The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1837 Samuel Morse Invents The Telegraph In 1837, Samuel Morse invented the original telegraph transmitter and receiver. This invention was the foundation which led to the information age as we know it today.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1858 The First Trans-Atlantic Cable Attempt In 1858, the Atlantic cable was established to carry instantaneous Atlantic Cable Sample communications across the ocean for the first time. Although the laying of this first cable was seen as a landmark event, it only remained in service a few days.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1866 The Next Trans-Atlantic Cable Is A Success On the next attempt, cables Atlantic Cable Buoys which were laid in 1866 were a complete success. This event, in its time, would compare to events like the moon landing of a century later. The cable of 1866 remained in service for the next 100 years. Cable buoys were used to mark the location of cables. The largest of the buoys used on the Atlantic telegraph cable of 1865-66 could carry a cable weight of 20 tons.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1876 Alexander Graham Bell Invents the Telephone The concept of communicating voice over large distances was the foundation for the backbone of Internet connections today. Many of the same principles that defined the phone system were later adapted to create the first data networks. Alexander Graham Bell
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1945 The Concept of HyperText is Conceived Vannevar Bush was an electrical engineer at MIT and an influential science adviser to President Roosevelt and the federal government during and after World War II. Bush was the originator of the concept of hypertext. In 1945, Bush proposed MEMEX, a conceptual machine that could store vast amounts of information. Users had the ability to create information trails, links of related texts and illustrations, which could be stored and used Vannevar Bush (1908-1974) for future reference.
The History of the Internet Year 1950 The first portable, personal, digital computer is invented by Edmund C. Berkeley. It’s called Simon. As you know, the digital computer becomes an essential part of using the Internet. (The first mechanical computer was invented much earlier: in the 1800s, with the first working model being rolled out in 1876.)
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1957 Sputnik Launches ARPA USSR launched Sputnik, the first artificial Earth satellite. In response, President Dwight Eisenhower created the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) within the Department of Defense to establish a US lead in science and technology applicable to the military. Sputnik 1, launched on Oct. 4, 1957, became the first artificial satellite to successfully orbit the Earth. It was a metallic sphere about 2 feet across, weighing 184 lbs (84 kg), with long "whiskers" pointing to one side, and stayed in orbit for 6 months before falling back to Earth. Its rocket booster, weighing 4 tons, also reached orbit and was easily visible from the ground.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1960 Ted H. Nelson Coins "hypertext" and "hypermedia" Ted H. Nelson is the inventor of many common ideas related to hypertext, including the words "hypertext" and "hypermedia." Nelson defined hypertext as "a body of written or pictorial material interconnected in [such] a complex way that it could not be conveniently represented on paper." The principle of hypertext is to associate information through "links" into a coherent organization. Ted H. Nelson
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1961 Packet-Switching Theory Is Created Leonard Kleinrock of MIT wrote "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets." This was the first paper on packet-switching (PS) theory, the foundation of how all data is packaged on the Internet today.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1962 Mouse inventor Douglas Englebart writes a paper titled “Augmenting Human Intellect : A Conceptual Framework” about networking information. JCR Licklider writes a series of memos envisioning a global system of interconnected computers whileDonald Davies, Paul Baran, and others theorize packet-switched networks. Together they create ArpaNet which is the precursor to the Internet. The first nodes are established at UCLA, the Stanford Research Center at UCSB, and UofU. Me 1.0 is launched by my mother, though this has nothing to do with the web at this point. Me version 44.3 is in use today and remains fairly reliable.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1963 Douglas Englebart tries to turn his theories into reality with the first successful implementation of hypertext. By 1968, he’s ready to present it to the world. Douglas Englebart
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1964 A Network That Could Withstand A Nuclear Bomb In 1964, the RAND Corporation sought to design a communications network that could link cities, states, and military bases and withstand an atomic bomb. Paul Baran of RAND put forth a proposal entitled “On Distributed Communication Networks." This new network would have no central authority and was thus designed from the beginning to be more fail-proof.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1967 NPL Tests The First Packet- Switching Network ARPA was renamed to DARPA to reflect its sponsorship by the Department of Defense. The National Physical Laboratory (NPL), in England created the NPL network to experiment with packet switching using 768Kbps (Kilobits per second) lines. Later that year the first meeting of the three independent packet network teams (RAND, NPL, ARPA) was held.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1968 ARPANET Is Proposed and Contracted Out In 1968 DARPA sent out a Request for Proposals for a network project called ARPANET. The project was awarded in three parts:1. UCLA was awarded a contract to create a Network Measurement Center.2. Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc. (BBN) was awarded the packet switching contract to build Interface Message Processors (IMP).3. Network Working Group (NWG) had the task of developing protocols to communicate over the ARPANET.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1969 The 50Kbps ARPANET Is Tested With 4 Nodes ARPANET was configured with four IMP network nodes running at 50Kbps connecting four universities using the Network Control Protocol (NCP) to transfer data. This allowed communications between hosts running on the same network. The first packets sent by Charley Kline at UCLA as he tried UCLA - Univ. of Calif. at Los Angeles logging on, resulted in the UCSB - Univ. of Calif. at Santa Barbara system crashing as the letter G UTAH - Utah University of LOGIN was entered. SRI - Stanford Research Institute
