1894Edward B. Marks and Joe Stern hired an electrician called GeorgeThomas alongside a selection of performers in order to promote theirsong, “The Little Lost Child.”Using a ‘magic lantern,’ Thomas created a slideshow of still imagesthat were projected on a screen whilst live performers played theirmusic.“Illustrated song.”
1902 - 1917 - ThePhonoscenePhonoscene - chronophone sound recording synchronized to achronograph film. The two combined created a sound film.Firstly, producers would record the sound. A filmed actor would thenlip sync and the two components were then played togethersynchronously.Creator - Léon Gaumont 1902 France. Presented - BuckinghamPalace 1907. Last Presentation - 1917.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e-VVNO_l5bY
1926 - 1959 - Talkies,soundies and shortsIn 1926, ‘talkies’ were invented, much similar to the phonoscene.‘Soundies’ were then created, which were around 3 minute longmusical films.Such clips were played on ‘visual jukeboxes’ often located inrestaurants and bars that featured musicians playing as a band,dance sequences.Produced - New York, Chicago + Hollywood 1940’s - 1950’s.1958 - Soundies were produced in colour film.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fq9oHhkkVV0
1960 - 1973 - Pop BandsThe Animals - House of the Rising Sun - 1964 - created a high qualitycolour film music video which the band lip synced to on a manmadeset. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AgANuwSNsokThe Beatles - first feature film in 1964. In 1965 the band made theirown promotion clips which they starred in themselves (10 black andwhite promo vids.)The Beatles - Strawberry Fields Forever + Penny Lane - 1967 - colourfilm clips.
1974 - 1991 - MTVTop of the Pops began playing music videos on TV in the later 1970s.USA created MTV in 1998 - Video Killed the Radio Star was the firstmusic video ever played - from then on music videos became popularacross the nations. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W8r-tXRLazs1983 - Michael Jackson’s Thriller was released.1985 - MTV released VH1 (Video Hits One) which featured moredated music in order to appeal to a wider target audience.1988 - Hip Hop hit the music scene when Yo! MTV Raps was created.MTV began broadcasting 24/7 music television to the public.
1992 - 2004 - WorldwideBroadcastingDuring this time MTV sought to widen itsmarket to a global audience thus creating MTVLatin America in 1993 and MTV India in 1996.In 1995, Michael and Janet Jackson splasheda whopping $7m on ‘Scream,’ which still holdsthe record for the world’s most expensivemusic video!http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0P4A1K4lXDo
Present DayMany music videos nowadays are short films in a storyboard fashionwith clips of the artist(s) as well. For example, Craig David’s SevenDays tells a complete story of how he relives certain days in order torectify mistakes he makes when meeting a girl. It is an entire story.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ABuWphlnZ1AWith such a wide variety of musical genres nowadays, it can beexpected that certain genres follow specific conventions in terms ofmusic videos. For example, R&B and Pop music will usually featuresex and clubs whereas alternative genres are more commonly bandsplaying all together.
History of Ambient musicvideos.• History of Ambient/Downtempo/Worldbeat music videos.• There is not great load of information about the history of such genre’s music videos because a lot of the songs donot actually have music videos to accompany them.• This could be because the genre is somewhat sheltered and obscure so the demand for videos is low as suchsongs are not going to be broadcasted on the television.• However, in 2005, Boards of Canada released on iTunes their album The Campfire Headphase. The sixth track on thealbum is called Dayvan Cowboy that has a music video created in April 2006.• Video Summary: The video consists of footage from Joe Kittingers famous parachute jump from 19.5 miles(31.4 km) altitude, and later slow-motion footage of big-wave surfer Laird Hamilton. The final scene of the musicvideo showing a sunset or sunrise is from the film Crystal Voyager. The video was directed by Melissa Olson andhas received nearly two million views on YouTube. (Wikipedia)• Boards of Canada also have a video to accompany the song, Everything You Do is a Balloon. The clip takes extractsfrom 1963 One Got Fat, a bicycle safety movie.• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dQEmaj9C6ko Boards of Canada, Everything You Do is a Balloon
