Girl Develop It Cincinnati: Intro to HTML/CSS Class 1


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Girl Develop It Cincinnati: Intro to HTML/CSS Class 1

  1. 1. If you have not already done so, please download Aptana: GDI CincinnatiIntro to HTML/CSS: Class 1 Erin M. Kidwell / @erinmkidwell/ John David Back/ @johndavidback /
  2. 2. IntroductionsBefore we begin, I’d like to learn a little bit moreabout everyone here! Please introduce yourself: – Why you’re here? – What you hope to learn? – Which web browser are you using? • Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome, Safari or Opera? – Have you downloaded Aptana? Grab a TA if you need assistance!Meet the GDI staff and volunteers!
  3. 3. Goals for TodayWe hope that by the end of class today: You will have mastered some of the basic terms & jargon. You will know the most common HTML tags. You will get some practice using the Aptana software You will have built a very simple, HTML-only webpage.Time permitting: You will understand the basics ofweb servers, and what they are used for.
  4. 4. Ask Questions!We are going to cover LOTS of content todayIf you missed something I just said, let me know and I’dbe happy to repeat it.If anything isn’t clear, tell me, and I will do my best toclarify. Feel free to inquire with our TA’s as well!
  5. 5. What is HTML?HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup LanguageHTML is not actually a programming language!It’s a markup language.
  6. 6. What is a Markup Language?A system for annotating text. Comes from publishing industry: you mark up a manuscript prior to publishing.The revisions (mark up) editors make for thedesigners, so they know how to lay it out. They were traditionally done in blue pencil on author’s manuscripts.Other markup languages you may have heardof: LaTeX, XML
  7. 7. Example: marked up manuscript
  8. 8. What is HTML? HTML is a markup language that describeswebpages. It tells our browsers how to layout thepage. It describes webpages using markup tags.We usually just refer to HTML’s markuptags as “HTML tags”
  9. 9. Examples of HTML in use:1. Publish online documents with headings, text, tables, lists, photos, etc.2. Retrieve online information via hypertext links, at the click of a button.3. Design forms for conducting transactions with remote services, for use in searching for information, making reservations, ordering products, etc.4. Include spread-sheets, video clips, sound clips, and other
  10. 10. What does HTML look like?Two ways to check it out:1. View Page SourceRight-click on ANY website, and choose “ViewPage Source” You can see the HTML and CSS of every single website on the web! HTML/CSS are open platforms.
  11. 11. What does HTML look like?2. Inspect Element: Another great way to learnHTML is to inspect HTML elements on webpagesyou visit. There are two tools that can help you dothis: 1. The Chrome browser has a 2. The Firefox browser has an right-click (control-click on a extension called Firebug that also mac!) and “Inspect Element” tool allows you to “Inspect Element” built in
  12. 12. Inspect Element (Chrome)
  13. 13. What does HTML look like?HTML code:<html> <body> <h1>My First Heading</h1> <p>My first paragraph.</p> </body></html>*note white space is important for humans; not computers
  14. 14. HTML: A Brief History
  15. 15. HTML: A Brief History1989: Tim Berners-Lee invents the Web with HTML as itspublishing languageBerners-Lee was working at CERN in Switzerland, aparticle physics lab.Since particle physics often requires internationalcollaboration, Berners-Lee wanted to create a way forresearchers all over the world to share informationeasily.
  16. 16. HTML: A Brief HistoryThe HTML that Berners-Lee created was based onSGML (Standard Generalized Mark-up Language)SGML was used to mark up text into structural unitssuch as paragraphs, headings, and list items.HTML added something new: the hypertext link--what we’ve come to know of today as just “links”
  17. 17. HTML: A Brief History1994: HTML 2 specification is released.Netscape is formed. Begins adding to HTMLwithout consulting international community.World Wide Web Consortium (aka the w3consortium) is formed to “fulfill the potential ofthe Web through the development of openstandards.”
