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Pacific Northwest National Labs - Electric Vehicle Projects
Pacific Northwest National Labs - Electric Vehicle Projects
Pacific Northwest National Labs - Electric Vehicle Projects
Pacific Northwest National Labs - Electric Vehicle Projects
Pacific Northwest National Labs - Electric Vehicle Projects
Pacific Northwest National Labs - Electric Vehicle Projects
Pacific Northwest National Labs - Electric Vehicle Projects
Pacific Northwest National Labs - Electric Vehicle Projects
Pacific Northwest National Labs - Electric Vehicle Projects
Pacific Northwest National Labs - Electric Vehicle Projects
Pacific Northwest National Labs - Electric Vehicle Projects
Pacific Northwest National Labs - Electric Vehicle Projects
Pacific Northwest National Labs - Electric Vehicle Projects
Pacific Northwest National Labs - Electric Vehicle Projects
Pacific Northwest National Labs - Electric Vehicle Projects
Pacific Northwest National Labs - Electric Vehicle Projects
Pacific Northwest National Labs - Electric Vehicle Projects
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Pacific Northwest National Labs - Electric Vehicle Projects

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Presentation by Peter Christensen at Drive Oregon Monthly event, on November 7, 2013.

Presentation by Peter Christensen at Drive Oregon Monthly event, on November 7, 2013.

