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Research Methods in Education 6th Edition

Research Methods in Education 6th Edition

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Chapter31 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. DISCOURSES: CONVERSATIONS, NARRATIVES AND AUTOBIOGRAPHIES AS TEXTS © LOUIS COHEN, LAWRENCE MANION & KEITH MORRISON
  • 2. STRUCTURE OF THE CHAPTER • What is a discourse? • A conversational analysis • A narrative discourse • Autobiography
  • 3. WHAT IS A DISCOURSE? • The meanings that are given to texts which create and shape knowledge and behaviour by the exercise of power through texts and conversations. • A discourse is a way of thinking, culturally or institutionally conditioned, which is legitimated by communities, often those with power. • Discourses shape, and are shaped by, different meanings. People are members of different discourse communities – those communities which hold similar values, views, ideas and ways of looking at the world.
  • 4. WHAT IS A DISCOURSE? • Discourse is the ‘tactical dimension’ of the operation of power in individuals, groups and organizations. • A text can be the bearer of several discourses. • Discourse analysis reveals how power operates and is legitimated or challenged in and through discourses. • Discourse analysis has to take account of the social contexts in which the texts are set. • Discourses are often emic.
  • 5. WHAT IS A DISCOURSE? To be a discourse a text must have: • Cohesion • Coherence • Intentionality • Acceptability • Informativeness • Situationality • Intertextuality
  • 6. FOUR METHODS OF DISCOURSE ANALYSIS • Analyzing words in context • Analyzing interactions conducted through language • Analyzing patterns of language use • Analyzing the links between language and the constitution, structure and nature of society
  • 7. CONVERSATIONAL ANALYSIS • It is a rigorous investigation of features of a conversation, how it is generated and constructed, how it operates, what are its distinguishing features, and how participants construct their own meanings in the conversational situation. • Conversations are multi-layered/multi-levelled. • It examines different levels of meaning within a text.
  • 8. CONVERSATIONAL ANALYSIS • Looks at the contents, sequence, evolution and forms of the conversation. • The more interpretive one becomes in the analysis, the more risk there is of researcher projection. • Conversation analysis may include non-verbal and verbal aspects.
  • 9. A NARRATIVE DISCOURSE . . . • Reports personal experiences or observations and brings fresh insights to often familiar situations. • Tells a story. • Uses rich detail and carefully chosen words – for effect/power/vividness. • Is strongly interpretivist, with meanings constructed through observations and language. • Makes it difficult to separate facts from observations
  • 10. A NARRATIVE DISCOURSE . . . • Uses data selectively and reports them in non- neutral terms. • Can let the researcher report a situation vividly from the perspective of the participants – their ‘definition of the situation’.
  • 11. AUTOBIOGRAPHY • We regard ‘lived time’ as a narrative, a story that has meaning for us and which shapes our lives ‘we become the autobiographical narratives by which we ‘tell about’ our lives’ (Bruner, 2004); our own stories direct our future lives. • Stories instruct, reveal and inform. • An autobiography is ‘a privileged but troubled narrative because it is both subjective and objective, reflective and reflexive, and in which the narrator is also the central figure’ (Bruner, 2004).
  • 12. AUTOBIOGRAPHY • An autobiographical narrative is multilayered and selective, and can be deconstructed at many levels, e.g.: personal, cultural, interpersonal ideological, linguistic. • An autobiography contains facts, themes, actors, a sequence, agency, coherence, situatedness, and a sense of audience. • The narrative may employ a chronological sequence which is interrupted to break off into reflection or comment.
  • 13. AUTOBIOGRAPHY • What is excluded is as important as what is included. • Texts may be read and interpreted in many ways.