  18. 18. HTML: A Brief History1995: HTML is extended with lots of new tags,including ones for formatting like BGCOLOR and FONTFACE. “You’re not supposed to do that with HTML!”HTML 3 is released.Internet Explorer browser comes out.Netscape submits a proposal for FRAMES.1998: HTML 42010: HTML 5 mobile enabled, dragging objects
  19. 19. over the years 1994 1998 2002 2006
  20. 20. HTML: A Brief HistoryTo learn more: Johnson’s “Where Good Ideas Come From”
  21. 21. HTML vs. CSSCSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets. o We will cover CSS in detail in class 2.How does HTML fit in with CSS? CSS was created to allow the separation of document content from document presentation.
  22. 22. HTML vs CSSHTML defines the content of a document: This is a HEADING •this is a new bullet!CSS defines the formatting and style of thecontent your website. I am some blue text! I am Courier font!
  23. 23. HTML/CSS and BrowsersYou can think of HTML and CSS as languagesthat web browsers speak.Your Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome or SafariBrowser reads the HTML and CSS on a webpage,and creates what you see.
  24. 24. Free HTML/CSS EditorsYou don’t need anything more sophisticated thanNotepad (on a PC) or TextEdit (on a Mac) to build anHTML page. However, it is often easier to use an HTML editor. Here are some free ones:  Aptana (Windows, Mac OS 10.5+, Linux): Download  Komodo (Windows, Mac OS 10.4+, Linux): note, free trial only
  25. 25. Why use an Editor?Editors like Aptana will highlight mistakesin your HTML or CSS code
  26. 26. Why use an Editor?They will highlight different parts of your code in differentcolors, making it easier to read. This is called “syntax highlighting” in programming.
  27. 27. HTML VocabularyHTML Terms: Tag Opening Tag Closing TagElementAttribute
  28. 28. HTML term: TagHTML surrounds your text with what’s called a“tag”Tags describe what the content is (is it a paragraphof text? A heading? A table? A list of items?)Tags are surrounded by angle brackets <>The name of the tag goes in between the anglebrackets: <tag>
  29. 29. HTML term: TagTags usually come in pairs: Starting tag: <html> Ending tag: </html>Here’s how you could create a paragraph oftext in HTML, using the paragraph (<p>) tag: <p>Hello, world! This is my first paragraph of text</p>
  30. 30. Learning HTML tagsYou learn HTML one tag at a time.We are going to start by learning the following tags: html, head, title body p, h1-h6, strongWe will then move on to: a, img table
  31. 31. HTML VocabularyHTML Terms: Tag Opening Tag Closing TagElementAttribute
  32. 32. HTML term: ElementA starting tag + some text/content + an ending tag iscalled an HTML Element.Examples of elements: <p>this is my great paragraph. I really hope you like it, I put a lot of thought into it. No, really, I did.</p> <strong>this is some bold text!!</ strong>Element = <tag> + text + </tag>
  33. 33. A basic HTML page <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C// DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" " loose.dtd"> <html lang="en"> <head> <meta charset=“utf-8" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"> <title>new_file2</title> </head> <body> <h1>My first webpage</h1> </body> </html>
  34. 34. First things first: Doctype <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//The very first thing on an HTML page DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"is the doctype. Doctype tells us what " of standards the page is using. loose.dtd"> <html lang="en"> <head>It is an instruction to the web <meta http-equiv="Content- Type" content="text/html;browser about what version of the charset=utf-8">markup language the page is written <title>new_file2</title>in. </head> <body> <h1>My first webpage</h1> </body>You do not have to type in DocType, </html>it’s automatically populated.To read more:
  35. 35. <html> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//Next comes the <html> DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"opening tag. " loose.dtd"> <html <head>All of your HTML code will go <meta http-equiv="Content- Type" content="text/html;in between the charset=utf-8"> <title>new_file2</title><html> and the </html> </head> <body> <h1>My first webpage</h1> </body>The very last line of every </html>webpage you create shouldalways be </html>
  36. 36. <html>Since most tags come in pairs, <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C// DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"there will be an opening tag " a closing tag. loose.dtd"> <html <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-The closing tag will have a Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">backslash / before the tag <title>new_file2</title>name. </head> <body> <html> is the opening tag. <h1>My first webpage</h1> </body> </html> is the closing tag. </html>Everything in between themare other HTML tags.