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1971 First Email / First eBook / ARPANET Grows First Email Ray Tomlinson of BBN invented an email program to send messages across a distributed network. The email program was derived from two others: an intra- machine email program (SENDMSG) and an experimental file transfer program (CPYNET). First eBook Michael S. Hart creates the first eBook by typing the US Declaration of Independence into a computer. During the same year he also founded Project Gutenberg, the first digital library to create and house electronic copies of eBooks. ARPANET Grows Also in 1971, ARPANET had grown to 15 nodes with 23 hosts. The original IMPs were limited to 4 host connections, and so BBN developed a terminal IMP (TIP) that supported up to 64 hosts.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1972 ARPANET Is Publicly Demonstrated. Ray Tomlinson (BBN) modified his email program for ARPANET and it became an instant hit. The Telnet specification was defined. The first public demonstration of ARPANET was held in the basement of the Washington Hilton Hotel. The demonstration allowed the public to come in and use the ARPANET, running applications all over the U.S. Much to the surprise of the people at AT&T who were skeptical about whether it would work, the demo was a booming success.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1973 International ARPANET Connections/ Ethernet Is Created in 1973, an ARPA study showed that email accounted for 75% of all the traffic generated by the estimated 2,000 users. 1973 also saw the first international connections to ARPANET, when the University College of London and Norways Royal Radar Establishment signed on. The File Transfer specification was defined for transporting files. Bob Metcalfes Harvard Ph.D. Thesis outlined the idea for Ethernet. The concept was tested on Xerox PARCs Alto computers, on the first Ethernet network called the Alto Aloha System. Below is a diagram of the original Ethernet design. Metcalfe later went on to form one of the largest networking companies in the world, 3COM. The name was derived Bob Metcalfe from the prefixes of three terms: Ethernet Creator computer, communication, and compatibility.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1975 Vinton G. Cerf "Father of the Internet" In 1974, the term Internet was first used by Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn in a paper on Transmission Control Protocol. Commercial interests hit in 1974 when BBN developed a commercial version of ARPANET called Telenet. It was the first commercially available packet- switching network and was widely used by early online services like Compuserve and GEnie. Becuase of Cerfs contributions, he is Vinton G. Ceft considered by many as the Father of the Internet.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1975 First Public Internet Service Provider (ISP) The World In 1989 a company called "The World" was the first internet service provider (ISP) to offer dial-up access to the general public. As of October 2011 The World is still offering dial-up services via TheWorld.com.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1976 UUCP Copy Protocol / Royal Email UUCP Copy Protocol The UUCP (Unix-to-Unix CoPy) program was developed at AT&T Bell Labs. UUCP is a collection of computer programs and protocols allowing remote execution of commands and transfer of files, email and netnews between computers. AT&T Bell Labs distributed UUCP with the UNIX operating system one year later. Royal Email Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom, sent out the first royal email.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1978 First Spam Email / PC Modem First Spam Email On May 3, 1978, Gary Thuerk sent the first spam email ever. A marketer for the Digital Equipment Corporation "DEC", blasted out his message to 400 of the 2600 people on ARPAnet to promote DECs new range of mini-computers. Naturally he annoyed a lot of people, but he also had some success, with a few recipients interested in what he was pushing. PC Modem In April of 1977, Dennis C. Hayes developed the first personal computer modem on his dining room table, establishing the critical technology that allowed todays online and Internet industries to emerge and grow. A modem converts the digital signals of the sending computer to analog signals that can be transmitted through telephone lines. When the signal reaches its destination, another modem reconstructs the original digital signal, which is processed by the receiving computer. In January 1978, Hayes Corp. was founded, and by 1985 Hayes annual sales hit $120 million. In fact, Hayes modems were so popular that other competitors would sell their modems as Hayes- compatible modems.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1979 Usenet Newsgroups Created / BITNET Created Usenet, a decentralized news group network, was created by Steve Bellovin. It was based on UUCP. The creation of BITNET, "Because its Time Network," by IBM, introduced the "store and forward" network. It was used for email and listservs.
