safsoa.wordpress.com
Aslo 2012
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Aslo 2012

  1. 1. !"#$%&"()(*"$+(,%&-+#./&0$.1$-&2$"(*"&!3/+#.&4.,5+6&$%)& 263/(,-,738 Emma Timmins-Schiffman, UW SAFS Michael O’Donnell, UW Biology (FHL) Carolyn Friedman, UW SAFS Steven Roberts, UW SAFS
  2. 2. !9+-(%#8•  Ocean acidification and marine invertebrate larvae•  Experimental design and methods•  The impacts of ocean acidification on early development of larval Crassostrea gigas•  Conclusions•  New science: ocean acidification and juvenile C. gigas
  3. 3. !&$%)&0$.1$#&:&;6$+& <$==#%/>8•  Halted or delayed development•  Smaller size•  Inhibited calcification Low pCO2 High pCO2
  4. 4. !&$%)&0$.1$#&:&;63>8•  Stress causes resources to be used in different ways•  Evidence from physiological assays: changes in gene expression, metabolic rate, scope for growth o  Stumpp et al. 2011, Todgham & Hofmann 2009, O’Donnell et al. 2009 “Normal” Environmental Conditions Stress response Development Growth Immune function Calcification
  5. 5. !&$%)&0$.1$#&:&;63>8•  Stress causes resources to be used in different ways•  Evidence from physiological assays: changes in gene expression, metabolic rate, scope for growth o  Stumpp et al. 2011, Todgham & Hofmann 2009, O’Donnell et al. 2009 •  Manila clam larvae (D. Metzger): translation, development, oxidative stress, cell cycle, gene silencing, transport, RNA processing Stressful Environmental Conditions Stress response Development Growth Immune function Calcification
  6. 6. ;6$+&$.#&+6#&(?=$"+/&,@&,"#$%&$"()(*"$+(,%&,%&-$.1$-&!"#$%$&##$.-3&)#1#-,=?#%+>8
  7. 7. A#+6,)/8 !"#$%&#%( !)*+ /0( 1!2,-&345 81"( ,-$%&." 67.( ?B(#%+8 CDEFDG8 HIJJFKIKC8 LJJEFMC8 LIHJ8 Ambient A()N!M8 ECHFDH8 HIHOFKIKD8 LJJOFMG8 LILJ8 MidCO2 <(76N!M8 LKDOFOE8 HIDDFKIKJ8 LJJGFMO8 KIJE8 HighCO2•  Chemistry monitored: AT and pH•  Exposure to pCO2 treatment from fertilization through 3 days post-fertilization•  Days 1 and 3 post-fertilization: o  Calcification o  Size
  8. 8. •  Flow-through•  pH monitored continuously•  Solenoid controls addition of CO2 back into low-pCO2 water
  9. 9. A#+6,)/8•  Size: Photographs of fixed larvae and measured hinge length and shell height H L•  Calcification: polarized light
  10. 10. 0$.1$-&<(%7#&0#%7+68 A B C P8 70 70 70Hinge Length (!m) 60 60 60 Hinge Length (!m) 50 50 50 40 40 40 30 30 30 Ambient MidCO2 HighCO2 20 20 20 Day 1 Day 3 Day 1 Day 3 Day 1 Day 3 Day 1 Day 3 Day 1 Day 3 Day 1 Day 3
  11. 11. 0$.1$-&Q6#--&<#(76+8 A B C P8 80 80 80 P8 P8 70 70 70Shell Height (!m) Shell Height (!m) 60 60 60 50 50 50 40 40 40 Ambient MidCO2 HighCO2 30 30 30 Day11 Day 3 Day Day 3 Day 11 Day 3 Day Day 3 Day 11 Day 3 Day Day 3
  12. 12. 0$.1$-&N$-"(*"$+(,%8 1.0 1.0 1.0 Ambient MidCO2 HighCO2Fully calcified Proportion Larvae Fully Calcified 0.8 0.8 0.8 Proportion LarvaeFully Calcified 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4Partially/Un-calcified 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 Day1 1 Day 3 Day Day 3 Day 1 Day 3 Day 1 Day 3 Day 1 Day 3 3 Day 1 Day
  13. 13. N,%"-9/(,%/8•  The larvae at the highest pCO2 were able to achieve preliminary growth and calcification, but could not maintain it.
  14. 14. N,%"-9/(,%/8•  Through day 3 post-fertilization, larvae at MidCO2 (~800 !atm) CO2 were indistinguishable from controls.
  15. 15. N,%"-9/(,%/8•  Even if the larvae at the highest pCO2 treatment “caught up”, there could be ecological consequences.
  16. 16. !"#$%&"()(*"$+(,%&$%)& R91#%(-#&!"#$%$&8•  Exposure at 6 different pCO2 for 1 month o  400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, and 1400 ppm o  Gradient of response/tipping point?•  After 1 month o  Transcriptomics, proteomics, and histology o  Mechanical stress o  Heat shock at lethal temperature and at 1 and 2°C below LT
  17. 17. S?=-("$+(,%/8•  How do different life stages of oyster compensate for the energetic demands of ocean acidification? o  Physiological needs can change with life stage•  What are the markers we can develop to better understand the contemporary and future impacts of acidification events? Environmental heterogeneity Upwelling events Future climate change
  18. 18. "T%,5-#)7#?#%+/8•  Friday Harbor Labs o  Ken Sebens o  Emily Carrington o  Matt George o  Laura Newcomb o  Michelle Herko o  Richard Strathmann o  Billie Swalla•  School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences o  Sam White o  Lisa Crosson o  Mackenzie Gavery o  Caroline Storer•  Funding o  NSF Grant to Emily Carrington o  Saltonstall-Kennedy Grant (NOAA) o  Pacific Coast Shellfish Grower’s Association
  19. 19. students.washington.edu/emmats safsoa.wordpress.com
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