Specialisation and Athletic Development

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This presentation discusses early and late specialisation in sport and discusses which pathway would be most benefical on the way to elite sucess from a physiological and pschological perspective

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Specialisation and Athletic Development

  1. 1. How typicalis thisphoto?
  2. 2. The Best Form of AthleticDevelopment for Children Emma Friend
  3. 3. Children’s Reasons for Participating in Sport • To have fun • To improve skills • To be with friends • To be part of a team • To experience excitement • To receive rewards • To win • To become physically fit (Wankel & Kreisel, 1985)
  4. 4. Côté - Developmental Model of Sports ParticipationEarly specialisation Early diversification1. The 1. The Sampling years specialising/investment years 2. The Specialising years 3. The investment years
  5. 5. 6-12yrs Sampling Years Deliberate play! Many sports Backyard sport Relaxed rules
  6. 6. Côté - Developmental Model of Sports ParticipationEarly specialisation Early diversification1. The specialising years 1. The Sampling years 2a. The recreational years2. The investment years 2b. The Specialising years 3. The investment years
  7. 7. 12+ yrs Recreational Years Social/recreational interest Low levels of deliberate practice Age-appropriate competition
  8. 8. 13-15yrs Specialising Years Fewer sports Deliberate practice Skill development
  9. 9. 16+ yrs Investment Years One distinct sport Performance Specific training
  10. 10. Balyi - Long Term Athlete DevelopmentEarly Specialisation Model Late Specialisation Model1. Training to train 1.Fundamentals2. Training to complete 2.Learning to train3. Training to win 3. Training to train 4.Training to complete4. Retirement/Retainment 5.Training to win 6.Retirement/Retainment
  11. 11. Boys: 6-9yrsGirls: 5-8yrs FUNdamentals Enjoyment! Many sports Fun games and activities
  12. 12. Boys: 9-12yrsGirls: 8-11yrs Learning to Train General sports skills Knowledge of sports related areas Enjoyment
  13. 13. Boys: 12-16yrsGirls: 11-15yrs Training to Train Physical capabilities Sports specific skills Competition specific training Competition
  14. 14. Boys: 16-18yrsGirls: 15-17yrs Training to Compete Performance and Competition! Technical and tactical skills Other aspects
  15. 15. Boys: 18+ yrsGirls: 17+ yrs Training to Win Performance! Major competitions Competition focused training
  16. 16. Retirement/Retainment Coaching Officiating Administration
  17. 17. How much Sports Specific Training is Enough?
  18. 18. The Effects of Specialisation on Athletic Development
  19. 19. Physiological Perspective for Elite SuccessLate Specialisation• Increase in strength• Increase in speed and agility• Improved cardiovascular endurance• Improved gross motor coordination and balance
  20. 20. Physiological Perspective Cont.Early Specialisation• Increase risk of over training• Increase risk of over use injuries• Over training – may cause problems to growth, stunted growth, and problems with epithseal growth plates
  21. 21. Psychological PerspectiveLate Specialisation• Development of game sense• Development of automatic decision making• Fosters positive peer relationships• Development of life skills• Helps develop multiple coping strategies needed in different sports
  22. 22. Psychological PerspectiveEarly Specialisation• Decrease intrinsic motivation• Increase risk of dropout• Increase risk of athletic burnout
  23. 23. Summary• Reasons for participation• Côté - Developmental Model of Sports Participation• Balyi – Long Term Athlete Development Model• Physiological Perspective• Psychological Perspective
  24. 24. References• Bailey, R., Collins, D., Ford, P., Macnamara, Á., Toms, M. & Pearce G. (2010). Participant development in sport: An academic review. Pg101.• Baker, J. (2003). Early specialisation in youth sport: a requirement for adult expertise? High Ability Studies. 14(1)• Baker, J., Cobley, S. & Fraser-Thomas J. (2009). What do we know about early sport specialization? Not much. High Ability Studies. 20(1):77-90.• Baker, J., Cote, J. & Abernethy, B. (2003) Sport-specific practice and the development of expert decision-making in team ball sports. Journal of Applied Sports Psychology. 15(1):12-25.• Callender, S. (2010). The early specialisation of youths in sport. Athletic Training & Sports Health Care: The Journal for the Practicing Clinician. 2(6): 255-258.• Cote, J., Lidor, R. & Hackfort D. (2009). ISSP position stand: to sample or to specialise? Seven postulates about youth sport activities that lead to continued participation and elite performance. International Journal of Sports and Exercise Psychology. 7(1):11-18.
  25. 25. References Continued• Fransen, J., Pion, J., Vandendriessche, J., Vandorpe, B., Vaeyens, R., Lenoir, M. & Philippaerts, R. (2012). Differences in physical fitness and gross motor coordination in boys aged 6-12 years specializing in one verses sampling more than one sport. Journal of Sports Sciences. 30(4):379-387.• Stanlan, T. K., Babkes, M. I. & Scanlan, L. A, (2005), Participation in sport; A developmental glimpse at emotion. In J. L. Mahoncy, R. W. Larson. &J.S, ticles (ííls.). Organized activities as contexts nf dn-elupmetit (pp. 275-.1Í0). Mahwah, NJ: Uicrance Erlbiums, Inc., Publishers.• Wankel, L. M. & Kreisel, P. S. J. (1985). Factors underlying enjoyment of youth sports: Sport and age group comparisons . Journal of Sports Psychology. 7:51-64.• Wiersma, L. (2000). Risks and benefits of youth sport specialisation: perspectives and recommendations. Pediatric Exercise Science. 12(1):13-22.• Yoo, |. (2001) CÀjping Protile of Korean Competitive Athletes. International Journal of Sport of Sport Psychology. 32 (2)0-03.
  26. 26. Picture ReferencesImages were either sourced via creative commons or my own personal images.Pictures on title page (clockwise from top left)• “Golf Thursdays” by chispita_666• “Silhouettes” by Tezza #• “Sunny Saturday at the Park” by chispita_666• “Where Amazing Happens” by N. Calzas• “Balls” by teachernz• “Tennis ball” by Cory SchadtSlide 23• “Podium Renault World Series 3.5” by Marz PhotographySlide 24• “Primary School Children, Sports Day” by Anthea Sieveking

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