The History of the Internet Year 1980 Philips invents the CD but users don’t see these things for a while. Tim Berners-Lee, IT consultant for CERN, writes the Enquire cross-linking database that relies on the notion of hyperlinking between network nodes. This forms the very foundation of the World Wide Web (still not an established name at this point in time, though). For the record, Tim Berners-Lee denies that he invented the web as many claim. He’s adamant about it in fact. (I think he’s being humble and was instrumental in making all of this happen.)
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1981 NSF Creates The 56 Kbps CSNET National Science Foundation created a backbone called CSNET 56 Kbps network for institutions without access to ARPANET. Vinton Cerf proposed a plan for an inter-network connection between CSNET and the ARPANET.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1983 Internet Is Born / America Online Internet Is Born America Online On January 1st, every machine connected Founded in 1983 as Control Video to ARPANET had to switch from the Corporation, Steve Case rebranded it as Network Control Protocol (NCP) to the America Online in February 1991, thus Transmission Control Protocol TCP/IP. AOL was born. Steve Case positioned By TCP/IP replacing NCP entirely, the AOL as the online service for people foundation for the Internet as we know it unfamiliar with computers, in particular today was born. contrast to CompuServe, which had long served the technical community. AOL was the first online service to require use of proprietary software, rather than a standard terminal program; as a result it was able to offer a graphical user interface (GUI) instead of command lines, and was well ahead of the competition in emphasizing communication among members as a feature. Many consider AOL to be the first successful online social network.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1984 The Internet Gets Fast / DNS Created The Internet Gets Fast Upgrade to CSNET was contracted to MCI. The new circuits would be T1 lines, 1.544 Mbps (Million bits per second) which is twenty-five times faster than the old 56 Kbps lines. The new network was to be called NSFNET (National Science Foundation Network), and old lines would continue to be called CSNET. DNS Created 1984 also saw the introduction of the Domain Named Server (DNS). Before the DNS existed users were required to enter a IP address to reach a web site such as 220.127.116.11 to access the amazon web site. Using the domain name server, users were able to use the domain name amazon.com instead of the IP address 18.104.22.168.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1985 NSF Deploys The 1.544 Mbps(T1) NSFNET In 1985 a number of agreements were in place to connect networks, such as the academic CSnet (Computer Science Network), to the ARPANET. To increase the speed on the net, the National Science Foundation began deploying its new T1 lines (1.544Mbps), which would be finished by 1988.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1986 PERL Scripting Language is Created Larry Wall developed PERL, a powerful programming language optimized for text processing and available as freeware. PERL later became very popular for building WWW server-side scripts. Wall developed PERL in 1986 when he worked at Unisys. Larry Wall "PERL" is short for "Practical Extraction and Report Language."
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1988 45 Mbps (T3) Approved / IANA Created 45 Mbps (T3) Approved In 1988 the T1 NSFNET backbone was completed. Traffic increased so quickly that plans immediately began on upgrading the network again. NSF approves upgrades for NSFNET To 45 Mbps (T3), A high- speed network using T3, a 45 Mbps line. The new network would be complete by the end of 1991. IANA Created 1988 also brought the creation of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) to hand out network addresses. Jonathan B. Postel, creator of the Internets Jonathan B. Postel address system, ran the IANA for many years.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1990 ARPANET Terminated While the T3 lines were being constructed, the Department of Defense disbanded the ARPANET and it was replaced by the NSFNET ARPANET Terminated / MP3 Is Born backbone. The original 50Kbps lines of ARPANET were taken out of Tim Berners-Lee coins the phrase service. World Wide Web (WWW) in reference to a browser built for the NeXTstep platform. He launches the first web browser and first web page (the killer app of the era), then at nxoc01.cern.ch, but now at http[://info.cern.ch/.