History of Genres• Ambient music aims to create a mood or atmosphere for listeners through synthesizers and ‘timbral qualities’.• Ambient music is commonly considered to originate from the 1970s, making it a fairly new genre of music compared to other musicalstyles.• Basil Kirchin and Brian Eno are regarded to be ambient music’s main founders due to the fact that they fused elements of environmentalmusic with electronica.• However, in the early 20thcentury, two new art movements arose as a result of the periods before and after the First World War causingan increase in musical experimentation. Such experiments are said to have rejected conventional music forms. The art movements werecalled Futurism and Dadaism.• Erik Satie, an early 20thcentury French composer, created his own Dadaist-inspired music that he called ‘furniture music’ in which hedesigned to create a mood for activities such as eating dinner. His aim was to create a background sound.• Satie is considered the link between the early art movements and the work of Brian Eno.• In the 70s, Eno labelled the genre, ‘ambient’. He derived the term from Latin, “ambire” which means to “surround” as such a musicalgenre is created to alter an individual’s state of mind. However, ambient music is supposed to be “as ignorable as it is interesting.”• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B9kPIp4MtX0 < Brian Eno, Music for Airports
Downtempo Music• Downtempo is an electronica style of music, similar to ambient but with an allowance for morecomplicated beats. It is often not as intense as house and trance music but holds similar qualities.• In the 1990s, downtempo music first originated in the relaxation rooms in clubs in Ibiza. In 1994, trip hopemerged in Bristol, a fusion of hip hop, ambient music and drum and bass all at a lower tempo. • The end of the 1990s, the genre name ‘downtempo’ was created as a more melodic sound evolved thatincorporated acoustic sounds with electronic sounds.• Artist examples: Boards of Canada, Aphex Twin• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RhHkUg-QCwk < Aphex Twin, Flim• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rg-iKP0zI9Q Boards of Canada, Aquarius
Worldbeat Music• Worldbeat music first evolved in the mid 80s when mainstream artists began fusing worldmusic influences into their songs. Originally, such world music that they used would be fromAfrica, Ireland, Asia, the Middle East and Latin America but nowadays influences are takenfrom all across the globe.• Worldbeat’s most successful and used influences: Celtic, Afrobeat, Mbaganga, gawwali,highlife, rai, raga, samba, flamenco and tango.• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mBAs2wTjEw8 < Enigma, Principles of Lust (Sadeness/FindLove/Sadeness)(Reprise) Medley• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tkg8Lk3nDXk Kaminanda, Conscious Droplets• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nRY5mxRRBCw Desert Dwellers, Crossing Beyond (DukeMushroom Remix)
History of Digipaks• A digipak is a ‘patented style of compact discor DVD packaging.’ In music, it contains theCD itself,artist information, a track list, albumart and sometimes a little book of the lyrics inthe songs.• It is a registered trademark of AGI-Shorewood,an Atlas Holding LLC company.
History• IMPAC Group Inc used to own the Digipak trademarkhowever the company is now owned by MeadWestvaco(since 2000) and ‘folded into its AGI Media divison.’• The digipak name and designs were then licensed tomanufacturers around the world.• MWV sold AGI Media to Atlas Holding in 2010.• Then, in 2012, Atlas bought Shorewood Packaging fromInternational Paper and proceeded to merge the twocompanies to create AGI-Sherwood. (convergence!)
History of Posters• The first contemporary poster (or poster as we know it)dates back to 1870. This is the same time as the printingindustry mastered colour lithography, thus enabling ‘massproduction’.• John Barnicoat who is a poster expert says, “In little morethan a hundred years, it has come to be recognized as avital art form, attracting artists at every level, from painterslike Toulouse-Lautrec and Mucha to theatrical andcommercial designers.”
History of Posters• Posters have ranged in styles: Art Nouveau, Symbolism,Cubism and Art Deco. There are also more formal posters:Bauhaus and also hippie posters of the 1960s.• Many famous posters date back to the war when war-timepropaganda was happening and the government wanted toadvertise the importance of everyone’s individual roles inthe war effect.• Posters can be very influential and this is evident from thelegacy they have left behind i.e. Dig for Victory, We NeedYOU! Etc.
History of Posters• Posters that just included text date back towhen Shakespeare was around – evenadvertising his plays!• The revolution of posters, however, happenedin 1796 as the technique of lithography wasinvented by the German Alois Senefelder.• Chromolithography was then invented. Thisallowed for posters to be illustrated with bright,vivid colours and also led to the production ofthe in great masses.
History of Posters -Music• In terms of music advertisements, it was mainly rockmusic and concerts that flourished in the world ofposters.• The posters were/are used to advertise the eventsand often even go on to become collectable items!• Teenagers across the globe use music artist postersto promote the fact that ‘this is their favorite band.’They are often found in bedrooms, university dormrooms and apartments.
Present• Posters are used in all different sorts of ways.• Propaganda and political posters, movieposters, travel posters, event posters i.e.boxing, concert, band/music posters, pin-upposters (from the 1920s), affirmation posters,fan posters, educational posters and more.