  37. 37. The <head> element <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//There are two main sections in every DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"HTML page: " loose.dtd"> the <head> <html the <body> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content- Type" content="text/html;<head> allows you to define charset=utf-8"> <title>new_file2</title>metadata for search engines, as well </head>as things like the pages title. <body> <h1>My first webpage</h1> </body>Just like with <html>, <head> has an </html>opening and closing tag.
  38. 38. <title> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//The title element allows us to DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"set the text displayed for our " loose.dtd">page in the brower’s tab, or the <html <head>the top of the browser window: <meta http-equiv="Content- Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"> <title>new_file2</title> </head> <body> <h1>My first webpage</h1> </body> </html>
  39. 39. Nesting of HTML tagsSome tags can be nested within other tags.title, for example, is nested inside the headtag: <head> <title>My Amazing Webpage</title> </head>
  40. 40. The body element <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//The body element DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"typically contains the main " loose.dtd">content of your page. <html <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-All the visible content of Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">your page will go inside <title>new_file2</title> </head>the <body> opening and <body></body> closing tags. <h1>My first webpage</h1> </body> </html>
  41. 41. The h1 element <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//<h1> will create a new heading for DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"your website " loose.dtd"> <html<h1> stands for the 1st Heading <head> <meta http-equiv="Content- Type" content="text/html;There are six different levels of charset=utf-8"> <title>new_file2</title>headings: </head> h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, and h6 <body> <h1>My first webpage</h1> </body><h1> is typically used to set the title </html>of your website
  42. 42. The h2 element <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//<h2> will create a new heading for DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"your website " loose.dtd"> <html<h2> stands for the 2nd Heading <head> <meta http-equiv="Content- Type" content="text/html;There are six different levels of charset=utf-8"> <title>new_file2</title>headings: </head> h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, and h6 <body> <h1>My first webpage</h1> <h2>Where I learn HTML</h2><h2> is typically used to set the </body> </html>subtitle of your website
  43. 43. The p element <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//<p> will create a new DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" " when you loose.dtd"> <htmlsurround a section of <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-text with <p> and </p> Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"> <title>new_file2</title> </head>It will create space <body> <h1>My first webpage</h1>above and below any <h2>Where I learn HTML</h2> <p>text you wrap inside it. This is my first paragraph of text! </p> </body> </html>
  44. 44. Spacing your contentThere are two ways to add whitespace around yourcontent: <p>...</p> <br>• p stands for paragraph It will create space above and below any text you wrap inside it.• br stands for break It will create a new line break (hitting ‘Enter’) anywhere you place it.
  45. 45. Aptana: New Project Refer to Class 1 Handout 1 for instructions on how to set up a project.
  46. 46. Let’s break for 5 minutes then put our Knowledge in Practice!
  47. 47. HTML in Practice Exercise 1: html, head, title, body, p, h1-h6 Exercise 2: br, &nbsp; character codes Exercise 3: a, href, img, src Exercise 4: img, src Exercise 5: ol, ul Exercise 6: th, tr, td Exercise 7: Forms
  48. 48. Exercise 1: <html>,<body>, <h1>, <h2>, <p>1. Add some basic text to your page.2. Try wrapping one sentence in h1 tags, and see what happens3. Try wrapping another sentence in <h2> tags4. Try wrapping a long block of text in <p> tags5. Right Click, Save!6. Refresh Preview (the eye) <html> <body> <h1>My first webpage</h1> <h2>Where I learn HTML</h2> <p>This is my first paragraph of text!</p> </body> </html> Challenge yourself to type the code, not cut + paste it!