MP3 Is Born The Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) in conjunction with a German company Fraunhofer-Gesellshaft implements MP3 audio compression. During the 1980s, MPEG had worked to develop a compression method to transmit high-quality audio files. Different amounts of compression were represented by "layer" algorithms, where the best quality was a compression ratio of 1:4, known as Layer 1. The most efficient ratio was Layer 3, compressing sound 1:12, or reducing the size of the audio file 12 times compared with the original CD standard. This compression became known as MPEG Layer 3, or MP3.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1991 CSNET Is Taken Out Of Service Tim Berners-Lee In 1991, the CSNET makes WWW files (which consisted of publicly available 56Kbps lines) had on the fulfilled its role. It was Internet. This discontinued and sold marks the off to private business. official birth of the Internet.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1992 Tim Berners-Lee Creates the WWW Internet Society was chartered. Tim Berners- Lee published a paper proposing a "world wide web" which was released by CERN, and Jean Armour Polly coined the phrase "surfing the Internet." Web sites showed up on the Internet for the first time for a grand total 26 Web Tim Berners-Lee sites by year end.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1993 InterNic / Mosaic / 10 Million Users InterNIC InterNIC was created by NSF to provide specific Internet services: directory and database services (by AT&T), registration services (by Network Solutions Inc.), and information services (by General Atomics/CERFnet).
Mosaic - Marc Andreessen and NCSA and the University of Illinois developed a graphical user interface to the WWW, called "Mosaic," the first Web browser. The growth rate of the Internet was an incredible 341%. 10 Million Users 1993 marks the year where the Internet reached 10 million users. According to Google stats, this number doubled by 1994, doubled again by 1995, reached 1 billion by 2005 and exceeded 2 billion by 2010.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1994 Yahoo / Pizza Hut / Gore / NSF Upgrades Yahoo Yahoo, the first Internet search engine, was created in April 1994 by David Filo and Jerry Yang at Stanford University where Yahoo itself first resided on Yangs student workstation. Currently Yahoo provides over 167 million search results per day. Pizza Hut Pizza Huts offers first online pizza service on August 22nd, 1994. Well... almost. The Web site let you submit a form which took your order, name, address, and phone number, and then the restaurant would call you back to verify.
Gore Vice President Al Gore, coined term "Information Superhighway." He became the point man in the Clinton administrations effort to build a national information highway, much as his father, former Senator Albert Gore, was a principal architect of the interstate highway system a generation or more earlier. NSF Upgrades In 1994 NFS installed an ATM (Asynchronous Transmission Mode, 145Mbps) backbone on NSFNET. The White House goes online. The WWW beats out telnet to become the second most popular Internet service. FTP is first. The Netscape Navigator Browser is released. Federal Express launches its online package tracking service. Database software MySQL, co-founded by Michael “Monty” Widenius and David Axmark, changes the way data is stored, organized, and delivered to web pages. This was the culmination of work that really began in 1978. The word spam is coined in relation to unsolicited email, but the term really spans all the way back to 1937. Finding jobs online gets its real start as Monster Worldwide Inc., founded in 1967, launches Monster.com.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1995 eBay In the summer of 1995, Pierre Omidyar Amazon was having dinner at home in Campbell Amazon, launched in Seattle by Jeffrey with his fiancée, Pam Wesley. Wesley Bezos, was the first online bookstore and collected PEZ dispensers, and she now the worlds largest online-only retailer. mentioned that she was having trouble Amazons initial business plan was unusual finding fellow collectors to trade with. in that the company did not expect to turn a He came to Wesleys rescue by writing profit for four to five years after it was the code for what would one day become founded. In retrospect the strategy was eBay. The domain name ebay.com was registered in August 1995, the beginning sound, despite the dotcom collapse of 2000. of the largest online person-to-person trading community.
Netscape Marc Andreessen, the mastermind of Mosaic, founded his own company, Mosaic Communications Corporation, which is now known as Netscape. Netscape took a 70% market share of the browser market virtually overnight. RealAudio Rob Glaser released RealAudio, the first Internet audio streaming software. This was later followed by RealVideo and RealPlayer. Domain Fees In 1995, a $50 annual fee was imposed on domains, excluding .edu and .gov domains, which were still funded by the NSF. NSF announced that it would no longer allow direct access to the NSF backbone and contracted with four companies that would provide access to the NSF Backbone for a fee.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1996 Internet Explorer / Java / Flash Internet Explorer Most Internet traffic was carried by backbones of independent ISPs for a fee. Microsoft saw this gigantic potential for the Internet and soon released its own browser, the MS Internet Explorer, for free. Flash In December 1996, FutureWave Software was sold Macromedia, and FutureSplash Animator became Macromedia Flash 1.0. Flash would become synonymous with animation on the Internet. Macromedia was later purchased by Adobe who continues to produce Flash.