Published in: Automotive, Technology, Business
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  • 1. PNNL-SA-99291 Electric Vehicle Adaption: EV Projects at PNNL PETER CHRISTENSEN Manager, Technology Commercialization November 11, 2013
  • 2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY12 Facts ! ! ! ! ! $1B in R&D expenditures More than 4,400 staff 2000+ users & visiting scientists 1,041 peer-reviewed publications ! ! ! Offices located across the state Collaborators across government, industry, academia working to solve client challenges U.S. Department of Energy’s topperforming laboratory for 5 years 44 patents & 176 inventions 2
  • 3. Expanding campus, growing capabilities
  • 4. EIOC @ PNNL Electric Infrastructure Operations Center
  • 5. Today’s Grid can supply 70% of our daily driving energy 105% 57% 78% 104% 46% 18% 10% MAPP 127% NWP 23% 15% CNV 61% 66% 39% AZN & RMP 73% SPP 45% NPCC(US) MAIN ECAR 100% 73% 80% 52% 31% SERC 86% 49% 57% 34% ERCOT % figures denote the percentage of LDV fleet supported by idle electric capacity Nighttime Charging Only (hrs 18 – 6) Daytime + Nighttime Charging (0 – 24 hrs) Summary u  Midwest: support almost the entire LDV fleet u  East: somewhat smaller potential u  West: supports fewer vehicles
  • 6. Increased Sales of Electricity from PHEVs Produce Downward Pressure on Electricity Rates* kWh Produced * analyzes of Cincinnati Gas & Electric and San Diego Gas & Electric Increased sales Same infrastructure, same capital investment = MW Capacity, Capital Investment Utility Cost of Service, By Element of Cost $60.00 $54.2 6 $50.00 Fixed Distribution, $14.25 $50.2 7 Fixed Distribution, $12.54 $40.00 Before After $/kWh Dollars per MWh + Cincinnati Gas & Electric Costs/MWh with PHEV Valley Filling Before After $30.00 Variable Power Supply, $15.84 Variable Power Supply, $15.80 Fixed Transmission Variable Power Supply $20.00 Fixed Power Supply, $23.66 $10.00 Fixed Power Supply, $21.43 BEFORE AFTER Cincinnati Gas and Electric Before After Fixed Distribution Variable Transmission $0.00 Lower electricity rates Variable Distribution Cincinnati Gas and Electric Fixed Power Supply
  • 7. Perfect Valley Filling ECAR Summer Load Profile Charge each PHEV: 1.4 kW charge (120V, 12A) for 7 hours=10 kWh 90,000 80,000 70,000 50,000 40,000 Numbers of Charging Cars Millions of cars MW 60,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 16 16 1820 202222 2424 2 2 4 4 18 66 88 10 12 10 12 14 Hour Hour 0 16 18 20 22 24 2 4 Hour 6 8 10 12 14
  • 8. PNNL Grid-Friendly Charger Controller ! With communications as part of the AGC control !   Provision of regulation services to minimize ACE !   Requires high update rates via SCADA network ! Without communications !   Based on frequency deviations from nominal AC frequency !   Provision of frequency bias portion of ACE !   Extremely low-cost
  • 9. Secondary Transformer Loading (Selected Utilities in PNW) Transformer Loaded Capacity for Various PHEV Penetrations EPRI Charging Profile PHEV Charge Profile (Quick Charging) 10 Base Load 50% Penetration 100% Penetration 200% Penetration 40% 8 kW 50% 6 4 2 30% 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 Hour 20% Transformer Loaded Capacity for Various PHEV Penetrations 240V Quick Charge Charging Profile 10% 0% PHEV Charge Profile (EPRI) 1.2 1 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 10% >2 00 % 20 0% 23 0% Percent Loaded Capacity >2 00 % 21 20 0% 19 18 0% 17 16 0% Hour 15 14 0% 13 12 0% 11 10 0% 9 80 % 7 20% 60 % 5 30% 40 % 3 40% 20 % 1 Base Load 50% Penetration 100% Penetration 200% Penetration 50% 0% kW 0.8 Percentage of Transformers Percent Loaded Capacity 18 0% 16 0% 14 0% 12 0% 10 0% 80 % 60 % 20 % 40 % 60% 0% Percentage of Transformers 60%
  • 10. Emissions intensity (ton CO2/MWh) impacts. Only from electricity generation 9.0% 8.0% NWP 7.0% CNV AZN&RMP !   Regions with clean generation (CNV, NWP) will likely increase emissions intensity because vehicle load is met with fossil generation !   Midwestern regions (ECAR, MAIN, MAPP, etc.) show a slight reduction because of the additional natural gas generation Change  in    CO2  intensity   NPCC(US) 6.0% 5.0% 4.0% A4 3.0% A5 2.0% A6 A5 (US) 1.0% Change  in    CO2  intensity   0.0% 1.0% -­‐1.0% A6 2.0% -­‐2.0% A4: home, A5: home and work (day), A6: home after 22:00 (night) Emissions results present mixed message: 10 •  for some not much difference between day- and night-charging •  for others lower emissions at night because of higher efficiency of combined cycle versus combustion turbine plants
  • 11. Ben Franklin Transit all-electric bus November 11, 2013 11
  • 12. Ben Franklin Transit all-electric bus Diesel  Bus   Cost:    425K   100-­‐150  mi/day   $37,700/yr  fuel   1.03¢/mi  all  in   November 11, 2013 VS Electric  Bus   Cost:    525K   120  mi/day   $2,400/yr  fuel   0.007¢/mi  all  in   12
  • 13. discharging V2G •  provides regulation service as a load and generator •  requires charging and discharging according to grid operators signal charging V2G½: Load can provide regulation services Max. charging (7.2 kW = 240V*30A) Capacity value (-7.2 to 7.2=14.4kW) Max. discharging (-7.2 kW) •  provides regulation service as a load only •  requires only charging •  modulates charging discharging V2G½ charging Max. charging (7.2 kW) Capacity value (0 to 7.2=7.2 kW) Never discharge ! Max. discharging (-7.2 kW) Attribute of “V2G½”: •  provides regulation service with ½ the capacity value of V2G •  however, less than half the cost because •  no interconnection gear with grid necessary because no electricity goes back into grid •  removes any uncertainties regarding battery life reduction because of extra cycling 13
  • 14. Frequency regulation with smart loads (EVs and water heaters) November 11, 2013 14
  • 15. Doing Business with PNNL Direct Licensing of Existing IP •  Patents and technologies available for licensing November 11, 2013 CRADA WFO ACT •  Cost share with DOE •  Fund research •  Fund research •  Option to exclusive rights to foreground IP •  Keep the IP •  Negotiate IP •  With strings •  Fewer strings 15
  • 16. Availabletechnologies.pnnl.gov
  • 17. Questions?

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