  49. 49. HTML tags: <br> and &nbsp;<br> tag is used to insert line breaks The <br> tag is our first example of a self-closing tag. You can write is <br/> or <br>, both will work. <br> is preferred in HTML5&nbsp; tag is used to insert non-breaking spaceto add spaces to your text
  50. 50. Self-Closing TagsTags usually come in pairs...but not always• Most tags have a starting and ending tag.• However, some tags are “self-closing” tags. They don’t require a closing tag, because you don’t have anything to sandwich between them.All the information you need is in the firsttag!Example self-closing tags: br, img
  51. 51. Character CodesThere are character codes for many differentcharacters in many different languages – Delta &delta; – Copyright symbol &copy; – Grave &grave; – An “a” with the grave &agrave;Full list:
  52. 52. Exercise 2: <br>, &nbsp; character codes1. Add a few <br> tags to your page, in between text2. Try adding a few character codes, like &copy; or &delta;3. Try adding several &nbsp; codes to create several spaces5. Right Click, Save!6. Refresh Preview (the eye)<br> Test &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Test2 <br> &copy; 2012 <!-- This is the character code for the delta symbol--> &Delta;</body> Challenge yourself to type the code, not cut + paste it!
  53. 53. Section 2: HTML VocabularyHTML Terms: Tag Opening Tag Closing TagElement (Element = <tag> + text + </tag>)Attribute
  54. 54. HTML Term: AttributeAttributes provide additional information aboutHTML elements.Attributes are formatted like this: attr="value"Attributes are always specified in the opening tag.Attribute values should always be in quotes. An example: in <a href="">, href is the attribute.
  55. 55. HTML: AttributesWe use an HTML attribute to specify where we want the a tagto go.• The tag a is probably one of the most frequently tags in all of HTML. – <a> tag defines the hyperlink (Twitter) – href attribute specifies the destination of a link (@gdicincinnati)Example: <a href="">Go toTwitter!</a>Try it yourself:
  56. 56. Exercise 3: <a> & href1. Add a few a tags with href attributes to our page2. Right Click, Save!3. Refresh Preview (the eye)<a href="">This is a link to google!</a><a href="">This is a link twitter!</a> Challenge yourself to type the code, not cut + paste it!
  57. 57. More HTML Tags: <img>Another very common HTML tag is the img tag, whichcreates images.The img tag has lots of attributes youcan specify. The most important one is the src attribute. Without a src, you won’t display an image! alt: Specifies an alternate text for an image. Used by search engines, and by screen readers. •height •width
  58. 58. Exercise 4: <img>, src1. Add an image to our page2. Search on Google to find a few images.3. Right-click the image and choose “copy image location” or “inspect element” and c+p the img4. Paste the URL into your src attribute: <img src=”http://...” >5. Right Click, Save!6. Refresh Preview (the eye) <img src="" width="295" height="313">
  59. 59. Exercise 5: <ol>, <ul> 1. Add a list to your page. 2. Try making an ordered list with numbers using the <ol> tag 3. Try making an unordered list with bullets using the <ul> tag 4. Right Click, Save! 5. Refresh Preview (the eye)<ol> <ul> <li>Do my laundry</li> <li>Do my laundry</li> <li>Pay my bills</li> <li>Pay my bills</li> <li>Go the bank</li> <li>Go the bank</li></ol> </ul>All the items in our list will live inside <li> elements. We must combine two elementstogether to make a list. Challenge yourself to type the code, not cut + paste it!