Java 1996 also saw the release of Sun Microsystems Java programming language. Java 1.0 was released to the public in January 1996. It provided more interactivity with users by giving developers a way to produce more interactive web pages. Over the years it has evolved as a successful language for use both on and off the Internet. A decade later, it’s still an extremely popular language with over 6.5 million developers worldwide.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1975 Blog The term "weblog" was coined by Jorn Barger in December 1997, while the shorter version, "blog," was coined by Peter Merholz in 1999. Blogging has emerged as a popular means of business.com communication, affecting public opinion and mass media around the world. It The domain name wasnt until 2004 that the role of blogs business.com, originally became increasingly mainstream as registered for $50 in 1995, sold political consultants, news services, and for $150,000 in 1997. It would candidates began using them as tools for outreach and opinion formation. later be sold again in 1999 for Websters Dictionary declared "blog" as $7,500,000. the word of the year in 2004, and by February 2011 there were more than 156 million active blogs.
Winamp, the first popular MP3 musicplayer, boosted the success of MP3 virtuallyovernight. It was developed by collegedropout Justin Frankel at his parents homein Sedona, Arizona.Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11, codenamed Wi-Fi, is awireless local area network (WLAN)standard first released in June 1997. Wi-Ficonnects electronic devices wirelessly acrossshort distances, roughly 150-300 ft. A Wi-Fienabled device, such as a personal computer,video game console, or smartphone, canconnect to the Internet via a wirelessnetwork access point, or "hotspot". Wi-Fienabled devices came slow in the early years,with only 7.5 million units shipped in 2001.Units shipped increased exponentially overthe next ten years, reaching 41 million unitsby 2003, 300 million units by 2007, and over1 billion units in 2011.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 1998 Google Co-founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin, brought Google to life in September 1998, answering roughly 10,000 search queries a day. By 1999 it was handling 500,000 queries per day, and by 2000 it was up to 100 million queries a day. Currently Google indexes over 4.28 billion web pages and provides over 250 million search results per day. PayPal founded in December 1998 by Peter Thiel and Max Levchin, is an Internet business which allows the transfer of money between email users and merchants, avoiding traditional paper methods such as checks/cheques and money orders. PayPal also performs payment processing for e-commerce vendors, auction sites, and other corporate users, for which they charge a fee. Paypal quickly became the most common method of paying for eBay auctions.
Netflix, the first to offer online movierentals, started offering pay-per-rentalmovies online at $4 per rental plus $2 inpostage. It wasnt until 1999 that theyintroduced the monthly subscriptionconcept with no due dates, late fees,shipping or handling fees.eBook ReadersThe first eBook readers or eReaders werealso released in 1998. One was called RocketeBook, with a 4.5 x 3 inch two color B/Wtouch screen, which could hold up to 4000pages (about 10 books). The other was calledSoftBook, with a 6 × 8 inch grayscale touchscreen, which could hold 1500 pages (about4 books).PostageElectronic postal stamps became a reality,with the US Postal Service allowing stampsto be purchased and downloaded forprinting from the Web.
The History of the Internet Internet 2 Internet Timeline 1999 Internet 2 (exceeding 8GBps), led by over 170 U.S. universities working in partnership with industry and government, developed and deployed advanced network applications and technologies, accelerating the creation of tomorrows Internet. MCI/Worldcom, the vBNS provider for NSF, began upgrading the US backbone to 2.5GBps The world feared the unknown Y2K effects on the Internet, which never materialized. Computers were free with a 3-year network service agreement. Napster In mid-1999, the laid-back, 18-year-old Northeastern University dropout Shawn Fanning – nicknamed "Napster" for the nappy hair – developed Napster, the first popular peer-to-peer file sharing platform. Napster, a free software program, allowed people to easily exchange recordings via the Net, cutting out stores and music publishers. Within a year Napster would upend musics business model.
Domain Name Sales Multi-million dollar domain name sales were the poster child of the dot-com excess, with the most infamous being Business.com, which was purchased by ECompanies Venture Group, headed by former Disney executive Jake Weinbaum. The following domain name purchases were realized in 1999 alone: Business.com - $7.5 million wine.com - $3.3 million AltaVista.com - $3.25 million autos.com - $2.2 million coupons.com - $2.2 million express.com - $2 million MarketingToday.com - $1.5 million WallStreet.com - $1.03 million Rock.com - $1 million drugs.com - $824,000
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 2000 Internet Appliances Led by 3Coms Palm Pilot, handheld devices with Internet connectivity began to become a reality. These devices allowed users to view news, sports, stock Web Attacks quotes, weather, road conditions, and A massive denial of service (DoS) attack was much more. They could also purchase stock, place online bids, send and receive launched against major Web sites, including email, book flights, and perform online Yahoo, Amazon, and eBay in early February. banking, with more features arriving daily. Various domain name hijackings took place COPPA in late May and early June, including The United States Childrens Online internet.com, bali.com, and web.net. Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) became effective April 21, 2000, and is an act that applies to commercial web sites and online services that collect information and could be used by children under the age of 13. COPPA helps protect an underage childs privacy by either restricting the childs access to the site without a parents permission or not allowing that child to access the page because it collects data.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 2001 Wikipedia - launched on January 2001 as a free online English-language encyclopedia project. It now contains over 19 million articles. Almost all of its articles can be edited by anyone with access to the site, and it has about 90,000 active contributors. As of July 2011, there were editions of Wikipedia in 282 languages. As for its accuracy, a peer-review comparison of selected science articles in the printed Encyclopedia Britannica with New TLDs the online user-edited ICANN selected new top level domains Wikipedia, conducted by the (TLDs) .aero, .biz, .coop, .info, .museum, journal Nature, rates the .name, .pro. Wikipedia nearly as accurate as Britannica.
