Pp8 producing flms key terms


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Pp8 producing flms key terms

  1. 1. Producing Films The issues involved in producing films. Production Company Case Studies
  2. 2. Production <ul><li>Production refers to the actual process of making a film. </li></ul><ul><li>This covers everything from buying a script to securing funding to overseeing the film’s ‘shoot.’ </li></ul><ul><li>This is done by the production company such as Universal, Working Title, Warp Films. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Production Process
  4. 4. Production Companies <ul><li>A company such as Working Title or Warp Films oversees the physical production of the film </li></ul><ul><li>They may be responsible for raising funds </li></ul><ul><li>They may be a small company (like Warp) selling its product to a Film Studio for distribution </li></ul><ul><li>They may be the Film Studio itself (like Universal) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Conglomerates <ul><li>Conglomerates are a combination of two or more companies engaging in different businesses, often large and spanning many countries ( Multi-nationals) </li></ul><ul><li>Media conglomerates use synergy and cross-Promotions to allow different media companies to benefit from each other </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Time Warner AOL owns internet, film, music and Publishing companies which provide each other with content and advertising. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Case Studies <ul><li>You need to develop knowledge of different production companies and how they develop their products (Hollywood, Working Title, Warp) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The history of the company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their primary audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who distributes their films </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How successful (critical/box office) they have been </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House style/branding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ideology </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Case Study: Vivendi <ul><li>VIVENDI is a French Telecommunications Conglomerate owning companies in many countries and in several industries, including </li></ul>
  8. 8. Working Title <ul><li>Working Title Films is owned by a large multi-national conglomerate. This is likely to allow them to invest more heavily in big budget and prestigious films like Atonement (2007) </li></ul><ul><li>This helps them feature prominently in the International Market, as they will have specific Institutional funding and support in non UK territories. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Financing <ul><li>Pre-Sales – Selling the rights to distribute a film before it is made, Often dependent on certain key features, like a well known actor </li></ul><ul><li>Government grants </li></ul><ul><li>Tax Schemes/Shelters </li></ul>
  10. 10. Working Title <ul><li>Working Title is likely to receive the majority of its funding through pre-sales. </li></ul><ul><li>Look into the history of Working Title </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How has it developed from an independent company? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How has it benefitted from horizontal integration? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Revenue/Profit <ul><li>Gross a percentage of the ticket sales, paid to the distributor </li></ul><ul><li>Ancillary Sales ‘Sale’ of the film not directly tied to the cinema release e.g. DVD or TV sales </li></ul><ul><li>Merchandising sale of items related to the film. Often done through a parent company – an example of horizontal integration and synergy. </li></ul><ul><li>Product Placement selling ‘advertising’ of a product by placing it prominently in the film e.g. Omega Watches Casino Royale (2006) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Working Title <ul><li>Has had several major international successes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What were they and what did they gross? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WT are also likely to utilise large scale marketing campaigns, such as the blanket-like coverage given to the Boat That Rocked (2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Working Title would expect to turn a profit upon initial release due to the prominence of their films and reliability of their ‘brand.’ </li></ul>
  13. 13. Institutional Ideology <ul><li>Through media they produce, film studios and production companies can be said to have specific ideologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Disney promote ‘family values’ and traditional (Christian) morality through films like High School Musical. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Working Title <ul><li>Working Title demonstrate a more liberal ideology through its portrayal of sensitive, liberal upper-class characters and their approach to issues such as homosexuality & pre-marital sex, but largely ignore any serious socio-economical issues such as class or poverty. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Audience Targeting <ul><li>The process of deliberately appealing to a specific group or demographic. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be done through the inclusion of specific elements, or the utilisation of certain genres. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, the use of specific marketing techniques and marketing in specific locations can affect the audience appeal of a film. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Working Title <ul><li>WT films address large ‘tent pole’ audiences; this is evident in the scale of their successes and nature of their films. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Four Weddings… (1994) $224m worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>Now enhanced by being tied to a multi-national conglomerate. </li></ul><ul><li>Tim Bevan and Eric Fellner said their philosophy is to produce films that ‘play in the multiplex.’ </li></ul>
  17. 17. House Style/Branding <ul><li>The creation of a recognisable style that will be similar from film to film, independent of director, star or even genre. </li></ul><ul><li>Branding the transition of the company name to a recognisable ‘brand’ with a specific audience expectations, whereby the target audience is appealed to because they ‘know what to expect’ from a film by that company. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Working Title <ul><li>WT films have now developed a recognisable house style, building on their successes in the romantic comedy genre. </li></ul><ul><li>This is at least partly dependent on Richard Curtis, the writer-director behind many of their most successful films. Curtis himself is now something of a ‘brand’, with a high level of audience recognition. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Working Title <ul><li>Tim Bevan and Eric Fellner (Working Title Co-Chairman) have said for a long part of their history ‘90% of the time [was] spent trying to secure financing’ </li></ul><ul><li>WT films funds their films primarily through pre-sales, which is made much easier as they are part of the same conglomerate as their distributor, Universal Pictures. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Working Title <ul><li>WT films are also able to secure Pre-Sales because their films contain many ‘commercially sound’ elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular, mainstream genres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Big-name stars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand-style recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are increasingly known as ‘prestige’ film makers, with films such as Atonement. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Case Studies <ul><li>You must develop detailed case studies into these two production companies </li></ul><ul><li>Working Title and Warp. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their company history, distributor and brief details of some films they have made over the years. (1 st , most successful, name, yr, box office takings…) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding, brand/house style, ideology, target audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display as a timeline/bullet points </li></ul></ul>