Mahyuddin Khalid firstname.lastname@example.orgISLAMIC FINANCIALLEGAL FRAMEWORKLEGAL FRAMEWORK OF ISLAMIC CAPITALMARKET
CONTENT2 INTRODUCTION ISLAMIC CAPITAL MARKET FRAMEWORK OF ICM DEVELOPMENT OF ICM REGULATORY BODIES REGULATORY FRAMEWORK ICM PRODUCTS SECURITIZATION CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION3 The ICM is a component of the overall capital market in Malaysia. IT functions as a parallel market to the conventional capital market, and plays a complementary role to the Islamic banking system in broadening and deepening the Islamic financial markets in Malaysia. As the market became more complex and sophisticated, it needed supportive infrastructure so that the system could operate and function more efficiently and effectively. There is a wide array of ICM products and services to meet the needs of those who seek to invest in compliance with Shariah principles. These include Shariah-compliant stocks, Islamic bonds, Islamic funds and Islamic risk management products. The ICM has grown in sophistication and Islamic forms of product structuring, project financing, stockbroking, asset management and venture capital services are becoming increasingly widely available.
ISLAMIC CAPITAL MARKET4 An effective legal, regulatory and supervisory framework provides the essential foundation for the functioning of a modern capital market. Malaysia recognises that certain areas of regulation, particularly inspection and supervision, need to be further enhanced to ensure that its ICM is appropriately regulated. For a rapidly growing market like the ICM, it is important to ensure that an enabling and conducive regulatory environment exists to adequately regulate the ICM. Individual members may also wish to address any factors that may impede effective product development and innovation or discourage participation in ICM transactions.
FRAMEWORK OF ICM5 The ICM activities can be adequately regulated within the framework of the conventional market. Due to the unique aspects of ICM products and services, there is a view, which advocates that specialised regulation for the ICM may be more appropriate. Additional regulatory requirements are imposed on Islamic financial intermediaries such as requiring professionals to have adequate knowledge in Shariah law as well as requirements related to the internal controls of the intermediary.
DEVELOPMENT OF ICM6 The ICM played a relatively minor role in the early stages of the development of the Islamic Financial system in Malaysia. Apparently, there is a significant development of the ICM in 1990s when more companies and other entities began to source for funds from the capital market to finance their operations. In 1996, there is a promulgation of Shariah approved criteria and the introduction of Shariah approved securities by the Securities Commission. Thus, ICM has been increasingly accepted as an alternative market for capital market seekers and providers. The market witnessed the development and issuance of variety of ICM products either in term of debt or equities in year 2000 onwards: Notable issuance of first global corporate Islamic bond by Kumpulan Guthrie Bhd in 2002 is a starting point liberalise market access. In 2004, there was another landmark issuance first ringgit denominated Islamic bonds by the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the private arm of World Bank.
REGULATORY BODIES7 The main regulatory bodies that govern the Malaysian capital market are: Bursa Malaysia Berhad Securities Commission Labuan Offshore Financial Services Authority (LOFSA). The scope of jurisdiction for these regulating bodies encompasses both Islamic and conventional finance matters. Malaysia’s banking and insurance sectors come under the jurisdiction of the Central Bank, Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) while the capital market is regulated by the Securities Commission Malaysia (SC). Matters related to offshore finance industry are regulated by the Labuan Offshore Financial Services Authority (LOFSA).
REGULATORY FRAMEWORK8 Currently, the Malaysian capital market is governed by: Capital Markets and Services Act 2007 Securities Industry (Central Depositories Act) 1991 Securities Commission Act 1993 Companies Act 1965 Offshore Companies Act 1990 Labuan Offshore Securities Industry Act 1995.
REGULATORY FRAMEWORK9 In line with its vigorous effort to provide facilitative regulatory environment for the development of the Islamic Capital Market, the Securities Commission introduced the following regulatory framework: Guidelines on the Offering of Islamic Securities in July 2004: These guidelines aimed to facilitate the development of more innovative and sophisticated Islamic instruments that meet the requirements of both local and global investors. Guidelines for Islamic Real Estate Investment Trusts in November 2005 These guidelines were introduced to facilitate the creation of new asset class and further development of new Islamic Capital Market products. This effort is another notable effort, making Malaysia the first jurisdiction in the global Islamic financial sector to issue such guidelines.
REGULATORY FRAMEWORK10 Guidelines and Best Practices on Islamic Venture Capital in May 2008: The new guidelines stipulate the minimum requirements for the establishment on an Islamic venture capital and Islamic venture capital management company. In addition, it includes a set of best practices to promote appropriate Islamic standards in the industry. Guidelines on Unit Trust Funds in March 2008 These guidelines set out requirements to be complied with by any person intending to establish a unit trust fund in Malaysia and were revised to set out additional requirements for the appointment of Shariah advisers and define the roles of the Shariah adviser and compliance officer. On top of a robust and effective regulatory framework, a fine balance between enhancing the growth of the industry and ensuring safeguards to protect investor interest needs to be top priority when designing regulatory framework for the market.
CAPITAL MARKET MASTER PLAN11 The Capital Market Master Plan was launched in 2001, for the developments of internationally competitive Islamic capital market of Malaysia. Those strategic initiatives that necessary to be undertaken to achieve this objective are to facilitate the development of various competitive products and services related to the Islamic capital market to create an independent market to mobilize Islamic funds effectively to ensure an appropriate and comprehensive accounting, tax and regulatory framework to enhance the international recognition of the Malaysian Islamic capital To ensure the objectives will be a reality, the Malaysian government has considered this in their five years economic plan of the country.