Radio Silence Radio stations broadcasting over the Web went silent over artist royalty disputes. About the same time a federal judge ruled that Napster must remain offline until it could prevent copyrighted material from being shared by its users. Tech Stock Blues Many high tech stocks including the big boys like CSCO, ORCL, and SUNW saw 2-year lows as investor confidence dove due to massive dot com failures in 2000 and below-estimate returns in 2001.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 2002 eBay and Paypal Merge July 2002, online auction giant eBay Inc. bought Internet payment provider PayPal Inc. in a $1.3 billion Amazon Grows stock deal that would unite the In October 2002, Amazon added hundreds Webs arguably most successful of new partnerships with reatailers business with one of the few including The Gap, Nordstrom, Lands End, companies that had been giving it Target, Borders, and Toys R Us. At the same any trouble. eBay executives said time, Amazon launched an online sporting they hoped acquiring PayPal would goods store, which offered 3,000 different make the trading site faster, easier, brand names. By the end of 2003, Amazon safer and give eBay a significant would enjoy its first full-year profit and chunk of e-commerce action that it annual sales of over $5.25 billion, an increase had been missing. of more than a third over 2002.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 2003 Myspace Myspace was the first major social networking web site. It allowed users to create profiles, add photos, add music, personalize their page, list personal interests, and more. Myspace had 100,000,000 active users by August 2006 and doubled to 200,000,000 by September 2007. From 2003-2007 Myspace was the most popular social networking site, only to be overtaken by Facebook in mid 2008. Skype Skype, lauched in August 2003, is a software application that allows users to make free voice and video calls and chats over the Internet. Skype was purchased by Microsoft in May of 2011 for $8.5 Billion. For a monthly fee, traditional landline telephones and mobile phones can be made, and users can have real phone numbers attached to their Skype accounts.
• 3Gor 3rd generation mobile • iTunes StoreAlthough iTunes wastelecommunications, was first introduced by Apple, Inc. January 2001 incommercially available in the UnitedStates in July 2003. Both 1G and 2G conjunction with the release of the Appleexists, but the data download rate was a iPod later that year, the release of the iTunesmere 9.6kbs and not very effective for store in April 2003 brought iTunes to themobile purposes. 3G Technology forefront. iTunes is a media player computermarked the first time that cellular program, used for playing and organizingphones could directly connect to the digital music and video files on desktopinternet and provide mobile broadband computers. It can also manage contents onaccess to smartphones as well as laptop iPod, iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad. iTunesmobile modems. 3G data rates can reach384kbps download, which is comparable can connect to the iTunes Store to purchaseto home broadband connections. and download music, music videos,Typical uses include mobile web television shows.browsing, mobile applicationdownloads,and mobile access for laptopcomputers.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 2004 Facebook like Myspace, is a social networking web site, but it was originally limited to college students. In mid 2008, Facebook opened the doors to anyone ages 13+ to join. Within a year, Facebook had twice as many members as Myspace, and with the addition of new features over the next few years, Facebook had five times as • Firefox Mozilla Firefox 1.0 Internet many active users as Myspace. As of July 2011, Facebook had more than 800 million browser was released in September 2004. users, making it by far the most popular With over 25 million downloads in the 99 social networking web site. days after the initial 1.0 release, Firefox became one of the most downloaded free and open source applications. On October 19, 2005, Firefox had its 100 millionth download, just 344 days after the release. It has already grabbed over 10% of the browser market share and is growing rapidly.