  60. 60. Exercise 6: <th>, <tr>, <td>1. Add a table to your page.2. Header cells are designated with the <th> tag3. Rows are designated with the <tr> tag4. Columns are designated with the <td> tag5. Right Click, Save!6. Refresh Preview (the eye) <TABLE> <thead> <th>Heading 1</th> <th>Heading 2</th> <th>Heading 3</th> </thead> <tbody> <tr id="row1"> <td>Cell 1</td> <td>Cell 2</td> <td>Cell 3</td> </tr> </tbody> </table>
  61. 61. HTML FormsA form is usually received and interpreted by aprogram on a server, written in a programminglanguage like PHP or Ruby.If you dont have a server, you can also have allthe form contents sent to the email address ofyour choice, using extra attributes in the formelement.
  62. 62. HTML Forms• What I suggest for creating forms is to use Google Forms, which allows you to embed forms. – You must have a Google account to create a form• You can also use HTML to define forms: including things like: odrop-down boxes otext fields oradio buttons obuttons
  63. 63. Exercise 7: Forms1. Add a form to your page.2. Go to Google Forms : Create > Forms3. Enter Question Title, Help Text, Select Type, Done4. More Actions > Embed > copy + paste code to Aptana5. Right Click, Save!6. Refresh Preview (the eye)
  64. 64. HTML FormsTo learn more about forms, two great resourcesare:
  65. 65. HTML ValidationA good way to make sure your HTML is valid,and doesnt have any errors, is to validate it.Aptana can do this for you.You can also find many sites on the web that willallow you to copy/paste your code in, and it willpoint out any errors.
  66. 66. Your HomeworkAs a homework assignment, you should:1. Review the following links:  The a tag:  The img tag: Go to the htmldog HTML tag list: Pick three tags we did NOT cover today and read through what they do Experiment with these tags in a HTML page
  67. 67. Questions?
  68. 68. Extra Topics Time permitting!
  69. 69. How do I create a website?1. Register a Domain2. Get Hosting for that Domain3. Upload your HTML files, images and CSS filesto your web server
  70. 70. Jargon Alert!DOMAINhttp://www.something.comDOMAIN REGISTRATION The process of claiming / reserving a domain name. Lasts for one year, then you must renew the domain if you want to keep it. Should not cost you more than $10/year.
  71. 71. Step One: Registering a DomainLots of choices: – – – – (recommended) – –
  72. 72. Step Two: Getting HostingOnce you’ve secured the domain, you need away to make it available for others to see!You need someone to host your domain inorder to use a domain you’ve registered.A hosting service provides you with aserver. The server is what actually makes your website viewable from any browser, on any network, anywhere.
  73. 73. Jargon Alert! SERVER A server is just a computer! A dedicated computer that does nothing but sit around and wait for you to call. When someone types in your domain (, the server receives the request, and serves you back the website.
  74. 74. How Do Servers Receive your Request?When someone types in your domain(, how does your request get tothe server?Through DNS: Domain Name System – DNS is like a phone book.It takes a domain ( and looks upthe IP address for that domain. – This is the IP address of the server that hosts your domain.
  75. 75. Jargon Alert!IP ADDRESSThe “address” of your computer. It tells theInternet how to connect to a given machine. Every single computer that is connected to the internet has a unique IP address.
  76. 76. Hosting your Domain, Continued A dedicated server will allow multiple people to connect to your site at the same time.
  77. 77. Hosting your Domain, ContinuedA good hosting company will allow manythousands of people to simultaneously viewyour site, with no crashes. Even a good hosting service may not be able to prepare you for “The Oprah Effect” If you are on Oprah, and a million people all try and access your site at once, your server may crash! If you have plans to go on Oprah, hire a network specialist to guard your site against crashing!
  78. 78. Hosting your Domain, ContinuedWho should I use for hosting?Again, you have lots of choices. Some commonones: – – – – -- what I use and recommendComprehensive list:
  79. 79. Contact InfoChapter Organizer & Instructor: Erin M. KidwellInstructor: John BackTeaching Assistants/Volunteers : Angie Lyman, Ben French, ChrisRidenour, Eric Boggs, Shyamal Ruparel• Meetup• Facebook• Twitter• Girl Develop It WebsiteThank you!