ISLAMIC INDEX12 The Malaysian capital market witnessed the introduction of an Islamic index that tracks the performance of the Shariah compliant securities on Bursa Malaysia. Among others: The first Islamic equity index was introduced in Malaysia by RHB Unit Trust Management Berhad in May 1996. The Dow Jones Islamic Market Index (DJIM) by Dow Jones and Company was launched in February 1999 The Kuala Lumpur Shariah Index (KLSI) by Bursa Malaysia in April 1999 The FSTE Global Islamic Index Series by the FSTE Group in October 1999. All these indexes were launched in order to expand participation of investors who are passionate investing in securities approved in accordance to the Islamic law.
ISLAMIC INDEX13 In addition, this provides the investors a tracking and benchmarking of the performance of Shariah compliant securities towards making better investments decisions. Besides the Shariah indexes to measure the performance of Islamic equity, in April 2006, the Dow Jones Citigroup Sukuk Index was launched by Dow Jones Indexes and Citigroup Inc. The objectives for the launching of the Sukuk Index are: to educating investors about Sukuk building awareness of the vehicles improving market transparency providing a benchmark as a basis for investable and tradable products
BURSA SUQ AL-SILA’14 Another milestone project to further strengthening Malaysia’s position as an international Islamic financial hub is the launched of the Bursa Suq Al-Sila‘ It is world first commodity trading platform specifically dedicated to facilitate Islamic liquidity management and financing by Islamic banks. One notable features of this market is that, it is a fully electronic web based platform that provides industry players with an avenue to undertake multi commodity and multi currency trades from all around the world. Actually it integrates the global Islamic financial and capital markets together with the commodity
ICM PRODUCTS15 The modern Islamic financial products and services are developed using two different approaches: Identifying and modifying existing conventional products and services to comply with Shariah principles. Innovation of new products and services that involves the application of various Shariah principles. The Malaysian Islamic capital market products are mainly divided into five categories of: Shariah compliant securities Shariah-based Unit Trust Fund, Islamic Exchanged Traded Funds (ETF), Islamic Real Estate Investment Trusts Sukuk (Islamic Bond). There is a significant product innovation and sophistication all over the world and Shariah compliant products have proven to be attractive also to non-Muslim investors and offer many opportunities, even to non-Islamic institutions,
SECURITIZATION16 Securitization can be defined as: A process where corporation converts its physical assets in to financial assets. Those assets to be securitized have to be illiquid – cannot be traded in share market or secondary market- and should also have produce cash flows over its lifetime. Besides that, the assets should have financial value so that they can be used as a claimed against the securities. Islamic securitization can be defined as: A legal structure which satisfies the requirements of Islamic Finance and replicates the economic purpose of a traditional asset-backed securitization structure whereby the rights over receivables are transferred from the owner-originator to a special purpose vehicle (SPV/Issuer), which in turn issues notes that are sold to investors.
IMPORTANCE OF SECURITIZATION17 Securitization enables financial institutions to efficiently remove assets from their balance sheet, to monetize previously illiquid assets, recycle cash to be reinvested and, hence, expand the volume of their business without a corresponding increase in their equity capital. In simple terms, securitization allows ﬁnancial institutions to serve more customers without having to raise new funds in the form of either equity or deposits. Securitization helps ﬁnancial institutions to raise cheaper capital for their businesses at the asset level instead of the enterprise level. In some jurisdictions, this allows originators to beneﬁt from tax savings such as tax on capital.
ASSET SECURITIZATION18 For both Murabahah and Al-Bai-Bithaman-Ajil (ABBA) asset securitization, the processes of securitizing the assets are the same. The difference between the two is in the maturity of the securitization. Normally, Murabahah securitizations are on short-term basis, while ABBA securitizations are for long-term contracts. The securitization process is when a company (issuer) will first sell its underlying assets to financiers or investors. For this, the investors will pay cash. Then, the investors will sell back the underlying assets at a price higher than when they bought the assets. Upon selling back of the assets to the company, the firm will then issue certificates to the financiers; and upon maturity of the certificates (bonds), the company will redeem their securities at par value.
DEBT SECURITIZATION19 Ijarah-based securitization was seen as an ideal alternative for structuring debt securities. Such securitization took oﬀ in a big way with the issue of ijarah certiﬁcates by the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA). The BMA issued, in 2001, Islamic Leasing Certiﬁcates with a ﬁve-year maturity to the value of $100 million. This issue, with bond-like characteristics, is the ﬁrst of its kind by a Central Bank in the world. The securities matured in 2006 with a rental return of 5.25 per cent per annum. The ijarah securities were issued in the capital markets to mobilize short- term deposits for the development of long-term infrastructure projects. This mobilization was eﬀected through the securitization of government tangible assets, such as airports, roads, buildings, factories, schools, hospitals, power stations, reﬁneries or a pool of such assets. Once these tangible assets were identiﬁed and speciﬁed, securities were issued and sold to the public. The unique feature of these securities or sukuk is that rental payments are guaranteed by the government, providing security and returns. Because the yield is predetermined (rental income) and the underlying assets are tangible and secured, the ijarah certiﬁcates are also tradeable in the secondary market like any other conventional debt security.
CONCLUSION20 The Malaysian Islamic Capital Market is growing rapidly and vibrantly. At present, Malaysia faraway exceed other Muslim countries in term of capital market infrastructure with persistent support by the government providing impulsion for the growth of Malaysian Islamic Capital Market. Initiatives taken by the Malaysian government towards a global hub are substantial. Every perspective, such as product innovation, infrastructure facilities, policy incentives, human capital development, liberalisation and regulatory framework are being well focused. All parties either the regulatory bodies or the market players are involved to ensure the achievement of an international hub for an Islamic Capital Market. In addition, it is a continuous effort whereby all aspect is being reviewed by the respective bodies. It is responsibility of all to support and ensure the success of Malaysia as a global hub for Islamic Capital Market.