Internet Speed record was broken this year.Researchers successfully sent data using a 10Gigabit Ethernet link between theUniversity of Tokyo and the CERN researchcenter in Geneva, Switzerland. The T110delivered sustained 7.57 Gbps throughputrunning standard 1500-byte Ethernetpackets over a single TCP connection acrossan 11,490 mile (18,500 km) link. Thatsenough speed to transfer a full-length DVDanywhere in the world in less than fiveseconds.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 2005 TiVo Internet Access, the most popular personal video recorder, added new features this year that made it possible for users to exchange shows with other users and schedule recordings remotely online. TiVo now says it is also working to allow movies and music from the Internet to be downloaded to TiVo, similar to how pay- per-view is offered by cable and satellite providers. VOIP Soars Voice Over IP (VOIP), the technology for using a standard phone across the Internet, more than doubled its subscriber base this year. Reasons? Calls to other VOIP users are typically free anywhere in the world, while calls to and from traditional land line phones or cell phones cost a few pennies a minute. Typically, VOIP plans cost $25 a month for unlimited dialing,
YouTubeBefore the launch of YouTube in 2005, there werefew easy methods available for ordinary computerusers who wanted to post videos online. YouTubemade it possible for anyone with an Internetconnection to post a video that a worldwideaudience could watch within a few minutes. InNovember 2006 Google purchased YouTube for$1.65 billion in Google stock. As of May 2010,YouTube was serving more than two billion videosa day to over 100 million viewers, which is nearlydouble the prime-time audience of all three majorUS television networks combined.Google EarthThe release of Google Earth in June 2005 to thepublic caused a more than tenfold increase inmedia coverage on virtual globes, driving publicinterest in geospatial technologies andapplications. Google Earth lets you fly anywhereon Earth to view satellite imagery, maps, terrain,3D buildings, from galaxies in outer space to thecanyons of the ocean.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 2006 Standards Awareness This year also saw a much improved Web 2.0 is a term often applied to a awareness of Web standards with perceived ongoing transition of the more and more Web Professionals World Wide Web from a collection of looking to meet XHTML/CSS web sites to a full-fledged computing Standards and ensure web sites platform serving web applications to end users. Ultimately Web 2.0 services are meet Accessibility requirements. expected to replace desktop computing Twitter applications for many purposes. This Twitter is a social networking and year there was an explosion of Web 2.0 applications. This includes improved microblogging service that enables its calendar services, blogs, newsfeeds, users to send and read other users upgraded map services, dynamic Web messages called tweets. Twitter came content that needs no page reloads, and to life in July 2006 when @jack sent an overhaul to the look and feel of Web sites to make them cleaner and easier to the first Tweet to his seven followers use, making Web 2.0 the much and by 2007 Twitter had 5,000 tweets improved, user-friendly Internet. per day. This quickly grew to 300,000 per day in 2008, 2,500,000 per day in 2009, and 50,000,000 per day in 2010. As of 2011, there were over 100 million Twitter users worldwide.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 2007 Android In November 2007, Google released Android, an operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Android is the only direct competitor to Apples iPhone and is raising the bar daily. For example, unlike the iPhone, Android phones can swap batteries when power is low, upgrade memory when storage is low, run Adobe Flash, and Google never charges for Google-created Android Apps. As of May 2011 there were more than 100 million activated Android devices. Google Docs In February 2007, Google Docs was made available to Google Apps users. Google Docs is a free, Web-based office suite, and data storage service offered by Google. It allows users to create and edit documents online while collaborating in real-time with other users.
•Kindle Although the first eReaders wereavailable in 1998, consumer interest did not peakuntil Amazon launched Kindle. In November2007, Amazon offered the Kindle eReader for salefor the first time, which sold out in less than sixhours and would remain out of stock for the nextfive months. The First Kindles cost US$399 andcould hold about 200 eBooks. In September 2011,Amazon released a base Kindle, costing a mereUS$79, with a capacity of 1500 eBooks. Free Kindlesoftware apps are also available for the iPad,Windows and Mac computers, as well as AppleiPhone and Google Android and BlackBerrycellphones. •iPhone/iOS Apples iPhone, running on Apples iOS operating system, were both released in June 2007, making available a line of Internet and multimedia-enabled smartphones with a virtual keypad and a virtual keyboard that would set the standard for smartphones going forward. As of June 2011, Apples iOS operating system was installed on over 200 million devices.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 2008 Netflix Streaming Although Netflix was first introduced in 1998 as an online movie rental Cloud Computing In early 2008, Eucalyptus company, it wasnt until January 2008 that the introduced the first open source Cloud company launched unlimited streaming of computing platform, and the concept has been movies and TV shows online for as little as growing exponentially ever since. Cloud $9.99 a month. Originally these would only computing is a hardware independant method stream on personal computers, but device- providing of computing where users are billed specific support quickly became available. for software usage, cpu usage, and memory Today these devices include game consoles usage as if it were a utility. This avoids the such as Nintendo Wii, Microsoft Xbox 360, need to purchase hardware and software, and and PlayStation 3, plus stand-alone devices eliminates the need to migrate to newer such as Google TV, Apple TV, Blu-ray players, computers every few years. DVRs, handheld devices and more.
•Tethering Mid-2008 saw the rise of tethering, ameans of sharing the Internet connection of anInternet-capable mobile phone with other devicessuch as a laptop. Although mobile consumers raveabout free interent for their laptops via theirphones, the phone companies are, as one canimagine, not as pleased. Some carriers, such asAT&T, have gone as far as to ban tethering, which •App Stores (Google) In October 2008, Googleaffects almost all iPhone users. It is assumed that released Android Market, Googles app store. Bymarket pressure will force AT&T and others alike March 2009, Android Market had 2,300 Apps.to offer tethering for free at some point if they One key advantage to the Android Market is thatplan to keep their customer base. 57% of the apps are free, compared to 28% at Apples App Store. More important, Apple charges•App Stores (Apple) In July 2008, the Apple App for premium apps that Apple creates, whereasStore went live with 522 apps, including 135 free Google has yet to charge for any Google-createdapps. The App Store is a service that allows iPhone apps. In July 2011, 4.5 billion apps had beenusers to browse and download applications from downloaded from Android Market, and Googlethe iTunes Store directly to their iPhone. had approved its 250,000th app.Depending on the application, they are availableeither for free or at a cost. In January 2011, the 10billionth app was downloaded and on May 2011,Apple approved its 500,000th app.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 2009 Google Voice, a telecommunications Mobile Data Milestone service offered by Google, was launched Mobile data traffic surpassed voice traffic in March 2009. By October 2009, Google on mobile devices for the first time in Voice had 1.4 million users. Google Voice 2009 and has consistently topped mobile is used for placing free voice calls over voice traffic ever since. Total mobile data the internet to landline telephones and traffic across the world now exceeds 1 mobile phones. Google will also provide exabyte, which is 1 billion gigabytes. The you a real phone number attached to data explosion should come as no your Google Voice account free of charge. surprise with the increased popularity of You can then go anywhere in the world text messages, Twitter, Facebook, and and make free calls to the United States other Internet-related apps being used from your Google voice account. Calls to via smartphones. other countries from your Google Voice account cost mere pennies per minute.
4G or 4th generation mobile telecommunications, network allows mobile device data downloads at up to 100Mbs, whereas 3G offer data speeds of only 3.84Mbs. Like 3G, typical uses include mobile web browsing, mobile application downloads, and mobile access for laptop computers. However, 4G would allow for real-time movie streaming and other high bandwidth activities not possible with 3G. The world’s first 4G network went live in Stockholm, Sweden and Oslo, Norway at the end of 2009. It wasnt until 2010 that Sprint took the first 4G network live in United States. By September 2010, Sprint had deployed 4G in 55 cities.
The History of the Internet Internet Timeline 2010 iPad Released In April 2010 Steve Jobs, co-founder of Apple, unveiled the Apple iPad tablet, which is a platform for audio-visual media including books, periodicals, movies, music, games, and web content. Its size and weight falls between smartphones and laptop computers. The iPad will run the same applications as iPod and iPhone as well as its own applications. Without modification, the iPad will only run programs approved by Apple and distributed via the Apple App Store. Apple sold 3 million iPads in the first 80 days and sold over 15 million iPads worldwide within the year.
eBooks Dominate while the eReader market was seemingly still in its infancy, the sales of eBooks showed otherwise. Starting April 2010, Amazon reported that eBooks consistently outsold hardcover books every month. As of January 2011, Amazon reported that eBooks were now outselling paperbacks. In June 2011, Barnes & Noble reported that eBooks now outsell all print formats combined by a factor of three to one at BN.com. Officially, December 25, 2009 was the first day that eBooks ever outsold print books, according to Amazon, but these sales were skewed because print book sales are generally down on Christmas day, and eBook sales were significantly higher than normal because of all the new Kindle eReaders received as Christmas gifts.
The History of the Internet2010• Internet World Stats counts over 1.9 billion web surfers worldwideas of June, 2010.2011• Twitter and Facebook are the primarymeans of communication for the MiddleEast revolts.2012• Internet users scored an important victoryin the battle to defeat the Stop OnlinePiracy Act (SOPA)/Protect IP Act (PIPA)and to maintain Internet freedom.
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